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      1. Author :
        Xiao, Kai; Luo, Juntao; Fowler, Wiley L; Li, Yuanpei; Lee, Joyce S; Xing, Li; Cheng, R Holland; Wang, Li; Lam, Kit S
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Biomaterials
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        30
      8. Issue :
        30
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Albumins; Animals; Antineoplastic Agents; Biocompatible Materials; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Drug Delivery Systems; Emulsifying Agents; Female; Humans; Male; Maximum Tolerated Dose; Mice; Mice, Nude; Nanoparticles; Ovarian Neoplasms; Paclitaxel; Polyethylene Glycols; SKOV3-luc-D3 cells; Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
      12. Abstract :
        Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of a variety of cancers. However, it is associated with serious side effects caused by PTX itself and the Cremophor EL emulsifier. In the present study, we report the development of a well-defined amphiphilic linear-dendritic copolymer (named as telodendrimer) composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG), cholic acid (CA, a facial amphiphilic molecule) and lysine, which can form drug-loaded core/shell micelles when mixed with hydrophobic drug, such as PTX, under aqueous condition. We have used PEG(5k)-CA(8), a representive telodendrimer, to prepare paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles (PTX-PEG(5k)-CA(8) NPs) with high loading capacity (7.3 mg PTX/mL) and a size of 20-60 nm. This novel nanoformulation of PTX was found to exhibit similar in vitro cytotoxic activity against ovarian cancer cells as the free drug (Taxol) or paclitaxel/human serum albumin nanoaggregate (Abraxane). The maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) of PTX-PEG(5k)-CA(8) NPs after single dose and five consecutive daily doses in mice were approximately 75 and 45 mg PTX/kg, respectively, which were 2.5-fold higher than those of Taxol. In both subcutaneous and orthotopic intraperitoneal murine models of ovarian cancer, PTX-PEG(5k)-CA(8) NPs achieved superior toxicity profiles and anti-tumor effects compared to Taxol and Abraxane at equivalent PTX doses, which were attributed to their preferential tumor accumulation, and deep penetration into tumor tissue, as confirmed by near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19660809
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9013
      1. Author :
        Chung, HM; Cartwright, MM; Bortz, DM; Jackson, TL; Younger, JG
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Shock
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        30
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen, Xen39
      12. Abstract :
        Unlike many localized infections, the development and resolution of bacteremia involves physical and immunological interactions between many anatomic sites. In an effort to better understand these interactions, we developed a computational model of bacteremia as a dynamical system fashioned after multicompartmental pharmacodynamic models, incorporating bacterial proliferation and clearance in the blood, liver, spleen, and lungs, and the transport of pathogens between these sites. A system of four first-order homogeneous ODEs was developed. Blood and organ bacterial burdens were measured at various time points from 3 to 48 h postinoculation using an LD25 murine model of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteremia. Using these empiric data, solutions to the mathematical model were recovered. A bootstrap resampling method was used to generate 95% confidence intervals around the solved parameters. The validity of the model was examined in parallel experiments using animals acutely immunocompromised with cyclophosphamide; the model captured abnormalities in bacterial partitioning previously described with this antineoplastic agent. Lastly, the approach was used to explore possible benefits to clinically observed hyperdynamic blood flow during sepsis: in simulation, normal mice, but not those treated with cyclophosphamide, enjoyed significantly more rapid bacterial clearance from the bloodstream under hyperdynamic conditions.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18317411
      14. Call Number :
        136975
      15. Serial :
        5976
      1. Author :
        M van Eekelen; LS Sasportas; R Kasmieh; S Yip; J-L Figueiredo; DN Louis; R Weissleder; K Shah
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Oncogene
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        22
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cancer
      11. Keywords :
        brain tumor; glioma; human neural stem cells; TSP-1; endothelial cells; angiogenesis; in vivo imaging
      12. Abstract :
        Novel therapeutic agents combined with innovative modes of delivery and non-invasive imaging of drug delivery, pharmacokinetics and efficacy are crucial in developing effective clinical anticancer therapies. In this study, we have created and characterized multiple novel variants of anti-angiogenic protein thrombospondin (aaTSP-1) that comprises unique regions of three type-I-repeats of TSP-1 and used engineered human neural stem cells (hNSC) to provide sustained on-site delivery of secretable aaTSP-1 to tumor-vasculature. We show that hNSC-aaTSP-1 has anti-angiogenic effect on human brain and dermal microvascular endothelial cells co-cultured with established glioma cells and CD133+ glioma-initiating cells. Using human glioma cells and hNSC engineered with different combinations of fluorescent and bioluminescent marker proteins and employing multi-modality imaging techniques, we show that aaTSP-1 targets the vascular-component of gliomas and a single administration of hNSC-aaTSP-1 markedly reduces tumor vessel-density that results in inhibition of tumor-progression and increased survival in mice bearing highly malignant human gliomas. We also show that therapeutic hNSC do not proliferate and remain in an un-differentiated state in the brains of glioma-bearing mice. This study provides a platform for accelerated development of future cell-based therapies for cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/v29/n22/abs/onc201075a.html
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4492
      1. Author :
        Klohs J, Baeva N, Steinbrink J, Bourayou R, Boettcher C, Royl G, Megow D, Dirnagl U, Priller J and Wunder A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        7
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Neuroscience
      11. Keywords :
        MMPSense; in vivo imaging; matrix metalloproteinases; stroke
      12. Abstract :
        Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. In this study, we explored whether MMP activity can be visualized by noninvasive near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging using an MMP-activatable probe in a mouse model of stroke. C57Bl6 mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham operation. Noninvasive NIRF imaging was performed 24 h after probe injection, and target-to-background ratios (TBRs) between the two hemispheres were determined. TBRs were significantly higher in MCAO mice injected with the MMP-activatable probe than in sham-operated mice and in MCAO mice that were injected with the nonactivatable probe as controls. Treatment with an MMP inhibitor resulted in significantly lower TBRs and lesion volumes compared to injection of vehicle. To test the contribution of MMP-9 to the fluorescence signal, MMP9-deficient (MMP9(-/-)) mice and wild-type controls were subjected to MCAO of different durations to attain comparable lesion volumes. TBRs were significantly lower in MMP9(-/-) mice, suggesting a substantial contribution of MMP-9 activity to the signal. Our study shows that MMP activity after cerebral ischemia can be imaged noninvasively with NIRF using an MMP-activatable probe, which might be a useful tool to study MMP activity in the pathophysiology of the disease.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19417756
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4547
      1. Author :
        Matthias Nahrendorf, Peter Waterman, Greg Thurber, Kevin Groves, Milind Rajopadhye, Peter Panizzi, Brett Marinelli, Elena Aikawa, Mikael J Pittet, Filip K Swirski and Ralph Weissleder
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        10
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cardiovascular Research
      11. Keywords :
        FMT-CT; molecular imaging; atherosclerosis; protease activity; inflammation; in vivo imaging; fluorescence molecular tomography; ProSense
      12. Abstract :
        Objective: Proteases are emerging biomarkers of inflammatory diseases. In atherosclerosis, these enzymes are often secreted by inflammatory macrophages, digest the extracellular matrix of the fibrous cap and destabilize atheromata. Protease function can be monitored with protease activatable imaging probes and quantitated in vivo by fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). To address two major constraints currently associated with imaging of murine atherosclerosis (lack of highly sensitive probes and absence of anatomical information), we compared protease sensors (PS) of variable size and pharmacokinetics and co-registered FMT datasets with computed tomography (FMT-CT).

        Methods and results: Co-registration of FMT and CT was achieved with a multimodal imaging cartridge containing fiducial markers detectable by both modalities. A high-resolution CT angiography protocol accurately localized fluorescence to the aortic root of atherosclerotic apoE-/- mice. To identify suitable sensors, we first modeled signal kinetics in-silico and then compared three probes with identical oligo-L-lysine cleavage sequences: PS-5, 5nm in diameter containing 2 fluorochromes , PS-25, a 25nm version with an elongated lysine chain and PS-40, a polymeric nanoparticle. Serial FMT-CT showed fastest kinetics for PS-5 but, surprisingly, highest fluorescence in lesions of the aortic root for PS-40. PS-40 robustly reported therapeutic effects of atorvastatin, corroborated by ex vivo imaging and qPCR for the model protease cathepsin B.

        Conclusions: FMT-CT is a robust and observer-independent tool for non-invasive assessment of inflammatory murine atherosclerosis. Reporter-containing nanomaterials may have unique advantages over small molecule agents for in vivo imaging.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2746251/?tool=pubmed
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4568
      1. Author :
        Farouc A. Jaffer, Peter Libby and Ralph Weissleder
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        7
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cardiovascular Research
      11. Keywords :
        In vivo imaging; fluorescence molecular tomography; FMT; ProSense; OsteoSense; atherosclerosis; molecular imaging; optical, fluorescence; multimodality; nanoparticle
      12. Abstract :
        Imaging approaches that visualize molecular targets rather than anatomic structures aim to illuminate vital molecular and cellular aspects of atherosclerosis biology in vivo. Several such molecular imaging strategies stand ready for rapid clinical application. This review describes the growing role of in vivo optical molecular imaging in atherosclerosis and highlights its ability to visualize atheroma inflammation, calcification, and angiogenesis. In addition, we discuss advances in multimodality probes, both in the context of multimodal imaging as well as multifunctional, or “theranostic,” nanoparticles. This review highlights particular molecular imaging strategies that possess strong potential for clinical translation.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2733228/?tool=pubmed
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4642
      1. Author :
        Thobe, M N; Gurusamy, D; Pathrose, P; Waltz, S E
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Oncogene
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antigens, CD31; Bioware; Blotting, Western; Cell Line; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement; Chemokine CXCL1; Chemokine CXCL5; Chemokines; Endothelial Cells; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Interleukin-8; Male; Mice; Mice, Nude; Neoplasms, Experimental; Neovascularization, Pathologic; NF-kappa B; PC-3M-luc2; Prostatic Neoplasms; Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; RNA Interference; Transplantation, Heterologous
      12. Abstract :
        Overexpression of the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase has recently been shown in a wide variety of human cancers. However, no studies have examined Ron receptor expression or function during prostate tumorigenesis. In this study we report that Ron is highly expressed in human prostate adenocarcinoma and metastatic lymph nodes when compared with normal prostate or benign prostate hyperplasia. Furthermore, we show that Ron is overexpressed in PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines, and that the levels of angiogenic chemokines produced by prostate cancer cells positively correlate with Ron expression. The knockdown of Ron in PC-3 or DU145 cells results in a significant decrease in angiogenic chemokine production and is associated with a decreased activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Moreover, exogenous overexpression of Ron in LNCaP cells is sufficient to induce a significant increase in angiogenic chemokines that can be abrogated by inhibition of NF-kappaB signaling. Given that the function of angiogenic chemokines is important in the development of new blood vessels, we also examined the ability of Ron to modulate endothelial cell migration. Our data show that knockdown of Ron in prostate cancer cells results in significantly less endothelial cell chemotaxis when compared with Ron-expressing cells in vitro as well as in reduced tumor growth and decreased microvessel density after orthotopic transplantation into the prostate in vivo. In total, our data suggest that the Ron receptor is important in modulating prostate tumor growth by modulating angiogenic chemokine production and subsequent endothelial cell recruitment.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19838218
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8943
      1. Author :
        Hokaiwado, Naomi; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Asamoto, Makoto; Ochiya, Takahiro; Shirai, Tomoyuki
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Carcinogenesis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        6
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Androgens; Animals; Animals, Genetically Modified; Apoptosis; Bioware; Blotting, Western; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation; Glutathione S-Transferase pi; Humans; In Situ Nick-End Labeling; Male; Neoplasm Transplantation; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis; PC-3M-luc; Prostatic Neoplasms; Rats; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; RNA, Small Interfering
      12. Abstract :
        Prostate cancers generally acquire an androgen-independent growth capacity with progression, resulting in resistance to antiandrogen therapy. Therefore, identification of the genes regulated through this process may be important for understanding the mechanisms of prostate carcinogenesis. We here utilized androgen-dependent/independent transplantable tumors, newly established with the 'transgenic rat adenocarcinoma in prostate' (TRAP) model, to analyze their gene expression using microarrays. Among the overexpressed genes in androgen-independent prostate cancers compared with the androgen-dependent tumors, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) was included. In line with this, human prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145 (androgen independent) had higher expression of GST-pi compared with LNCaP (androgen dependent) as determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. To investigate the roles of GST-pi expression in androgen-independent human prostate cancers, GST-pi was knocked down by a small interfering RNA (siRNA), resulting in significant decrease of the proliferation rate in the androgen-independent PC3 cell line. In vivo, administration of GST-pi siRNA-atelocollagen complex decreased GST-pi protein expression, resulting in enhanced numbers of TdT mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labering (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells. These findings suggest that GST-pi might play important roles in proliferation of androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18413363
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8967
      1. Author :
        Zhang, H; Fagan, D H; Zeng, X; Freeman, K T; Sachdev, D; Yee, D
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Oncogene
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        17
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation; Female; Humans; Insulin; Lung Neoplasms; Lymphangiogenesis; MDA-MB-231-D3H1 cells; Mice; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasms, Experimental; Neovascularization, Pathologic; Phosphorylation; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; Receptor, Insulin; RNA, Small Interfering; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
      12. Abstract :
        Insulin receptor (IR) and the type I IGF receptor (IGF1R) are structurally and functionally related. The function of IGF1R in cancer has been well documented and anti-IGF1R strategies to treat cancer have shown initial positive results. However, the role of IR in tumor biology, independent of IGF1R, is less clear. To address this issue, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to specifically downregulate IR in two cancer cell lines, LCC6 and T47D. Cells with reduced IR showed reduced insulin-stimulated Akt activation, without affecting IGF1R activation. Cells with reduced IR formed fewer colonies in anchorage-independent conditions. LCC6 IR shRNA xenograft tumors in mice had reduced growth, angiogenesis and lymphangiogensis when compared with LCC6 wild-type cells. Accordingly, LCC6 IR shRNA clones produced less hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and VEGF-D. Furthermore, LCC6 IR shRNA cells formed fewer pulmonary metastases when compared with LCC6 wild-type cells. Using in vivo luciferase imaging, we have shown that LCC6 IR shRNA cells have less seeding and colonization potential in the lung and liver of mice than LCC6 cells. In conclusion, downregulation of IR inhibited cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis. Our data argue that IR should also be targeted in cancer therapy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20154728
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8986
      1. Author :
        Bernthal, N. M.; Pribaz, J. R.; Stavrakis, A. I.; Billi, F.; Cho, J. S.; Ramos, R. I.; Francis, K. P.; Iwakura, Y.; Miller, L. S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Orthop Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS, Animals; Arthroplasty; Biofilms/growth & development; Bone Wires/microbiology; Interleukin-1beta/*metabolism; Male; Mice; Mice, Congenic; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism; Neutrophil Infiltration; Prosthesis-Related Infections/*immunology/metabolism; Staphylococcal Infections/*immunology/metabolism; Staphylococcus aureus; Toll-Like Receptor 2/*metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        MyD88 is an adapter molecule that is used by both IL-1R and TLR family members to initiate downstream signaling and promote immune responses. Given that IL-1beta is induced after Staphylococcus aureus infections and TLR2 is activated by S. aureus lipopeptides, we hypothesized that IL-1beta and TLR2 contribute to MyD88-dependent protective immune responses against post-arthroplasty S. aureus infections. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse model of a post-arthroplasty S. aureus infection to compare the bacterial burden, biofilm formation and neutrophil recruitment in IL-1beta-deficient, TLR2-deficient and wild-type (wt) mice. By using in vivo bioluminescence imaging, we found that the bacterial burden in IL-1beta-deficient mice was 26-fold higher at 1 day after infection and remained 3- to 10-fold greater than wt mice through day 42. In contrast, the bacterial burden in TLR2-deficient mice did not differ from wt mice. In addition, implants harvested from IL-1beta-deficient mice had more biofilm formation and 14-fold higher adherent bacteria compared with those from wt mice. Finally, IL-1beta-deficient mice had approximately 50% decreased neutrophil recruitment to the infected postoperative joints than wt mice. Taken together, these findings suggest a mechanism by which IL-1beta induces neutrophil recruitment to help control the bacterial burden and the ensuing biofilm formation in a post-surgical joint.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21445990
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10411
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