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      1. Author :
        Abdelwahab, M. G.; Fenton, K. E.; Preul, M. C.; Rho, J. M.; Lynch, A.; Stafford, P.; Scheck, A. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        GL261-luc2, IVIS, 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid/metabolism; Animals; Blood Glucose/metabolism; Brain/metabolism/pathology; Combined Modality Therapy; Disease Models, Animal; Glioma/*diet therapy/*radiotherapy; Humans; Kaplan-Meier Estimate; *Ketogenic Diet; Ketones/blood; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Neoplasm Transplantation; Time Factors
      12. Abstract :
        INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that alters metabolism by increasing the level of ketone bodies in the blood. KetoCal(R) (KC) is a nutritionally complete, commercially available 4:1 (fat:carbohydrate+protein) ketogenic formula that is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for the management of refractory pediatric epilepsy. Diet-induced ketosis causes changes to brain homeostasis that have potential for the treatment of other neurological diseases such as malignant gliomas. METHODS: We used an intracranial bioluminescent mouse model of malignant glioma. Following implantation animals were maintained on standard diet (SD) or KC. The mice received 2x4 Gy of whole brain radiation and tumor growth was followed by in vivo imaging. RESULTS: Animals fed KC had elevated levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.0173) and an increased median survival of approximately 5 days relative to animals maintained on SD. KC plus radiation treatment were more than additive, and in 9 of 11 irradiated animals maintained on KC the bioluminescent signal from the tumor cells diminished below the level of detection (p<0.0001). Animals were switched to SD 101 days after implantation and no signs of tumor recurrence were seen for over 200 days. CONCLUSIONS: KC significantly enhances the anti-tumor effect of radiation. This suggests that cellular metabolic alterations induced through KC may be useful as an adjuvant to the current standard of care for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22563484
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10485
      1. Author :
        Liu, W.; McDaniel, J.; Li, X.; Asai, D.; Quiroz, F. G.; Schaal, J.; Park, J. S.; Zalutsky, M.; Chilkoti, A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        72
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        PC-3M-luc2, PC3M-luc2, IVIS, Prostate Cancer, Bioware
      12. Abstract :
        Brachytherapy is a common clinical technique involving implantation of sealed radioactive “seeds” within a tumor to selectively irradiate the tumor mass while minimizing systemic toxicity. To mitigate the disadvantages associated with complex surgical implantation and subsequent device removal procedures, we have developed an alternative approach using a genetically encoded peptide polymer solution composed of a thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) radiolabeled with (131)I that self-assembles into radionuclide seeds upon intratumoral injection. The formation of these nontoxic and biodegradable polymer seeds led to prolonged intratumoral retention (~85% ID/tumor 7 days postinjection) of the radionuclide, elicited a tumor growth delay in 100% of the tumors in two human xenografts (FaDu and PC-3), and cured more than 67% of tumor-bearing animals after a single administration of labeled ELP. These results suggest that in situ self-assembly of biodegradable and injectable radionuclide-containing polypeptide seeds could be a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional brachytherapy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23155121
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10487
      1. Author :
        Zollo, M.; Di Dato, V.; Spano, D.; De Martino, D.; Liguori, L.; Marino, N.; Vastolo, V.; Navas, L.; Garrone, B.; Mangano, G.; Biondi, G.; Guglielmotti, A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Clin Exp Metastasis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        PC-3M-luc2, PC3M-luc2, IVIS, Prostate Cancer, Bioware, Animals; Breast Neoplasms/*pathology; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement; Cell Proliferation; Chemokine CCL2/*biosynthesis/chemistry/metabolism; Female; Humans; Indazoles/*pharmacology; Macrophages/metabolism; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; NF-kappa B/metabolism; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasm Transplantation; Propionates/*pharmacology; Prostatic Neoplasms/*pathology; Signal Transduction
      12. Abstract :
        Prostate and breast cancer are major causes of death worldwide, mainly due to patient relapse upon disease recurrence through formation of metastases. Chemokines are small proteins with crucial roles in the immune system, and their regulation is finely tuned in early inflammatory responses. They are key molecules during inflammatory processes, and many studies are focusing on their regulatory functions in tumor growth and angiogenesis during metastatic cell seeding and spreading. Bindarit is an anti-inflammatory indazolic derivative that can inhibit the synthesis of MCP-1/CCL2, with a potential inhibitory function in tumor progression and metastasis formation. We show here that in vitro, bindarit can modulate cancer-cell proliferation and migration, mainly through negative regulation of TGF-beta and AKT signaling, and it can impair the NF-kappaB signaling pathway through enhancing the expression of the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkB-alpha. In vivo administration of bindarit results in impaired metastatic disease in prostate cancer xenograft mice (PC-3M-Luc2 cells injected intra-cardially) and impairment of local tumorigenesis in syngeneic Balb/c mice injected under the mammary gland with murine breast cancer cells (4T1-Luc cells). In addition, bindarit treatment significantly decreases the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in 4T1-Luc primary tumors. Overall, our data indicate that bindarit is a good candidate for new therapies against prostate and breast tumorigenesis, with an action through impairment of inflammatory cell responses during formation of the tumor-stroma niche microenvironment.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22484917
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10489
      1. Author :
        Batra, J.; Robinson, J.; Mehner, C.; Hockla, A.; Miller, E.; Radisky, D. C.; Radisky, E. S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-luc2, IVIS, Breast Cancer, Bioware
      12. Abstract :
        Excess proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contributes to the development of arthritis, cardiovascular diseases and cancer progression, implicating these enzymes as therapeutic targets. While many small molecule inhibitors of MMPs have been developed, clinical uses have been limited, in part by toxicity and off-target effects. Development of the endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) as recombinant biopharmaceuticals represents an alternative therapeutic approach; however, the short plasma half-life of recombinant TIMPs has restricted their potential in this arena. To overcome this limitation, we have modified recombinant human TIMP-1 (rhTIMP-1) by PEGylation on lysine residues. We analyzed a mixture of mono- and di-PEGylated rhTIMP-1 species modified by attachment of 20 kDa mPEG chains (PEG(20K)-TIMP-1), as confirmed by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry. This preparation retained complete inhibitory activity toward the MMP-3 catalytic domain and partial inhibitory activity toward full length MMP-9. Pharmacokinetic evaluation showed that PEGylation extended the plasma half-life of rhTIMP-1 in mice from 1.1 h to 28 h. In biological assays, PEG(20K)-TIMP-1 inhibited both MMP-dependent cancer cell invasion and tumor cell associated gelatinase activity. Overall these results suggest that PEGylated TIMP-1 exhibits improved potential for development as an anti-cancer recombinant protein therapeutic, and additionally may offer potential for clinical applications in the treatment of other diseases.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23185522
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 9
      15. Serial :
        10491
      1. Author :
        Correa de Sampaio, P.; Auslaender, D.; Krubasik, D.; Failla, A. V.; Skepper, J. N.; Murphy, G.; English, W. R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-luc2, IVIS, Breast Cancer, Bioware, Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology; *Cell Communication/drug effects; Cell Proliferation/drug effects; Extracellular Matrix/drug effects/metabolism; Fibroblasts/drug effects/metabolism/pathology; Gene Silencing/drug effects; Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects/metabolism; Humans; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology; Luminescent Measurements; Matrix Metalloproteinase 14/metabolism; Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton; *Models, Biological; Neoplasms/*blood supply/enzymology/*pathology; Neovascularization, Pathologic/*pathology; Signal Transduction/drug effects; Spheroids, Cellular/drug effects/enzymology/pathology; Stromal Cells/drug effects/pathology; Tumor Cells, Cultured
      12. Abstract :
        Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is an essential process for tumour progression and is an area of significant therapeutic interest. Different in vitro systems and more complex in vivo systems have been described for the study of tumour angiogenesis. However, there are few human 3D in vitro systems described to date which mimic the cellular heterogeneity and complexity of angiogenesis within the tumour microenvironment. In this study we describe the Minitumour model--a 3 dimensional human spheroid-based system consisting of endothelial cells and fibroblasts in co-culture with the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, for the study of tumour angiogenesis in vitro. After implantation in collagen-I gels, Minitumour spheroids form quantifiable endothelial capillary-like structures. The endothelial cell pre-capillary sprouts are supported by the fibroblasts, which act as mural cells, and their growth is increased by the presence of cancer cells. Characterisation of the Minitumour model using small molecule inhibitors and inhibitory antibodies show that endothelial sprout formation is dependent on growth factors and cytokines known to be important for tumour angiogenesis. The model also shows a response to anti-angiogenic agents similar to previously described in vivo data. We demonstrate that independent manipulation of the different cell types is possible, using common molecular techniques, before incorporation into the model. This aspect of Minitumour spheroid analysis makes this model ideal for high content studies of gene function in individual cell types, allowing for the dissection of their roles in cell-cell interactions. Finally, using this technique, we were able to show the requirement of the metalloproteinase MT1-MMP in endothelial cells and fibroblasts, but not cancer cells, for sprouting angiogenesis.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22363483
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10492
      1. Author :
        Chen, J.; Gallo, K. A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        72
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        4130-40
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-luc2-tdtomato, IVIS, tdtomato, fluorescent protein, Animals; Breast Neoplasms/enzymology/*metabolism/*pathology; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement/*physiology; Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism; Female; Humans; MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases/*metabolism; MAP Kinase Signaling System; Mice; Mice, Nude; Neoplasm Invasiveness; Paxillin/*metabolism; Phosphorylation
      12. Abstract :
        MLK3 kinase activates multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases and plays a critical role in cancer cell migration and invasion. In the tumor microenvironment, prometastatic factors drive breast cancer invasion and metastasis, but their associated signaling pathways are not well-known. Here, we provide evidence that MLK3 is required for chemokine (CXCL12)-induced invasion of basal breast cancer cells. We found that MLK3 induced robust phosphorylation of the focal adhesion scaffold paxillin on Ser 178 and Tyr 118, which was blocked by silencing or inhibition of MLK3-JNK. Silencing or inhibition of MLK3, inhibition of JNK, or expression of paxillin S178A all led to enhanced Rho activity, indicating that the MLK3-JNK-paxillin axis limits Rho activity to promote focal adhesion turnover and migration. Consistent with this, MLK3 silencing increased focal adhesions and stress fibers in breast cancer cells. MLK3 silencing also decreased the formation of breast cancer lung metastases in vivo, and breast cancer cells derived from mouse lung metastases showed enhanced Ser 178 paxillin phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that the MLK3-JNK-paxillin signaling axis may represent a potential therapeutic target and/or prognostic marker in breast cancer metastasis.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22700880
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10495
      1. Author :
        Cronin, M.; Akin, A. R.; Collins, S. A.; Meganck, J.; Kim, J. B.; Baban, C. K.; Joyce, S. A.; van Dam, G. M.; Zhang, N.; van Sinderen, D.; O'Sullivan, G. C.; Kasahara, N.; Gahan, C. G.; Francis, K. P.; Tangney, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        HCT-116-luc2, IVIS, Bioware, HCT116-luc2, Administration, Oral; Animals; Bacteria/*genetics; Cell Line, Tumor; Female; Genes, Reporter/genetics; Genetic Engineering; Glioblastoma/*microbiology/pathology/radiography; Humans; Imaging, Three-Dimensional; Luminescent Measurements/*methods; Lung Neoplasms/*microbiology/pathology/radiography; Mice; Molecular Imaging/*methods; X-Ray Microtomography
      12. Abstract :
        The ability to track microbes in real time in vivo is of enormous value for preclinical investigations in infectious disease or gene therapy research. Bacteria present an attractive class of vector for cancer therapy, possessing a natural ability to grow preferentially within tumours following systemic administration. Bioluminescent Imaging (BLI) represents a powerful tool for use with bacteria engineered to express reporter genes such as lux. BLI is traditionally used as a 2D modality resulting in images that are limited in their ability to anatomically locate cell populations. Use of 3D diffuse optical tomography can localize the signals but still need to be combined with an anatomical imaging modality like micro-Computed Tomography (muCT) for interpretation.In this study, the non-pathogenic commensal bacteria E. coli K-12 MG1655 and Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003, or Salmonella Typhimurium SL7207 each expressing the luxABCDE operon were intravenously (i.v.) administered to mice bearing subcutaneous (s.c) FLuc-expressing xenograft tumours. Bacterial lux signal was detected specifically in tumours of mice post i.v.-administration and bioluminescence correlated with the numbers of bacteria recovered from tissue. Through whole body imaging for both lux and FLuc, bacteria and tumour cells were co-localised. 3D BLI and muCT image analysis revealed a pattern of multiple clusters of bacteria within tumours. Investigation of spatial resolution of 3D optical imaging was supported by ex vivo histological analyses. In vivo imaging of orally-administered commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was also achieved using 3D BLI. This study demonstrates for the first time the potential to simultaneously image multiple BLI reporter genes three dimensionally in vivo using approaches that provide unique information on spatial locations.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22295120
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10496
      1. Author :
        Guo, K.; Tang, J. P.; Jie, L.; Al-Aidaroos, A. Q.; Hong, C. W.; Tan, C. P.; Park, J. E.; Varghese, L.; Feng, Z.; Zhou, J.; Chng, W. J.; Zeng, Q.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Oncotarget
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        3
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        HCT-116-luc2, IVIS, Bioware, HCT116-luc2, Animals; Antibodies, Monoclonal/*immunology; Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity/immunology; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy; Cell Line, Tumor; Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy; Humans; Immediate-Early Proteins/*immunology; Killer Cells, Natural/*immunology; Lymphocyte Activation/immunology; Melanoma/drug therapy; Mice; Mice, Nude; Mice, SCID; Molecular Targeted Therapy/*methods; Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/*immunology; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology/pharmacology/therapeutic use
      12. Abstract :
        Antibodies are considered as 'magic bullets' because of their high specificity. It is believed that antibodies are too large to routinely enter the cytosol, thus antibody therapeutic approach has been limited to extracellular or secreted proteins expressed by cancer cells. However, many oncogenic proteins are localized within the cell. To explore the possibility of antibody therapies against intracellular targets, we generated a chimeric antibody targeting the intracellular PRL-3 oncoprotein to assess its antitumor activities in mice. Remarkably, we observed that the PRL-3 chimeric antibody could efficiently and specifically reduce the formation of PRL-3 expressing metastatic tumors. We further found that natural killer (NK) cells were important in mediating the therapeutic effect, which was only observed in a nude mouse model (T-cell deficient), but not in a Severe Combined Immunodeficiency' (scid ) mouse model (B- and T-cell deficient), indicating the anticancer effect also depends on host B-cell activity. Our study involving 377 nude and scid mice suggest that antibodies targeting intracellular proteins can be developed to treat cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22374986
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10497
      1. Author :
        Phillips, W. T.; Goins, B.; Bao, A.; Vargas, D.; Guttierez, J. E.; Trevino, A.; Miller, J. R.; Henry, J.; Zuniga, R.; Vecil, G.; Brenner, A. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Neuro Oncol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        14
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        416-25
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        U-87 MG-luc2, U-87-MG-luc2, Glioma, Bioware, IVIS, Animals; Brachytherapy/*methods; Brain Neoplasms/pathology/*radiotherapy; Convection; Glioblastoma/pathology/*radiotherapy; Glioma/pathology/*radiotherapy; Liposomes; Nanoparticles/therapeutic use; Radioisotopes/*therapeutic use; Rats; Rhenium/*therapeutic use; Tumor Burden; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        Although external beam radiation is an essential component to the current standard treatment of primary brain tumors, its application is limited by toxicity at doses more than 80 Gy. Recent studies have suggested that brachytherapy with liposomally encapsulated radionuclides may be of benefit, and we have reported methods to markedly increase the specific activity of rhenium-186 ((186)Re)-liposomes. To better characterize the potential delivery, toxicity, and efficacy of the highly specific activity of (186)Re-liposomes, we evaluated their intracranial application by convection-enhanced delivery in an orthotopic U87 glioma rat model. After establishing an optimal volume of 25 microL, we observed focal activity confined to the site of injection over a 96-hour period. Doses of up to 1850 Gy were administered without overt clinical or microscopic evidence of toxicity. Animals treated with (186)Re-liposomes had a median survival of 126 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.4-173 days), compared with 49 days (95% CI, 44-53 days) for controls. Log-rank analysis between these 2 groups was highly significant (P = .0013) and was even higher when 100 Gy was used as a cutoff (P < .0001). Noninvasive luciferase imaging as a surrogate for tumor volume showed a statistically significant separation in bioluminescence by 11 days after 100 Gy or less treatment between the experimental group and the control animals (chi(2)[1, N= 19] = 4.8; P = .029). MRI also supported this difference in tumor size. Duplication of tumor volume differences and survival benefit was possible in a more invasive U251 orthotopic model, with clear separation in bioluminescence at 6 days after treatment (chi(2)[1, N= 9] = 4.7; P = .029); median survival in treated animals was not reached at 120 days because lack of mortality, and log-rank analysis of survival was highly significant (P = .0057). Analysis of tumors by histology revealed minimal areas of necrosis and gliosis. These results support the potential efficacy of the highly specific activity of brachytherapy by (186)Re-liposomes convection-enhanced delivery in glioma.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22427110
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10500
      1. Author :
        Oashi, K.; Furukawa, H.; Nishihara, H.; Ozaki, M.; Oyama, A.; Funayama, E.; Hayashi, T.; Kuge, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Invest Dermatol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        B16-F10-luc2, Melanoma, B16F10-luc2, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        In-transit metastasis (ITM) is a unique manifestation of intralymphatic tumor dissemination, characterized by the presence of melanoma cells between the primary lesion and the draining regional lymph node basin that is clinically associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we aimed to establish an experimental animal model of melanoma ITM, as research progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of suitable experimental models. We reproduced melanoma ITM in a mouse hind limb by transplanting melanoma cells into the footpad of a mouse with lymphedema (LE). The tumor cells at the ITM site were highly proliferative, and mice with ITMs were more likely than control mice to develop distant lymph node and lung metastases. Peritumoral lymphatic vessels and tumor-associated blood vessels were increased in the primary tumor site of the LE mice. Our established ITM melanoma mouse model enabled us to clarify the molecular determinants and pathophysiology of ITM. This ITM model is also comparable to the unfavorable clinical behavior of melanoma ITM in humans and, moreover, underlined the importance of lymphangiogenic factors in the tumor dissemination through the lymphatic system.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 6 September 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.274.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22951727
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10501
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