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      1. Author :
        Lim, Ed; Modi, Kshitij D; Kim, Jaebeom
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Journal of visualized experiments: JoVE
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        26
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        4T1-luc2; Animals; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Female; Luciferases; Luminescent Measurements; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental; Mice; Mice, Nude
      12. Abstract :
        4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells can be implanted sub-cutaneously in nu/nu mice to form palpable tumors in 15 to 20 days. This xenograft tumor model system is valuable for the pre-clinical in vivo evaluation of putative antitumor compounds. The 4T1 cell line has been engineered to constitutively express the firefly luciferase gene (luc2). When mice carrying 4T1-luc2 tumors are injected with Luciferin the tumors emit a visual light signal that can be monitored using a sensitive optical imaging system like the IVIS Spectrum. The photon flux from the tumor is proportional to the number of light emitting cells and the signal can be measured to monitor tumor growth and development. IVIS is calibrated to enable absolute quantitation of the bioluminescent signal and longitudinal studies can be performed over many months and over several orders of signal magnitude without compromising the quantitative result. Tumor growth can be monitored for several days by bioluminescence before the tumor size becomes palpable or measurable by traditional physical means. This rapid monitoring can provide insight into early events in tumor development or lead to shorter experimental procedures. Tumor cell death and necrosis due to hypoxia or drug treatment is indicated early by a reduction in the bioluminescent signal. This cell death might not be accompanied by a reduction in tumor size as measured by physical means. The ability to see early events in tumor necrosis has significant impact on the selection and development of therapeutic agents. Quantitative imaging of tumor growth using IVIS provides precise quantitation and accelerates the experimental process to generate results.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19404236
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8941