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      1. Author :
        Tolles, Juliana; Bai, Yalai; Baquero, Maria; Harris, Lyndsay N.; Rimm, David L.; Molinaro, Annette M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
      5. Publication :
        Breast Cancer Research
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
      8. Issue :
      9. Page Numbers :
      10. Research Area :
      11. Keywords :
        Antibodies; Breast Cancer; Cancer; Immunostaining; PerkinElmer; Qps; Quantitative Pathology; Quantitative Pathology Imaging Instruments
      12. Abstract :
        Biomarkers, such as Estrogen Receptor, are used to determine therapy and prognosis in breast carcinoma. Immunostaining assays of biomarker expression have a high rate of inaccuracy; for example, estimates are as high as 20% for Estrogen Receptor. Biomarkers have been shown to be heterogeneously expressed in breast tumors and this heterogeneity may contribute to the inaccuracy of immunostaining assays. Currently, no evidence-based standards exist for the amount of tumor that must be sampled in order to correct for biomarker heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal number of 20X fields that are necessary to estimate a representative measurement of expression in a whole tissue section for selected biomarkers: ER, HER-2, AKT, ERK, S6K1, GAPDH, Cytokeratin, and MAP-Tau.
      13. URL :
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ Kathryn.Cook @
      15. Serial :
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