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      1. Author :
        Shan, Liang; Wang, Songping; Sridhar, Rajagopalan; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Wang, Paul C
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Molecular imaging
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Breast Neoplasms; Cell Line, Tumor; Fluorescence; Fluorescent Dyes; Humans; Liposomes; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Magnetics; MDA-MB-231-D3H1 cells; Mice; Mice, Inbred Strains; Microscopy, Confocal; Molecular Probes; Optics and Photonics; Transferrin; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        A dual probe with fluorescent and magnetic reporter groups was constructed by linkage of the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent transferrin conjugate (Tf(NIR)) on the surface of contrast agent-encapsulated cationic liposome (Lip-CA). This probe was used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging of MDA-MB-231-luc breast cancer cells grown as a monolayer in vitro and as solid tumor xenografts in nude mice. Confocal microscopy, optical imaging, and MRI showed a dramatic increase of in vitro cellular uptake of the fluorescent and magnetic reporter groups from the probe compared with the uptake of contrast agent or Lip-CA alone. Pretreatment with transferrin (Tf) blocked uptake of the probe reporters, indicating the importance and specificity of the Tf moiety for targeting. Intravenous administration of the dual probe to nude mice significantly enhanced the tumor contrast in MRI, and preferential accumulation of the fluorescent signal was clearly seen in NIR-based optical images. More interestingly, the contrast enhancement in MRI showed a heterogeneous pattern within tumors, which reflected the tumor's morphologic heterogeneity. These results indicate that the newly developed dual probe enhances the tumor image contrast and is superior to contrast agent alone for identifying the tumor pathologic features on the basis of MRI but also is suitable for NIR-based optical imaging.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17445503
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8992
      1. Author :
        Cabral, Horacio; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Journal of controlled release: official journal of the Controlled Release Society
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        121
      8. Issue :
        3
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antineoplastic Agents; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Drug Carriers; Drug Delivery Systems; Female; Hela Cells; HeLa-luc; Humans; Mice; Mice, SCID; Micelles; Neoplasms; Organoplatinum Compounds; Platinum; Polymers; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        Polymeric micelles are promising nanocarriers, which might enhance the efficacy of antitumor drugs. Herein, polymeric micelles incorporating dichloro(1,2-diamino-cyclohexane)platinum(II) (DACHPt), the oxaliplatin parent complex, were prepared through the polymer-metal complex formation of DACHPt with poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(glutamic acid) [PEG-b-P(Glu)] block copolymer having different lengths of the poly(glutamic acid) block [p(Glu): 20, 40, and 70 U]. The resulting micelles were studied with the aim of optimizing the system's biological performance. DACHPt-loaded micelles (DACHPt/m) were approximately 40 nm in diameter and had a narrow size distribution. In vivo biodistribution and antitumor activity experiments (CDF1 mice bearing the murine colon adenocarcinoma C-26 inoculated subcutaneously) showed 20-fold greater accumulation of DACHPt/m at the tumor site than free oxaliplatin to achieve substantially higher antitumor efficacy. Moreover, the micelles prepared from PEG-b-P(Glu) with 20 U of P(Glu) exhibited the lowest non-specific accumulation in the liver and spleen to critically reduce non-specific accumulation, resulting in higher specificity to solid tumors. The antitumor effect of DACHPt/m was also evaluated on multiple metastases generated from intraperitoneally injected bioluminescent HeLa (HeLa-Luc) cells. The in vivo bioluminescent data indicated that DACHPt/m decreased the signal 10-to 50-fold compared to the control indicating a very strong antitumor activity. These results suggest that DACHPt/m could be an outstanding drug delivery system for oxaliplatin in the treatment of solid tumors.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17628162
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9007
      1. Author :
        Peter, Christoph; Kielstein, Jan T; Clarke-Katzenberg, Regina; Adams, M Christopher; Pitsiouni, Maria; Kambham, Neeraja; Karimi, Mobin A; Kengatharan, Ken M; Cooke, John P
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        The Journal of urology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        177
      8. Issue :
        6
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; carcinoma, renal cell; Cell Culture Techniques; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation; Firefly Luciferin; HT-29-luc-D6 cells; Humans; Kidney Neoplasms; Luminescence; Luminescent Agents; Male; Mice; Mice, SCID; Models, Biological; Tumor Burden
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE Bioluminescent imaging permits sensitive in vivo detection and quantification of cells engineered to emit light. We developed a bioluminescent human renal cancer cell line for in vitro and in vivo studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS The 2 human renal cell carcinoma cell lines SN12-C and SN12-L1 were stably transfected to constitutively express luciferase using a retroviral shuttle. The bioluminescent signal was correlated with tumor cell numbers in vitro. Parental and transfected cells were compared by growth kinetics and histology. Tumor burden after heterotopic injection in immune deficient mice was monitored up to 39 days. The kinetics of the bioluminescent signal was evaluated for 1 to 60 minutes following luciferin injection. RESULTS Bioengineered renal cancer cell lines stably expressed luciferase. The growth kinetics of the cells in vitro and the histology of tumors resulting from implantation of these cells were unaffected by retroviral transfection with the luciferase gene. As few as 1,000 cells could be reliably detected. The intensity of the bioluminescent signal correlated with the number of tumor cells in vitro. Photon emission in vivo and ex vivo correlated significantly with tumor weight at sacrifice. After intraperitoneal injection of luciferin there was a time dependent change in the intensity of the bioluminescent signal with maximum photon emission at 20 minutes (optimal 17 to 25). CONCLUSIONS Luciferase transfected human renal cancer lines allow reliable, rapid, noninvasive and longitudinal monitoring of tumor growth in vivo. The ability to assess tumor development in vivo with time is economical and effective compared to end point data experiments.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17509355
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9009
      1. Author :
        Tai, Chien-Hsuan; Hsiung, Suz-Kai; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Mei-Lin; Lee, Gwo-Bin
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Biomedical microdevices
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        9
      8. Issue :
        4
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        A549-luc-C8 cells; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Nucleus; Cell Separation; Electrophoresis; Humans; Microfluidic Analytical Techniques
      12. Abstract :
        This study reports a new biochip capable of cell separation and nucleus collection utilizing dielectrophoresis (DEP) forces in a microfluidic system comprising of micropumps and microvalves, operating in an automatic format. DEP forces operated at a low voltage (15 Vp-p) and at a specific frequency (16 MHz) can be used to separate cells in a continuous flow, which can be subsequently collected. In order to transport the cell samples continuously, a serpentine-shape (S-shape) pneumatic micropump device was constructed onto the chip device to drive the samples flow through the microchannel, which was activated by the pressurized air injection. The mixed cell samples were first injected into an inlet reservoir and driven through the DEP electrodes to separate specific samples. Finally, separated cell samples were collected individually in two outlet reservoirs controlled by microvalves. With the same operation principle, the nucleus of the specific cells can be collected after the cell lysis procedure. The pumping rate of the micropump was measured to be 39.8 microl/min at a pressure of 25 psi and a driving frequency of 28 Hz. For the cell separation process, the initial flow rate was 3 microl/min provided by the micropump. A throughput of 240 cells/min can be obtained by using the developed device. The DEP electrode array, microchannels, micropumps and microvalves are integrated on a microfluidic chip using micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technology to perform several crucial procedures including cell transportation, separation and collection. The dimensions of the integrated chip device were measured to be 6x7 cm. By integrating an S-shape pump and pneumatic microvalves, different cells are automatically transported in the microchannel, separated by the DEP forces, and finally sorted to specific chambers. Experimental data show that viable and non-viable cells (human lung cancer cell, A549-luc-C8) can be successfully separated and collected using the developed microfluidic platform. The separation accuracy, depending on the DEP operating mode used, of the viable and non-viable cells are measured to be 84 and 81%, respectively. In addition, after cell lysis, the nucleus can be also collected using a similar scheme. The developed automatic microfluidic platform is useful for extracting nuclear proteins from living cells. The extracted nuclear proteins are ready for nuclear binding assays or the study of nuclear proteins.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17508288
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9005
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        PLoS pathogens
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        3
      8. Issue :
        6
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Anthrax; Bacillus anthracis; Bioware; Disease Models, Animal; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Inhalation Exposure; Luciferases; Luminescence; Luminescent Measurements; Lymph Nodes; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Nasal Cavity; Organisms, Genetically Modified; Peyer's Patches; Pharynx; pXen-5; Skin; Spores, Bacterial
      12. Abstract :
        Bacillus anthracis causes three forms of anthrax: inhalational, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous. Anthrax is characterized by both toxemia, which is caused by secretion of immunomodulating toxins (lethal toxin and edema toxin), and septicemia, which is associated with bacterial encapsulation. Here we report that, contrary to the current view of B. anthracis pathogenesis, B. anthracis spores germinate and establish infections at the initial site of inoculation in both inhalational and cutaneous infections without needing to be transported to draining lymph nodes, and that inhaled spores establish initial infection in nasal-associated lymphoid tissues. Furthermore, we found that Peyer's patches in the mouse intestine are the primary site of bacterial growth after intragastric inoculation, thus establishing an animal model of gastrointestinal anthrax. All routes of infection progressed to the draining lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, and ultimately the blood. These discoveries were made possible through the development of a novel dynamic mouse model of B. anthracis infection using bioluminescent non-toxinogenic capsulated bacteria that can be visualized within the mouse in real-time, and demonstrate the value of in vivo imaging in the analysis of B. anthracis infection. Our data imply that previously unrecognized portals of bacterial entry demand more intensive investigation, and will significantly transform the current perception of inhalational, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous B. anthracis pathogenesis.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17542645
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9022
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        PloS one
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        2
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Adhesins, Bacterial; Animals; Antigens, CD46; Bacteremia; Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins; Bacterial Proteins; Bacterial Translocation; Bioware; Blood-Brain Barrier; Central Nervous System; Disease Progression; Female; Luminescent Measurements; Luminescent Proteins; Male; Meningitis, Meningococcal; Meningococcal Infections; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Nasal Cavity; pXen-13; Recombinant Fusion Proteins; Respiratory System; Sepsis; Thyroid Gland
      12. Abstract :
        Neisseria meningitidis is a human pathogen that causes septicemia and meningitis with high mortality. The disease progression is rapid and much remains unknown about the disease process. The understanding of disease development is crucial for development of novel therapeutic strategies and vaccines against meningococcal disease. The use of bioluminescent imaging combined with a mouse disease model allowed us to investigate the progression of meningococcal sepsis over time. Injection of bacteria in blood demonstrated waves of bacterial clearance and growth, which selected for Opa-expressing bacteria, indicating the importance of this bacterial protein. Further, N. meningitidis accumulated in the thyroid gland, while thyroid hormone T4 levels decreased. Bacteria reached the mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract, which required expression of the meningococcal PilC1 adhesin. Surprisingly, PilC1 was dispensable for meningococcal growth in blood and for crossing of the blood-brain barrier, indicating that the major role of PilC1 is to interact with mucosal surfaces. This in vivo study reveals disease dynamics and organ targeting during meningococcal disease and presents a potent tool for further investigations of meningococcal pathogenesis and vaccines in vivo. This might lead to development of new strategies to improve the outcome of meningococcal disease in human patients.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17311106
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9032
      1. Author :
        Woelfle, Mark A; Xu, Yao; Qin, Ximing; Johnson, Carl Hirschie
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        104
      8. Issue :
        47
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Bioware; Circadian Rhythm; Cyanobacteria; DNA, Bacterial; DNA, Superhelical; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Light; Plasmids; Promoter Regions, Genetic; pXen-13; Transcription, Genetic
      12. Abstract :
        The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus expresses robust circadian (daily) rhythms under the control of the KaiABC-based core clockwork. Unlike eukaryotic circadian systems characterized thus far, the cyanobacterial clockwork modulates gene expression patterns globally and specific clock gene promoters are not necessary in mediating the circadian feedback loop. The oscilloid model postulates that global rhythms of transcription are based on rhythmic changes in the status of the cyanobacterial chromosome that are ultimately controlled by the KaiABC oscillator. By using a nonessential, cryptic plasmid (pANS) as a reporter of the superhelical state of DNA in cyanobacteria, we show that the supercoiling status of this plasmid changes in a circadian manner in vivo. The rhythm of topological change in the plasmid is conditional; this change is rhythmic in constant light and in light/dark cycles, but not in constant darkness. In further support of the oscilloid model, cyanobacterial promoters that are removed from their native chromosomal locations and placed on a plasmid preserve their circadian expression patterns.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18000054
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9031
      1. Author :
        Baddour, Ralph E; Dadani, Farhan N; Kolios, Michael C; Bisland, Stuart K
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Journal of biological physics
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        33
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Bioware; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        Ultrasound imaging is proving to be an important tool for medical diagnosis of dermatological disease. Backscatter spectral profiles using high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS, 10-100 MHz) are sensitive to subtle changes in eukaryotic cellular morphology and mechanical properties that are indicative of early apoptosis, the main type of cell death induced following photodynamic therapy (PDT). We performed experiments to study whether HFUS could also be used to discern changes in bacteria following PDT treatment. Pellets of planktonic Staphylococcus aureus were treated with different PDT protocols and subsequently interrogated with HFUS. Changes in ultrasound backscatter response were found to correlate with antimicrobial effect. Despite their small size, distinct changes in bacterial morphology that are indicative of cell damage or death are detectable by altered backscatter spectra from bacterial ensembles using HFUS. This highlights the potential for HFUS in rapidly and non-invasively assessing the structural changes related to antimicrobial response.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19669553
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9052
      1. Author :
        Mortin, Lawrence I; Li, Tongchuan; Van Praagh, Andrew D G; Zhang, Shuxin; Zhang, Xi-Xian; Alder, Jeff D
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        51
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Acetamides; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bioware; Colony Count, Microbial; Daptomycin; Female; Luminescent Measurements; Methicillin Resistance; Mice; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Neutropenia; Oxazolidinones; Peritonitis; Staphylococcus aureus; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        The rising rates of antibiotic resistance accentuate the critical need for new antibiotics. Daptomycin is a new antibiotic with a unique mode of action and a rapid in vitro bactericidal effect against gram-positive organisms. This study examined the kinetics of daptomycin's bactericidal action against peritonitis caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in healthy and neutropenic mice and compared this activity with those of other commonly used antibiotics. CD-1 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with lethal doses of MSSA (Xen-29) or MRSA (Xen-1), laboratory strains transformed with a plasmid containing the lux operon, which confers bioluminescence. One hour later, the animals were given a single dose of daptomycin at 50 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneously (s.c.), nafcillin at 100 mg/kg s.c., vancomycin at 100 mg/kg s.c., linezolid at 100 mg/kg via gavage (orally), or saline (10 ml/kg s.c.). The mice were anesthetized hourly, and photon emissions from living bioluminescent bacteria were imaged and quantified. The luminescence in saline-treated control mice either increased (neutropenic mice) or remained relatively unchanged (healthy mice). In contrast, by 2 to 3 h postdosing, daptomycin effected a 90% reduction of luminescence of MSSA or MRSA in both healthy and neutropenic mice. The activity of daptomycin against both MSSA and MRSA strains was superior to those of nafcillin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Against MSSA peritonitis, daptomycin showed greater and more rapid bactericidal activity than nafcillin or linezolid. Against MRSA peritonitis, daptomycin showed greater and more rapid bactericidal activity than vancomycin or linezolid. The rapid decrease in the luminescent signal in the daptomycin-treated neutropenic mice underscores the potency of this antibiotic against S. aureus in the immune-suppressed host.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17307984
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9050