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      1. Author :
        Wallis de Vries BM, van Dam GM, Tio RA, Hillebrands JL, Slart RH and Zeebregts CJ
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Journal of Vascular Surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        48
      8. Issue :
        6
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cardiovascular Research
      11. Keywords :
        In vivo imaging; MMPSense; atherosclerotic carotid plaque
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that plaque vulnerability, rather than the degree of stenosis, is important in predicting the occurrence of subsequent cerebral ischemic events in patients with carotid artery stenosis. The many imaging modalities currently available have different properties with regard to the visualization of the extent of vulnerability in carotid plaque formation.

        METHODS: Original published studies were identified using the MEDLINE database (January 1966 to March 2008). Manual cross-referencing was also performed.

        RESULTS: There is no single imaging modality that can produce definitive information about the state of vulnerability of an atherosclerotic plaque. Each has its own specific drawbacks, which may be the use of ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic contrast agents, an invasive character, low patient tolerability, or simply the paucity of information obtained on plaque vulnerability. Functional molecular imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) and near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) do seem able accurately to visualize and even quantify features of plaque vulnerability and its pathophysiologic processes. Promising new techniques like near infra-red fluorescence imaging are being developed and may be beneficial in this field.

        CONCLUSION: There is a promising role for functional molecular imaging modalities like PET, SPECT, or NIRS related to improvement of selection criteria for carotid intervention, especially when combined with CT or MRI to add further anatomical details to molecular information. Further information will be needed to define whether and where this functional molecular imaging will fit into a clinical strategy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.jvascsurg.org/article/S0741-5214(08)01146-4/abstract
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4643
      1. Author :
        Kadurugamuwa, Jagath L; Sin, Lin V; Yu, Jun; Francis, Kevin P; Purchio, Tony F; Contag, Pamela R
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2004
      5. Publication :
        Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        48
      8. Issue :
        6
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antibiotics, Antitubercular; Biofilms; Bioware; Colony Count, Microbial; Diagnostic Imaging; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases; Luminescent Measurements; Mice; Rifampin; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms after rifampin treatment was tested in a mouse model of device-related infection by using biophotonic imaging. Following treatment, the bioluminescent signals decreased to undetectable levels, irrespective of the age of the biofilm. After the final treatment, the signals rebounded in a time-dependent manner and reached those for the untreated mice. Readministration of rifampin was unsuccessful in eradicating reestablished infections, with the rifampin MICs for such bacteria being increased and with the bacteria having point mutations in the rpoB gene.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15155235
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9056
      1. Author :
        Snoeks, T. J.; Khmelinskii, A.; Lelieveldt, B. P.; Kaijzel, E. L.; Lowik, C. W.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Bone
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        48
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Bone Neoplasms/radionuclide imaging/*secondary; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; Forecasting; Optics and Photonics/*trends; Positron-Emission Tomography/methods; Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods; X-Ray Microtomography/methods; X-Rays
      12. Abstract :
        Optical Imaging has evolved into one of the standard molecular imaging modalities used in pre-clinical cancer research. Bone research however, strongly depends on other imaging modalities such as SPECT, PET, x-ray and muCT. Each imaging modality has its own specific strengths and weaknesses concerning spatial resolution, sensitivity and the possibility to quantify the signal. An increasing number of bone specific optical imaging models and probes have been developed over the past years. This review gives an overview of optical imaging modalities, models and probes that can be used to study skeletal complications of cancer in small laboratory animals.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20688203
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 19
      15. Serial :
        10378
      1. Author :
        Georgel, P.; Radosavljevic, M.; Macquin, C.; Bahram, S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Mol Immunol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        48
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Female; Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics/*immunology; Humans; Klebsiella Infections/*immunology/prevention & control; Klebsiella pneumoniae/*immunology; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout
      12. Abstract :
        As opposed to the well established role of MHC-linked, polymorphic, class I (MHC-I) genes in adaptive immunity, a universal role for non-conventional MHC-I is unknown, thus requiring a case-by-case study. The MHC unlinked, monomorphic, but beta(2)microglobulin (beta(2)m)-associated “MHC class I related” MR1 molecule interacts with a semi-invariant TCR. The pathophysiology of this interaction or more importantly of this peculiar MHC-I remains mostly unknown. Recently it was shown that beta(2)m deficient mice were more susceptible to infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae, a widely spread Gram-negative bacteria that causes diverse and often severe ailments in man. Here we demonstrate, using both an in vivo imaging system and survival tests, the increased susceptibility to K. pneumoniae (but not to several other Gram negative bacteria) of MR1 deficient mice. This is accompanied by a consequent change in body temperature and systemic cytokine profile. Hence MR1 controls K. pneumoniae infection in vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21190736
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 9
      15. Serial :
        10392
      1. Author :
        Ketonis, C.; Barr, S.; Shapiro, I. M.; Parvizi, J.; Adams, C. S.; Hickok, N. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Bone
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        48
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS, Adsorption/drug effects; Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry/*pharmacology; Biological Markers/metabolism; *Bone Transplantation; Cell Differentiation/drug effects; Cell Shape/drug effects; Cells, Cultured; Colony Count, Microbial; Drug Stability; Fetus/cytology; Fluorescence; Gene Expression Profiling; Humans; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Osteoblasts/cytology/drug effects/metabolism; Phenotype; Time Factors; Transplantation, Homologous; Vancomycin/chemistry/*pharmacology
      12. Abstract :
        Bacterial contamination of bone allograft is a significant complication of orthopedic surgery. To address this issue, we have engineered a method for covalently modifying bone allograft tissue with the antibiotic vancomycin. The goal of this investigation was to compare the biocidal properties of this new allograft material with those of vancomycin physisorbed onto graft material. The duration of antibiotic release from the vancomycin-modified allograft matrix was determined, and no elution was observed. In contrast, the adsorbed antibiotic showed a peak elution at 24h that then decreased over several days. We next used an Staphylococcus aureus disk diffusion assay to measure the activity of the eluted vancomycin. Again we found that no active antibiotic was eluted from the covalently modified allograft. Similarly, when the vancomycin-modified allograft morsel was used in the assay, no measurable elution was observed; amounts of antibiotic released from the adsorbed samples inhibited S. aureus growth for 4-7 days. Probably the most telling property of the allograft was that after 2 weeks, the tethered allograft was able to resist bacterial colonization. Unlike the elution system in which vancomycin was depleted over the course of days-weeks, the antibiotic on the allograft was stably bound even after 300 days, while its biocidal activity remained undiminished for 60 days. This finding was in stark contrast to the antibiotic impregnated allograft, which was readily colonized by bacteria. Finally we chose to evaluate three indicators of cell function: expression of a key transcription factor, expression of selected transcripts, and assessment of cell morphology. Since the tethered antibiotic appeared to have little or no effect on any of these activities, it was concluded that the stable, tethered antibiotic prevented bacterial infection while not modifying bone cell function.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21035576
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 7
      15. Serial :
        10407
      1. Author :
        Wallis de Vries, B. M.; van Dam, G. M.; Tio, R. A.; Hillebrands, J. L.; Slart, R. H.; Zeebregts, C. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        J Vasc Surg
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        48
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MMPSense, IVIS, Atherosclerosis/complications/*diagnosis; Carotid Stenosis/*diagnosis/etiology; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; Humans; Reproducibility of Results
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that plaque vulnerability, rather than the degree of stenosis, is important in predicting the occurrence of subsequent cerebral ischemic events in patients with carotid artery stenosis. The many imaging modalities currently available have different properties with regard to the visualization of the extent of vulnerability in carotid plaque formation. METHODS: Original published studies were identified using the MEDLINE database (January 1966 to March 2008). Manual cross-referencing was also performed. RESULTS: There is no single imaging modality that can produce definitive information about the state of vulnerability of an atherosclerotic plaque. Each has its own specific drawbacks, which may be the use of ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic contrast agents, an invasive character, low patient tolerability, or simply the paucity of information obtained on plaque vulnerability. Functional molecular imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) and near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) do seem able accurately to visualize and even quantify features of plaque vulnerability and its pathophysiologic processes. Promising new techniques like near infra-red fluorescence imaging are being developed and may be beneficial in this field. CONCLUSION: There is a promising role for functional molecular imaging modalities like PET, SPECT, or NIRS related to improvement of selection criteria for carotid intervention, especially when combined with CT or MRI to add further anatomical details to molecular information. Further information will be needed to define whether and where this functional molecular imaging will fit into a clinical strategy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804942
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10464
      1. Author :
        Snoeks, T. J.; Khmelinskii, A.; Lelieveldt, B. P.; Kaijzel, E. L.; Lowik, C. W.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Bone
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        48
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense, Animals; Bone Neoplasms/radionuclide imaging/*secondary; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; Forecasting; Optics and Photonics/*trends; Positron-Emission Tomography/methods; Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods; X-Ray Microtomography/methods; X-Rays
      12. Abstract :
        Optical Imaging has evolved into one of the standard molecular imaging modalities used in pre-clinical cancer research. Bone research however, strongly depends on other imaging modalities such as SPECT, PET, x-ray and muCT. Each imaging modality has its own specific strengths and weaknesses concerning spatial resolution, sensitivity and the possibility to quantify the signal. An increasing number of bone specific optical imaging models and probes have been developed over the past years. This review gives an overview of optical imaging modalities, models and probes that can be used to study skeletal complications of cancer in small laboratory animals.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20688203
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10476
      1. Author :
        Luker, G.D.; Luker, K.E.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        49
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Clinical Medicine; Contrast Media; Diagnostic Imaging; Fluorescence; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; in vivo; in vivo imaging; Luminescent Measurements; Mice; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasms; Optics and Photonics; Peptide Hydrolases; Rats; Signal Transduction; Software; Tomography, Optical
      12. Abstract :
        Optical techniques, such as bioluminescence and fluorescence, are emerging as powerful new modalities for molecular imaging in disease and therapy. Combining innovative molecular biology and chemistry, researchers have developed optical methods for imaging a variety of cellular and molecular processes in vivo, including protein interactions, protein degradation, and protease activity. Whereas optical imaging has been used primarily for research in small-animal models, there are several areas in which optical molecular imaging will translate to clinical medicine. In this review, we summarize recent advances in optical techniques for molecular imaging and the potential impact for clinical medicine.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18077528
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ user @ 7444
      15. Serial :
        4477
      1. Author :
        Xiong, Y. Q.; Willard, J.; Kadurugamuwa, J. L.; Yu, J.; Francis, K. P.; Bayer, A. S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2005
      5. Publication :
        Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        49
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen; Bioware; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        Therapeutic options for invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections have become limited due to rising antimicrobial resistance, making relevant animal model testing of new candidate agents more crucial than ever. In the present studies, a rat model of aortic infective endocarditis (IE) caused by a bioluminescently engineered, biofilm-positive S. aureus strain was used to evaluate real-time antibiotic efficacy directly. This strain was vancomycin and cefazolin susceptible but gentamicin resistant. Bioluminescence was detected and quantified daily in antibiotic-treated and control animals with IE, using a highly sensitive in vivo imaging system (IVIS). Persistent and increasing cardiac bioluminescent signals (BLS) were observed in untreated animals. Three days of vancomycin therapy caused significant reductions in both cardiac BLS (>10-fold versus control) and S. aureus densities in cardiac vegetations (P < 0.005 versus control). However, 3 days after discontinuation of vancomycin therapy, a greater than threefold increase in cardiac BLS was observed, indicating relapsing IE (which was confirmed by quantitative culture). Cefazolin resulted in modest decreases in cardiac BLS and bacterial densities. These microbiologic and cardiac BLS differences during therapy correlated with a longer time-above-MIC for vancomycin (>12 h) than for cefazolin (?4 h). Gentamicin caused neither a reduction in cardiac S. aureus densities nor a reduction in BLS. There were significant correlations between cardiac BLS and S. aureus densities in vegetations in all treatment groups. These data suggest that bioluminescent imaging provides a substantial advance in the real-time monitoring of the efficacy of therapy of invasive S. aureus infections in live animals.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15743898
      14. Call Number :
        144577
      15. Serial :
        7474
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