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      1. Author :
        Gule, N. P.; de Kwaadsteniet, M.; Cloete, T. E.; Klumperman, B.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Water Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen5, Xen39, Xen26, Xen14, Xen36, Xen 5, Xen 39, Xen 26, Xen 14, Xen 36, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, Klebsiella, E. coli, Salmonella,
      12. Abstract :
        The 3(2H) furanone derivative 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) was investigated for its antimicrobial and cell-adhesion inhibition properties against Klebsiella pneumoniae Xen 39, Staphylococcus aureus Xen 36, Escherichia coli Xen 14, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen 5 and Salmonella typhimurium Xen 26. Nanofibers electrospun from solution blends of DMHF and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were tested for their ability to inhibit surface-attachment of bacteria. Antimicrobial and adhesion inhibition activity was determined via the plate counting technique. To quantify viable but non-culturable cells and to validate the plate counting results, bioluminescence and fluorescence studies were carried out. Nanofiber production was upscaled using the bubble electrospinning technique. To ascertain that no DMHF leached into filtered water, samples of water filtered through the nanofibrous mats were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used to characterize the electrospun nanofibers.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23261340
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 8
      15. Serial :
        10549
      1. Author :
        Gule, N. P.; Bshena, O.; de Kwaadsteniet, M.; Cloete, T. E.; Klumperman, B.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Biomacromolecules
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        13
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen5, Xen 5, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
      12. Abstract :
        The ability of brominated furanones and other furanone compounds with 2(3H) and 2(5H) cores to inhibit bacterial adhesion of surfaces as well deactivate (destroy) them has been previously reported. The furanone derivatives 4-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone and 5-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)-ethoxy)methyl)-2(5H)-furanone were synthesized in our laboratory. These furanone derivatives were then covalently immobilized onto poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMA) and electrospun to fabricate nonwoven nanofibrous mats with antimicrobial and cell-adhesion inhibition properties. The electrospun nanofibrous mats were tested for their ability to inhibit cell attachment by strains of bacteria commonly found in water ( Klebsiella pneumoniae Xen 39, Staphylococcus aureus Xen 36, Escherichia coli Xen 14, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen 5, and Salmonella tymphimurium Xen 26). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), electrospray mass spectroscopy (ES-MS), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used to confirm the structures of the synthesized furanones as well as their successful immobilization on SMA. To ascertain that the immobilized furanone compounds do not leach into filtered water, samples of water, filtered through the nanofibrous mats were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The morphology of the electrospun nanofibers was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22947312
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10550
      1. Author :
        Leszczynska, K.; Namiot, D.; Byfield, F. J.; Cruz, K.; Zendzian-Piotrowska, M.; Fein, D. E.; Savage, P. B.; Diamond, S.; McCulloch, C. A.; Janmey, P. A.; Bucki, R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Antimicrob Chemother
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen5, Xen 5, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVES: We aim to develop antibacterial peptide mimics resistant to protease degradation, with broad-spectrum activity at sites of infection. METHODS: The bactericidal activities of LL-37, ceragenins CSA-13, CSA-90 and CSA-92 and the spermine-conjugated dexamethasone derivative D2S were evaluated using MIC and MBC measurements. Gingival fibroblast counting, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from keratinocytes (HaCat) were used to determine effects on cell growth, pro-inflammatory response and toxicity. RESULTS: All tested cationic lipids showed stronger bactericidal activity than LL-37. Incubation of Staphylococcus aureus with half the MIC of LL-37 led to the appearance of bacteria resistant to its bactericidal effects, but identical incubations with CSA-13 or D2S did not produce resistant bacteria. Cathelicidin LL-37 significantly increased the total number of gingival fibroblasts, but ceragenins and D2S did not alter gingival fibroblast growth. Cationic lipids showed no toxicity to HaCat cells at concentrations resulting in bacterial killing. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that cationic lipids such as ceragenins warrant further testing as potential novel antibacterial agents.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23134677
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10551
      1. Author :
        Chauhan, A.; Lebeaux, D.; Ghigo, J. M.; Beloin, C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Antimicrob Agents Chemother
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        56
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen31, Xen 31, MRSA, S. aureus, IVIS, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        Biofilms that develop on indwelling devices are a major concern in clinical settings. While removal of colonized devices remains the most frequent strategy for avoiding device-related complications, antibiotic lock therapy constitutes an adjunct therapy for catheter-related infection. However, currently used antibiotic lock solutions are not fully effective against biofilms, thus warranting a search for new antibiotic locks. Metal-binding chelators have emerged as potential adjuvants due to their dual anticoagulant/antibiofilm activities, but studies investigating their efficiency were mainly in vitro or else focused on their effects in prevention of infection. To assess the ability of such chelators to eradicate mature biofilms, we used an in vivo model of a totally implantable venous access port inserted in rats and colonized by either Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We demonstrate that use of tetrasodium EDTA (30 mg/ml) as a supplement to the gentamicin (5 mg/ml) antibiotic lock solution associated with systemic antibiotics completely eradicated Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial biofilms developed in totally implantable venous access ports. Gentamicin-EDTA lock was able to eliminate biofilms with a single instillation, thus reducing length of treatment. Moreover, we show that this combination was effective for immunosuppressed rats. Lastly, we demonstrate that a gentamicin-EDTA lock is able to eradicate the biofilm formed by a gentamicin-resistant strain of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. This in vivo study demonstrates the potential of EDTA as an efficient antibiotic adjuvant to eradicate catheter-associated biofilms of major bacterial pathogens and thus provides a promising new lock solution.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23027191
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 4
      15. Serial :
        10552
      1. Author :
        Tanaka, M.; Mroz, P.; Dai, T.; Huang, L.; Morimoto, Y.; Kinoshita, M.; Yoshihara, Y.; Nemoto, K.; Shinomiya, N.; Seki, S.; Hamblin, M. R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen31, Xen 31, MRSA, S. aureus, IVIS, Bioluminescence, Animals; Arthritis, Infectious/*drug therapy/immunology/microbiology; *Immunity, Innate; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification; Methylene Blue/therapeutic use; Mice; Neutrophils/*immunology; *Photochemotherapy; Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Local microbial infections induced by multiple-drug-resistant bacteria in the orthopedic field can be intractable, therefore development of new therapeutic modalities is needed. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative modality to antibiotics for intractable microbial infections, and we recently reported that PDT has the potential to accumulate neutrophils into the infected site which leads to resolution of the infection. PDT for cancer has long been known to be able to stimulate the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, a murine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) arthritis model using bioluminescent MRSA and polystyrene microparticles was established, and both the therapeutic (Th-PDT) and preventive (Pre-PDT) effects of PDT using methylene blue as photosensitizer were examined. Although Th-PDT could not demonstrate direct bacterial killing, neutrophils were accumulated into the infectious joint space after PDT and MRSA arthritis was reduced. With the preconditioning Pre-PDT regimen, neutrophils were quickly accumulated into the joint immediately after bacterial inoculation and bacterial growth was suppressed and the establishment of infection was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration of a protective innate immune response against a bacterial pathogen produced by PDT.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22761911
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10557
      1. Author :
        Yun, M.; Pan, S.; Jiang, S. N.; Nguyen, V. H.; Park, S. H.; Jung, C. H.; Kim, H. S.; Min, J. J.; Choy, H. E.; Hong, Y.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Microbiol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        50
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen26, Xen 26, Salmonella typhumurium, Animals; Biological Therapy/*methods; Colonic Neoplasms/chemistry/*therapy; Disease Models, Animal; Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional; Male; Mass Spectrometry; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Proteome/analysis; Salmonella typhimurium/*growth & development/*pathogenicity
      12. Abstract :
        The use of bacteria has contributed to recent advances in targeted cancer therapy especially for its tumor-specific accumulation and proliferation. In this study, we investigated the molecular events following bacterial therapy using an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium defective in ppGpp synthesis (DeltappGpp), by analyzing those proteins differentially expressed in tumor tissues from treated and untreated mice. CT26 murine colon cancer cells were implanted in BALB/c mice and allowed to form tumors. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with the attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium. Tumor tissues were analyzed by 2D-PAGE. Fourteen differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The analysis revealed that cytoskeletal components, including vimentin, drebrin-like protein, and tropomyosin-alpha 3, were decreased while serum proteins related to heme or iron metabolism, including transferrin, hemopexin, and haptoglobin were increased. Subsequent studies revealed that the decrease in cytoskeletal components occurred at the transcriptional level and that the increase in heme and iron metabolism proteins occurred in liver. Most interestingly, the same pattern of increased expression of transferrin, hemopexin, and haptoglobin was observed following radiotherapy at the dosage of 14 Gy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752915
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10561
      1. Author :
        Hamrahi, V.; Hamblin, M. R.; Jung, W.; Benjamin, J. B.; Paul, K. W.; Fischman, A. J.; Tompkins, R. G.; Carter, E. A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        2012
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen44, Xen 44, Proteus mirabilis, bioluminescence imaging
      12. Abstract :
        Sepsis remains the major cause of death in patients with major burn injuries. In the present investigation we evaluated the interaction between burn injuries of varying severity and preexisting distant infection. We used Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis) that were genetically engineered to be bioluminescent, which allowed for noninvasive, sequential optical imaging of the extent and severity of the infection. The bioluminescent bacteria migrated from subcutaneous abscesses in the leg to distant burn wounds on the back depending on the severity of the burn injury, and this migration led to increased mortality of the mice. Treatment with ciprofloxacin, injected either in the leg with the bacterial infection or into the burn eschar, prevented this colonization of the wound and decreased mortality. The present data suggest that burn wounds can readily become colonized by infections distant from the wound itself.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22899912
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10562
      1. Author :
        Yipp, B. G.; Petri, B.; Salina, D.; Jenne, C. N.; Scott, B. N.; Zbytnuik, L. D.; Pittman, K.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Wu, K.; Meijndert, H. C.; Malawista, S. E.; de Boisfleury Chevance, A.; Zhang, K.; Conly, J.; Kubes, P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Nat Med
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        18
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen8.1, Xen 8.1, S. aureus, IVIS, bioluminescence imaging, Analysis of Variance; Animals; Extracellular Space/*metabolism; Genetic Vectors/genetics; Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism; Humans; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Transgenic; Microscopy, Confocal; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Movement/*physiology; Neutrophils/*immunology/metabolism/physiology; Opsonin Proteins/metabolism; Skin Diseases, Bacterial/*immunology/metabolism; Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are released as neutrophils die in vitro in a process requiring hours, leaving a temporal gap that invasive microbes may exploit. Neutrophils capable of migration and phagocytosis while undergoing NETosis have not been documented. During Gram-positive skin infections, we directly visualized live polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in vivo rapidly releasing NETs, which prevented systemic bacterial dissemination. NETosis occurred during crawling, thereby casting large areas of NETs. NET-releasing PMNs developed diffuse decondensed nuclei, ultimately becoming devoid of DNA. Cells with abnormal nuclei showed unusual crawling behavior highlighted by erratic pseudopods and hyperpolarization consistent with the nucleus being a fulcrum for crawling. A requirement for both Toll-like receptor 2 and complement-mediated opsonization tightly regulated NET release. Additionally, live human PMNs injected into mouse skin developed decondensed nuclei and formed NETS in vivo, and intact anuclear neutrophils were abundant in Gram-positive human abscesses. Therefore early in infection NETosis involves neutrophils that do not undergo lysis and retain the ability to multitask.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22922410
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10565
      1. Author :
        Kwong, G. A.; von Maltzahn, G.; Murugappan, G.; Abudayyeh, O.; Mo, S.; Papayannopoulos, I. A.; Sverdlov, D. Y.; Liu, S. B.; Warren, A. D.; Popov, Y.; Schuppan, D.; Bhatia, S. N.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Nat Biotechnol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        31
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        VivoTag, IVIS, Vivotag
      12. Abstract :
        Biomarkers are becoming increasingly important in the clinical management of complex diseases, yet our ability to discover new biomarkers remains limited by our dependence on endogenous molecules. Here we describe the development of exogenously administered 'synthetic biomarkers' composed of mass-encoded peptides conjugated to nanoparticles that leverage intrinsic features of human disease and physiology for noninvasive urinary monitoring. These protease-sensitive agents perform three functions in vivo: they target sites of disease, sample dysregulated protease activities and emit mass-encoded reporters into host urine for multiplexed detection by mass spectrometry. Using mouse models of liver fibrosis and cancer, we show that these agents can noninvasively monitor liver fibrosis and resolution without the need for invasive core biopsies and substantially improve early detection of cancer compared with current clinically used blood biomarkers. This approach of engineering synthetic biomarkers for multiplexed urinary monitoring should be broadly amenable to additional pathophysiological processes and point-of-care diagnostics.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23242163
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10567
      1. Author :
        Tafreshi, N. K.; Bui, M. M.; Bishop, K.; Lloyd, M. C.; Enkemann, S. A.; Lopez, A. S.; Abrahams, D.; Carter, B. W.; Vagner, J.; Grobmyer, S. R.; Gillies, R. J.; Morse, D. L.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Clin Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        18
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        VivoTag, IVIS, Vivotag, Animals; Antibodies, Monoclonal/*diagnostic use/immunology/pharmacokinetics; Antigens, Neoplasm/*metabolism; Blotting, Western; Breast/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Breast Neoplasms/*diagnosis/immunology/metabolism; Carbonic Anhydrases/*metabolism; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/*diagnosis/immunology/metabolism; Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating/*diagnosis/immunology/metabolism; *Diagnostic Imaging; Female; Fluorescent Antibody Technique; Gene Expression Profiling; Humans; Luciferases/metabolism; Luminescent Measurements; Lymphatic Metastasis; Mice; Mice, Nude; Neoplasm Invasiveness; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis; RNA, Messenger/genetics; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Tissue Array Analysis; Tissue Distribution; Tumor Cells, Cultured; Tumor Markers, Biological/genetics/metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE: To develop targeted molecular imaging probes for the noninvasive detection of breast cancer lymph node metastasis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Six cell surface or secreted markers were identified by expression profiling and from the literature as being highly expressed in breast cancer lymph node metastases. Two of these markers were cell surface carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CAIX and/or CAXII) and were validated for protein expression by immunohistochemistry of patient tissue samples on a breast cancer tissue microarray containing 47 normal breast tissue samples, 42 ductal carcinoma in situ, 43 invasive ductal carcinomas without metastasis, 46 invasive ductal carcinomas with metastasis, and 49 lymph node macrometastases of breast carcinoma. Targeted probes were developed by conjugation of CAIX- and CAXII-specific monoclonal antibodies to a near-infrared fluorescent dye. RESULTS: Together, these two markers were expressed in 100% of the lymph node metastases surveyed. Selectivity of the imaging probes were confirmed by intravenous injection into nude mice-bearing mammary fat pad tumors of marker-expressing cells and nonexpressing cells or by preinjection of unlabeled antibody. Imaging of lymph node metastases showed that peritumorally injected probes detected nodes harboring metastatic tumor cells. As few as 1,000 cells were detected, as determined by implanting, under ultrasound guidance, a range in number of CAIX- and CAXII-expressing cells into the axillary lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: These imaging probes have potential for noninvasive staging of breast cancer in the clinic and elimination of unneeded surgery, which is costly and associated with morbidities.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22016510
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10568
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