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      1. Author :
        Zhao, D.; Alizadeh, D.; Zhang, L.; Liu, W.; Farrukh, O.; Manuel, E.; Diamond, D. J.; Badie, B.
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        Journal Article
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      5. Publication :
        Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE: Stimulation of toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) has been shown to counteract the immunosuppressive microenvironment and to inhibit tumor growth in glioma models. Because TLR9 is located intracellularly, we hypothesized that methods that enhance its internalization may also potentiate its immunostimulatory response. The goal of this study was to evaluate carbon nanotubes (CNT) as a CpG delivery vehicle in brain tumor models. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Functionalized single-walled CNTs were conjugated with CpG (CNT-CpG) and evaluated in vitro and in mice bearing intracranial GL261 gliomas. Flow cytometry was used to assess CNT-CpG uptake and antiglioma immune response. Tumor growth was measured by bioluminescent imaging, histology, and animal survival. RESULTS: CNT-CpG was nontoxic and enhanced CpG uptake both in vitro and intracranial gliomas. CNT-mediated CpG delivery also potentiated proinflammatory cytokine production by primary monocytes. Interestingly, a single intracranial injection of low-dose CNT-CpG (but not free CpG or blank CNT) eradicated intracranial GL261 gliomas in half of tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, surviving animals exhibited durable tumor-free remission (>3 months), and were protected from intracranial tumor rechallenge, demonstrating induction of long-term antitumor immunity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that CNTs can potentiate CpG immunopotency by enhancing its delivery into tumor-associated inflammatory cells.
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