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      1. Author :
        Stan, Silvia D; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Warin, Renaud; Singh, Shivendra V
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Cancer research
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        68
      8. Issue :
        18
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; Apoptosis; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; Bioware; Breast Neoplasms; Cell Growth Processes; Cell Line, Tumor; Ergosterol; Female; Forkhead Transcription Factors; Humans; MDA-MB-231-D3H1 cells; Membrane Proteins; Mice; Mice, Nude; Proto-Oncogene Proteins; RNA, Small Interfering; Transfection; Withanolides; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        Withaferin A (WA) is derived from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, which has been safely used for centuries in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of different ailments. We now show, for the first time, that WA exhibits significant activity against human breast cancer cells in culture and in vivo. The WA treatment decreased viability of MCF-7 (estrogen-responsive) and MDA-MB-231 (estrogen-independent) human breast cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The WA-mediated suppression of breast cancer cell viability correlated with apoptosis induction characterized by DNA condensation, cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation, and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. On the other hand, a spontaneously immortalized normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) was relatively more resistant to WA-induced apoptosis compared with breast cancer cells. The WA-mediated apoptosis was accompanied by induction of Bim-s and Bim-L in MCF-7 cells and induction of Bim-s and Bim-EL isoforms in MDA-MB-231 cells. The cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation resulting from WA exposure was significantly attenuated by knockdown of protein levels of Bim and its transcriptional regulator FOXO3a in both cell lines. Moreover, FOXO3a knockdown conferred marked protection against WA-mediated induction of Bim-s expression. The growth of MDA-MB-231 cells implanted in female nude mice was significantly retarded by 5 weekly i.p. injections of 4 mg WA/kg body weight. The tumors from WA-treated mice exhibited reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis compared with tumors from control mice. These results point toward an important role of FOXO3a and Bim in regulation of WA-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18794155
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8990
      1. Author :
        Inglefield, Jon R; Dumitru, Calin Dan; Alkan, Sefik S; Gibson, Sheila J; Lipson, Kenneth E; Tomai, Mark A; Larson, Chris J; Vasilakos, John P
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        28
      8. Issue :
        4
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Aminoquinolines; Animals; B16-F10-luc-G5 cells; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation; Cell Survival; Culture Media, Conditioned; dendritic cells; Humans; Interferon Type I; Leukocytes, Mononuclear; Lung; Melanoma; Mice; Neoplasms; Oligodeoxyribonucleotides; Quinolines; Subcellular Fractions; Sulfonamides; Toll-Like Receptor 7
      12. Abstract :
        Antitumor effects of the toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist, 852A, were evaluated. Supernatants from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with 852A inhibited the proliferation of tumor cell lines Hs294T and 769-P but had no effect on others (786-O and Caki-1). Because addition of 852A directly to the Hs294T cells did not inhibit their proliferation, the mechanism(s) of inhibition of tumor cell proliferation was investigated. Low nanomolar concentrations of 852A stimulated the production of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), IFN-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) from human PBMCs. Cytokines stimulated by submicromolar concentrations of 852A were sufficient to inhibit Hs294T proliferation. At higher concentrations (3-30 microM), 852A induced the production of IL-12p70, IL-18, and IFN-gamma. PBMC cultures depleted of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) did not produce IFN-alpha, and their conditioned medium did not inhibit Hs294T proliferation. Anti-IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) and anti-IFN-alpha antibodies partially abrogated Hs294T proliferation inhibition by 852A-stimulated PBMC supernatants, whereas separate neutralization of TRAIL, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IFN-beta, or IFN-omega had no effect. In vivo, six doses of 852A administration significantly delayed the onset of lung colonies in a B16 melanoma model. Thus, the results demonstrate that the TLR7 agonist 852A inhibits in vitro proliferation of some tumor cells in a pDC-dependent and IFN-alpha-dependent manner and can delay tumor growth in vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18439103
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9001
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Blood
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        112
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antigen Presentation; Antigens, Neoplasm; B16-F10-luc-G5 cells; Bioware; B-Lymphocytes; Cell Adhesion; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement; dendritic cells; Female; Lectins, C-Type; Lymphatic Metastasis; Lymphatic System; Macrophages; Male; Mannose-Binding Lectins; Melanoma, Experimental; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Receptors, Cell Surface; T-Lymphocytes
      12. Abstract :
        Macrophage mannose receptor (MR) participates in pathogen recognition, clearance of endogenous serum glycoproteins, and antigen presentation. MR is also present on lymphatic vessels, where its function is unknown. Here we show that migration of lymphocytes from the skin into the draining lymph nodes through the afferent lymphatics is reduced in MR-deficient mice, while the structure of lymphatic vasculature remains normal in these animals. Moreover, in a tumor model the primary tumors grow significantly bigger in MR(-/-) mice than in the wild-type (WT) controls, whereas the regional lymph node metastases are markedly smaller. Adhesion of both normal lymphocytes and tumor cells to lymphatic vessels is significantly decreased in MR-deficient mice. The ability of macrophages to present tumor antigens is indistinguishable between the 2 genotypes. Thus, MR on lymphatic endothelial cells is involved in leukocyte trafficking and contributes to the metastatic behavior of cancer cells. Blocking of MR may provide a new approach to controlling inflammation and cancer metastasis by targeting the lymphatic vasculature.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18434610
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9000
      1. Author :
        Smith, Eric L; Schuchman, Edward H
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Molecular therapy: the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        16
      8. Issue :
        9
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antineoplastic Agents; Autophagy; B16-F10-luc-G5 cells; Bioware; Cell Survival; Cells, Cultured; Ceramides; Cesium Radioisotopes; CHO Cells; Combined Modality Therapy; Cricetinae; Cricetulus; Endothelium, Vascular; Female; Gamma Rays; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic; Gene Therapy; Humans; Melanoma, Experimental; Mice; Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase
      12. Abstract :
        Exposure of cells or animals to stress frequently induces acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)-mediated ceramide production that leads to cell death. Consistent with this, overexpression of ASM in subcutaneous B16-F10 mouse melanomas, in combination with irradiation, resulted in tumors that were up to 12-fold smaller than irradiated control melanomas. Similarly, when irradiated melanomas were pretreated with a single, peritumoral injection of recombinant ASM (rhASM), the tumors were up to threefold smaller. The in vivo effect of ASM was likely due to enhanced cell death of the tumor cells themselves, as well as the surrounding microvascular endothelial cells. In vitro, rhASM had little or no effect on the growth of tumor cells, even in combination with irradiation. However, when the culture media was acidified to mimic the acidic microenvironment of solid tumors, rhASM-mediated cell death was markedly enhanced when combined with irradiation. Microscopic analysis suggested that this was associated with an increase in autophagy. rhASM has been produced for the treatment of the lysosomal storage disorder, type B Niemann-Pick disease, and is currently being evaluated in a phase-1 clinical trial. Based on the data presented in this article, we propose that further investigation of this protein and gene as antineoplastic agents also is warranted.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18628757
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8999
      1. Author :
        Xing, Yifei; Lu, Xiaochun; Pua, Eric C; Zhong, Pei
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Biochemical and biophysical research communications
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        375
      8. Issue :
        4
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; B16-F10-luc-G5 cells; Bioware; Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic; Female; Melanoma, Experimental; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Neoplasm Metastasis; Ultrasonic Therapy
      12. Abstract :
        This study aims to assess the risk of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy on the incidence of distant metastases and to investigate its association with HIFU-elicited anti-tumor immunity in a murine melanoma (B16-F10) model. Tumor-bearing legs were amputated immediately after or 2 days following HIFU treatment to differentiate the contribution of the elicited anti-tumor immunity. In mice undergoing amputation immediately after mechanical, thermal, or no HIFU treatment, metastasis rates were comparable (18.8%, 13.3%, and 12.5%). In contrast, with a 2-day delay in amputation, the corresponding metastasis rates were 6.7%, 11.8%, and 40%, respectively. Animal survival rate was higher and CTL activity was enhanced in the HIFU treatment groups. Altogether, our results suggest that HIFU treatment does not increase the risk of distant metastasis. Instead, HIFU treatment can elicit an anti-tumor immune response that may be harnessed to improve the overall effectiveness and quality of cancer therapy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18727919
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8998
      1. Author :
        Rambow-Larsen, Amy A; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Petersen, Erik; Splitter, Gary
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Journal of bacteriology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        190
      8. Issue :
        9
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Bioware; Brucella melitensis; Brucellosis; Disease Models, Animal; Flagella; Gene Deletion; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Interferon Regulatory Factor-1; Macrophages; Mice; Mice, Mutant Strains; Molecular Sequence Data; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis; pXen-13; Quorum Sensing; Repressor Proteins; Trans-Activators; Virulence Factors
      12. Abstract :
        Brucella melitensis is an intracellular pathogen that establishes a replicative niche within macrophages. While the intracellular lifestyle of Brucella is poorly understood and few virulence factors have been identified, components of a quorum-sensing pathway in Brucella have recently been identified. The LuxR-type regulatory protein, VjbR, and an N-acylhomoserine lactone signaling molecule are both involved in regulating expression of the virB-encoded type IV secretion system. We have identified a second LuxR-type regulatory protein (BlxR) in Brucella. Microarray analysis of a blxR mutant suggests that BlxR regulates the expression of a number of genes, including those encoding the type IV secretion system and flagella. Confirming these results, deletion of blxR in B. melitensis reduced the transcriptional activities of promoters for the virB operon, flagellar genes, and another putative virulence factor gene, bopA. Furthermore, our data suggested that both BlxR and VjbR are positively autoregulated and cross-regulate the expression of each other. The blxR deletion strain exhibited reduced growth in macrophages, similar to that observed for a vjbR deletion strain. However, unlike the vjbR deletion, the blxR deletion did not fully attenuate virulence in mice. More strikingly, bioluminescent imaging revealed that dissemination of the blxR mutant was similar to that of wild-type B. melitensis, while the vjbR mutant was defective for systemic spread in IRF-1(-/-) mice, suggesting that these regulators are not functionally redundant but that they converge in a common pathway regulating bacterial processes.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18310341
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9030
      1. Author :
        Kadurugamuwa, J. L.; Francis, K. P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Methods in Molecular Biology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        431
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Bioware, Xen29, Animals, Bacteria/chemistry/ genetics, Bacterial Infections/diagnosis/ microbiology, Biofilms/ growth & development, Diagnostic Imaging/methods, Luminescent Measurements/ methods IVIS, Xenogen, Xen5, Xen44
      12. Abstract :
        Whole body biophotonic imaging (BPI) is a technique that has contributed significantly to the way researchers study bacterial pathogens and develop pre-clinical treatments to combat their ensuing infections in vivo. Not only does this approach allow disease profiles and drug efficacy studies to be conducted non-destructively in live animals over the entire course of the disease, but in many cases, it enables investigators to observe disease profiles that could otherwise easily be missed using conventional methodologies. The principles of this technique are that bacterial pathogens engineered to express bioluminescence (visible light) can be readily monitored from outside of the living animal using specialized low-light imaging equipment, enabling their movement, expansion and treatment to be seen completely non-invasively. Moreover, because the same group of animals can be imaged at each time-point throughout the study, the overall number of animals used is dramatically reduced, saving lives, time, and money. Also, as each animal acts as its own control over time, the issues associated with animal-to-animal variation are circumvented, thus improving the quality of the biostatistical data generated. The ability to monitor infections in vivo in a longitudinal fashion is especially appealing to assess chronic infections such as those involving implanted devices. Typically, bacteria grow as biofilms on these foreign bodies and are reputably difficult to monitor with conventional methods. Because of the non-destructive and non-invasive nature of BPI, the procedure can be performed repeatedly in the same animal, allowing the biofilm to be studied in situ without detachment or disturbance. This ability not only allows unique patterns of disease relapse to be seen following termination of antibiotic therapy but also in vivo resistance development during prolonged treatment, both of which are common occurrences with device-related infections. This chapter describes the bioluminescent engineering of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and overviews their use in device-associated infections in several anatomical sites in a variety of animal models.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18287760
      14. Call Number :
        139321
      15. Serial :
        5568
      1. Author :
        Heit, Bryan; Robbins, Stephen M; Downey, Charlene M; Guan, Zhiwen; Colarusso, Pina; Miller, B Joan; Jirik, Frank R; Kubes, Paul
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Nature immunology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        9
      8. Issue :
        7
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Arthritis, Experimental; Bioware; Chemotaxis, Leukocyte; Humans; Inflammation; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Neutrophils; p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates; Protein Transport; PTEN Phosphohydrolase; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        Neutrophils encounter and 'prioritize' many chemoattractants in their pursuit of bacteria. Here we tested the possibility that the phosphatase PTEN is responsible for the prioritization of chemoattractants. Neutrophils induced chemotaxis by two separate pathways, the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) pathway, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, with the p38 pathway dominating over the PI(3)K pathway. Pten(-/-) neutrophils could not prioritize chemoattractants and were 'distracted' by chemokines when moving toward bacterial chemoattractants. In opposing gradients, PTEN became distributed throughout the cell circumference, which inhibited all PI(3)K activity, thus permitting 'preferential' migration toward bacterial products via phospholipase A(2) and p38. Such prioritization was defective in Pten(-/-) neutrophils, which resulted in defective bacterial clearance in vivo. Our data identify a PTEN-dependent mechanism in neutrophils to prioritize, 'triage' and integrate responses to multiple chemotactic cues.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18536720
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9048
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Journal of orthopaedic research: official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        26
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antibody Formation; Bacterial Proteins; Bioware; Disease Models, Animal; DNA, Bacterial; Endonucleases; Female; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Micrococcal Nuclease; Osteolysis; Osteomyelitis; Prosthesis-Related Infections; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Tibia; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        Although osteomyelitis (OM) remains a serious problem in orthopedics, progress has been limited by the absence of an in vivo model that can quantify the bacterial load, metabolic activity of the bacteria over time, immunity, and osteolysis. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a murine model of implant-associated OM in which a stainless steel pin is coated with Staphylococcus aureus and implanted transcortically through the tibial metaphysis. X-ray and micro-CT demonstrated concomitant osteolysis and reactive bone formation, which was evident by day 7. Histology confirmed all the hallmarks of implant-associated OM, namely: osteolysis, sequestrum formation, and involucrum of Gram-positive bacteria inside a biofilm within necrotic bone. Serology revealed that mice mount a protective humoral response that commences with an IgM response after 1 week, and converts to a specific IgG2b response against specific S. aureus proteins by day 11 postinfection. Real-time quantitative PCR (RTQ-PCR) for the S. aureus specific nuc gene determined that the peak bacterial load occurs 11 days postinfection. This coincidence of decreasing bacterial load with the generation of specific antibodies is suggestive of protective humoral immunity. Longitudinal in vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) of luxA-E transformed S. aureus (Xen29) combined with nuc RTQ-PCR demonstrated the exponential growth phase of the bacteria immediately following infection that peaks on day 4, and is followed by the biofilm growth phase at a significantly lower metabolic rate (p < 0.05). Collectively, these studies demonstrate the first quantitative model of implant-associated OM that defines the kinetics of microbial growth, osteolysis, and humoral immunity following infection.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17676625
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9047
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