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      1. Author :
        Cheung, Alison M.; Brown, Allison S.; Shaked, Yuval; Franco, Marcela; Kerbel, Robert S.; Foster, F. S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
      5. Publication :
        AACR Meeting Abstracts
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
      8. Issue :
      9. Page Numbers :
      10. Research Area :
      11. Keywords :
        Bioware; PC-3M-luc; hVEGF-luc-PC3M
      12. Abstract :
        Background: Preclinical cancer studies increasingly utilize non-invasive imaging modalities. In the current study we have monitored tumor growth and vascular changes using two in vivo imaging tools: surface bioluminescence (BLI) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). BLI permits visualization of tumor location in the context of the whole body, including metastases localization. UBM imaging then permits high resolution 3D volumetric tumor measurements as well as blood flow estimates down to 200 microns/s. Measurements obtained from these complementary modalities were analyzed and compared to conventional, biochemical markers. Methods: Human prostate cancer cells expressing Firefly Luciferase constitutively (PC-3M-luc-C6) or under the control of hVEGF promoter (hVEGF-luc/PC3M) were implanted into male nude mice via an intradermal or subcutaneous injection. Tumor-bearing mice were subsequently imaged every week for nine weeks starting at week 2, by UBM to measure tumor burden using 3D volumetric analysis, or to estimate blood flow using speckle-variance flow processing. Surface bioluminescence was also acquired 10 minutes post i.p. injection of D-luciferin. In a longitudinal drug intervention study anti-hVEGF antibody (Bevacizumab, 200 ug) was injected i.p. into nude mice with subcutaneous xenografts of PC-3M-luc-C6 or hVEGF-luc/PC-3M twice per week for three weeks, starting at 14 days post-xenograft. UBM and surface BLI imaging were conducted every week. In order to study the correlation between VEGF expression in hVEGF-luc/PC3M xenografts (estimated by BLI) to tumor hypoxia level, mice were injected with pimonidazole hydrochloride (60 mg/kg i.v.) after three weeks of treatment and tumors were harvested for immunostaining analysis. Results: Surface BLI outputs (photons/s) from subcutaneous PC-3M-luc-C6 xenografts were highly correlated to tumor volumes measured using 3D UBM for small tumors (<100 mm3, r=0.92, n=8), yet poorly correlated to tumors of large size (>100 mm3, r=0.079, n=8). BLI signals in subcutaneous hVEGF-luc/PC3M xenografts showed an inverse trend to tumor blood flow. PC-3M-luc-C6 tumors treated with Bevacizumab showed growth inhibition by day 28 as demonstrated by 3D UBM (control vs treated = 67.27 vs 48.54 mm3). Moreover, control xenografts showed increased average BLI output over time, whereas treated tumors showed variation in BLI output. Necrosis, hypoxia and blood flow estimates were also investigated. Conclusions: Surface bioluminescence imaging demonstrated high correlations to accurate 3D UBM volumetric measurements of small tumor volumes, suggesting its usefulness in tracking early tumor growth quantitatively in drug intervention studies. A complementary imaging modality, like ultrasound biomicroscopy, is recommended to monitor tumor burden in advanced stages.
      13. URL :
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
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