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      1. Author :
        Mieog, J. S.; Hutteman, M.; van der Vorst, J. R.; Kuppen, P. J.; Que, I.; Dijkstra, J.; Kaijzel, E. L.; Prins, F.; Lowik, C. W.; Smit, V. T.; van de Velde, C. J.; Vahrmeijer, A. L.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
      5. Publication :
        Breast Cancer Res Treat
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
      8. Issue :
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      10. Research Area :
      11. Keywords :
        ProSense, IVIS, Animals; Breast Neoplasms/pathology/*surgery; Cell Line, Tumor; Disease Models, Animal; Female; *Microscopy, Fluorescence; Rats; *Surgery, Computer-Assisted; Transplantation, Isogeneic; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        Tumor involvement of resection margins is found in a large proportion of patients who undergo breast-conserving surgery. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is an experimental technique to visualize cancer cells during surgery. To determine the accuracy of real-time NIR fluorescence imaging in obtaining tumor-free resection margins, a protease-activatable NIR fluorescence probe and an intraoperative camera system were used in the EMR86 orthotopic syngeneic breast cancer rat model. Influence of concentration, timing and number of tumor cells were tested in the MCR86 rat breast cancer cell line. These variables were significantly associated with NIR fluorescence probe activation. Dosing and tumor size were also significantly associated with fluorescence intensity in the EMR86 rat model, whereas time of imaging was not. Real-time NIR fluorescence guidance of tumor resection resulted in a complete resection of 17 out of 17 tumors with minimal excision of normal healthy tissue (mean minimum and a mean maximum tumor-free margin of 0.2 +/- 0.2 mm and 1.3 +/- 0.6 mm, respectively). Moreover, the technique enabled identification of remnant tumor tissue in the surgical cavity. Histological analysis revealed that the NIR fluorescence signal was highest at the invasive tumor border and in the stromal compartment of the tumor. In conclusion, NIR fluorescence detection of breast tumor margins was successful in a rat model. This study suggests that clinical introduction of intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging has the potential to increase the number of complete tumor resections in breast cancer patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery.
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      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 4
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