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      1. Author :
        Lorenz, U.; Schafer, T.; Ohlsen, K.; Tiurbe, G. C.; Buhler, C.; Germer, C. T.; Kellersmann, R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        41
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xen29, Xen 29, Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, Acetates; Animals; *Biofilms; Bioprosthesis; Blood Vessel Prosthesis/*microbiology; Cattle; Colony Count, Microbial; Luminescent Measurements/*methods; Mice; Microbial Viability; Pericardium; *Photons; Polyesters; Polytetrafluoroethylene; Prospective Studies; Prosthesis-Related Infections/*diagnosis; Random Allocation; Silver Compounds; Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification/*physiology
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVES: Biophotonic imaging was compared to standard enumeration method both for counting Staphylococcus aureus in biofilm and bacterial susceptibility tests of different graft materials. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five types of vascular grafts were placed subcutaneously in 35 mice and challenged with bioluminescent S. aureus. The mice were divided into equal groups as follows: group A (polyester), group B (polytetrafluoroethylene), group C and D (two types of silver acetate-coated polyester) and group E (bovine pericardium). Controls were given only the bacteria. The bioluminescence signal of S. aureus, able to predict number of viable bacteria in biofilm without any manipulation, was measured at different time points. Five days postinfection, regular cultures of adherent bacteria on grafts were obtained. Comparative analyses between bioluminescence activity and culture enumeration were performed. RESULTS: The number of viable bacteria on silver-coated prostheses was the slightest, indicating superior bacterial resistance. The density of bacteria on polytetrafluoroethylene and polyester was comparable, with a non-significant advantage for polytetrafluoroethylene. Moreover, bioluminescence detected the number of viable S. aureus in biofilm more exactly compared to enumeration of bacteria. CONCLUSION: Bioluminescence imaging can be considered a useful tool to characterize susceptibility of any graft material to bacterial biofilm prior to implantation.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943422
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 12
      15. Serial :
        10453
      1. Author :
        Gillrie, Mark R; Zbytnuik, Lori; McAvoy, Erin; Kapadia, Roxna; Lee, Kristine; Waterhouse, Christopher C M; Davis, Shevaun P; Muruve, Daniel A; Kubes, Paul; Ho, May
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        European journal of immunology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        40
      8. Issue :
        6
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Chemotaxis, Leukocyte; Endothelial Cells; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Humans; Interferon-gamma; Lipopolysaccharides; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Teichoic Acids; Toll-Like Receptor 2; Transplantation Chimera; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        The response of leukocytes to lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a TLR2-dependent major cell wall component of Staphylococcus aureus, is linked to the outcome of an infection. In this study we investigated the role of nonhematopoietic TLR2 in response to LTA and S. aureus by creating bone marrow chimeras. Significant leukocyte recruitment in response to LTA required IFN-gamma priming in WT C57BL/6 and TLR2(-/-)-->WT mice, but was not observed in TLR2(-/-) or WT-->TLR2(-/-) animals. LTA also induced a proinflammatory response in IFN-gamma primed primary human microvascular endothelial cells leading to leukocyte recruitment in vitro. When mice were infected with S. aureus, the most profound elevation of TNF-alpha and IL-6 was seen in TLR2(-/-) and TLR2(-/-)-->WT mice. TLR2(-/-), but not chimeric mice, demonstrated increased IL-17, blood leukocytosis and pulmonary neutrophilia compared to WT mice. Collectively, the results suggest an essential role for IFN-gamma and nonhematopoietic TLR2 for leukocyte recruitment in response to LTA. In contrast, TLR2 on both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells appears to orchestrate an inhibitory response to S. aureus such that in complete TLR2 deficiency, there is an exaggerated proinflammatory response and/or skewing of the immune response towards a Th17 phenotype that may contribute to the decreased survival of TLR2(-/-) mice.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20306471
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9036
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Lasers in surgery and medicine
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        39
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Anti-Infective Agents; Biofilms; Dental Pulp Cavity; Dental Pulp Diseases; Endodontics; Humans; Luminescence; Photochemotherapy; Polyethyleneimine; Porphyrins; Proteus Infections; Proteus mirabilis; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Pseudomonas Infections; Xen5; Xen44
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT), standard endodontic treatment and the combined treatment to eliminate bacterial biofilms present in infected root canals. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten single-rooted freshly extracted human teeth were inoculated with stable bioluminescent Gram-negative bacteria, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form 3-day biofilms in prepared root canals. Bioluminescence imaging was used to serially quantify bacterial burdens. PDT employed a conjugate between polyethylenimine and chlorin(e6) as the photosensitizer (PS) and 660-nm diode laser light delivered into the root canal via a 200-micro fiber, and this was compared and combined with standard endodontic treatment using mechanical debridement and antiseptic irrigation. RESULTS Endodontic therapy alone reduced bacterial bioluminescence by 90% while PDT alone reduced bioluminescence by 95%. The combination reduced bioluminescence by >98%, and importantly the bacterial regrowth observed 24 hours after treatment was much less for the combination (P<0.0005) than for either single treatment. CONCLUSIONS Bioluminescence imaging is an efficient way to monitor endodontic therapy. Antimicrobial PDT may have a role to play in optimized endodontic therapy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17066481
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9997
      1. Author :
        Seo, G. M.; Rachakatla, R. S.; Balivada, S.; Pyle, M.; Shrestha, T. B.; Basel, M. T.; Myers, C.; Wang, H.; Tamura, M.; Bossmann, S. H.; Troyer, D. L.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Mol Biol Rep
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        39
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals, B16-F10-luc2, B16F10-luc2
      12. Abstract :
        Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) has been investigated as a means of cancer treatment without affecting normal tissues. This system is based on the delivery of a suicide gene, a gene encoding an enzyme which is able to convert its substrate from non-toxic prodrug to cytotoxin. In this experiment, we have developed a targeted suicide gene therapeutic system that is completely contained within tumor-tropic cells and have tested this system for melanoma therapy in a preclinical model. First, we established double stable RAW264.7 monocyte/macrophage-like cells (Mo/Ma) containing a Tet-On(R) Advanced system for intracellular carboxylesterase (InCE) expression. Second, we loaded a prodrug into the delivery cells, double stable Mo/Ma. Third, we activated the enzyme system to convert the prodrug, irinotecan, to the cytotoxin, SN-38. Our double stable Mo/Ma homed to the lung melanomas after 1 day and successfully delivered the prodrug-activating enzyme/prodrug package to the tumors. We observed that our system significantly reduced tumor weights and numbers as targeted tumor therapy after activation of the InCE. Therefore, we propose that this system may be a useful targeted melanoma therapy system for pulmonary metastatic tumors with minimal side effects, particularly if it is combined with other treatments.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21567204
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10351
      1. Author :
        Ackermann, M.; Carvajal, I.M.; Morse, B.A.; Moreta, M.; O'Neil, S.; Kossodo, S.; Peterson, J.D.; Delventhal, V.; Marsh, H.N.; Furfine, E.S.; Konerding, M.A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        International Journal of Oncology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        38
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense 680; anti-angiogenic; anti-tumorigenic; Cancer; FMT1 (VisEn); FMT-Solaris; In vivo imaging (VisEn); intraperitoneal injection; mice
      12. Abstract :
        Antiangiogenesis has become a promising pillar in modern cancer therapy. This study investigates the antiangiogenic effects of the PEGylated Adnectin[TM], CT-322, in a murine Colo-205 xenograft tumor model. CT-322 specifically binds to and blocks vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2). Adnectins are a novel class of targeted biologics engineered from the 10th domain of human fibronectin. CT-322 treated tumors exhibited a significant reduction in tumor growth of 69%, a 2.8 times lower tumor surface area and fewer necrotic areas. Control tumors showed a 2.36-fold higher microvessel density (MVD) and a 2.42 times higher vessel volume in corrosion casts. The vascular architecture in CT-322-treated tumors was characterized by a strong normalization of vasculature. This was quantified in corrosion casts of CT-322 treated tumors in which the intervascular distance (a reciprocal parameter indicative of vessel density) and the distance between two consecutive branchings were assessed, with these distances being 2.21 times and 2.37 times greater than in controls, respectively. Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) equally affirmed the inhibitory effects of CT-322 on tumor vasculature as indicated by a 60% reduction of the vascular probe, AngioSense, accumulating in tumor tissue, as a measurement of vascular permeability. Moreover, AngioSense accumulation was reduced as early as 24 h after starting treatment. The sum of these effects on tumor vasculature illustrates the anti-angiogenic mechanism underlying the antitumor activity of CT-322 and provides support for further evaluation of this Adnectin in combinatorial strategies with standard of care therapies.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21109927
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ user @ 8449
      15. Serial :
        4804
      1. Author :
        Edinger, M; Cao, Y-a; Hornig, Y S; Jenkins, D E; Verneris, M R; Bachmann, M H; Negrin, R S; Contag, C H
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2002
      5. Publication :
        European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        38
      8. Issue :
        16
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Diagnostic Imaging; Forecasting; Luminescent Measurements; Mice; Models, Animal; Neoplasms; PC-3M-luc; Sensitivity and Specificity
      12. Abstract :
        Malignant disease is the final manifestation of complex molecular and cellular events leading to uncontrolled cellular proliferation and eventually tissue destruction and metastases. While the in vitro examination of cultured tumour cells permits the molecular dissection of early pathways in tumorigenesis on cellular and subcellular levels, only interrogation of these processes within the complexity of organ systems of the living animal can reveal the full range of pathophysiological changes that occur in neoplastic disease. Such analyses require technologies that facilitate the study of biological processes in vivo, and several approaches have been developed over the last few years. These strategies, in the nascent field of in vivo molecular and cellular imaging, combine molecular biology with imaging modalities as a means to real-time acquisition of functional information about disease processes in living systems. In this review, we will summarise recent developments in in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and discuss the potential of this imaging strategy for the future of cancer research.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12387838
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8983
      1. Author :
        Singh, Abhinav; Massoud, Tarik F; Deroose, Christophe; Gambhir, Sanjiv S
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Seminars in nuclear medicine
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        38
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Bioware; Diagnostic Imaging; Genes, Reporter; Humans; Male; Molecular Probe Techniques; Neoplasm Proteins; PC-3M-luc; Prostatic Neoplasms; Tumor Markers, Biological
      12. Abstract :
        Prostate cancer remains an important and growing health problem. Advances in imaging of prostate cancer may help to achieve earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. We review the various strategies using reporter genes for molecular imaging of prostate cancer. These approaches are emerging as valuable tools for monitoring gene expression in laboratory animals and humans. Further development of more sensitive and selective reporters, combined with improvements in detection technology, will consolidate the position of reporter gene imaging as a versatile method for understanding of intracellular biological processes and the underlying molecular basis of prostate cancer, as well as potentially establishing a future role in the clinical management of patients afflicted with this disease.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18096460
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8966
      1. Author :
        Liao, A. H.; Li, Y. K.; Lee, W. J.; Wu, M. F.; Liu, H. L.; Kuo, M. L.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Ultrasound Med Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        38
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        4T1-luc2, IVIS, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        The application of drug-loaded microbubbles (MBs) in combination with ultrasound (US), which results in an increase in capillary permeability at the site of US-sonication-induced MB destruction, may be an efficient method of localized drug delivery. This study investigated the mechanism underlying the US-mediated release of luciferin-loaded MBs through the blood vessels to targeted cells using an in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) system. The luciferin-loaded MBs comprised an albumin shell with a diameter of 1234 +/- 394 nm (mean +/- SD) and contained 2.48 x 10(9) bubbles/mL; within each MB, the concentration of encapsulated luciferin was 1.48 x 10(-)(1)(0) mg/bubble. The loading efficiency of luciferin in MBs was only about 19.8%, while maintaining both the bioluminescence and acoustic properties. In vitro and in vivo BLI experiments were performed to evaluate the US-mediated release of luciferin-loaded MBs. For in vitro results, the increase in light emission of luciferin-loaded albumin-shelled MBs after destruction via US sonication (6.24 +/- 0.72 x 10(7) photons/s) was significantly higher than that in the luciferin-loaded albumin-shelled MBs (3.11 +/- 0.33 x 10(7) photons/s) (p < 0.05). The efficiency of the US-mediated release of luciferin-loaded MBs in 4T1-luc2 tumor-bearing mice was also estimated. The signal intensity of the tumor with US destruction at 3 W/cm(2) for 30 s was significantly higher than without US destruction at 3 (p = 0.025), 5 (p = 0.013), 7 (p = 0.012) and 10 (p = 0.032) min after injecting luciferin-loaded albumin-shelled MBs. The delivery efficiency was, thus, improved with US-mediated release, allowing reduction of the total injection dose of luciferin.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22929655
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 8
      15. Serial :
        10481
      1. Author :
        Hutteman, M.; Mieog, J. S.; van der Vorst, J. R.; Dijkstra, J.; Kuppen, P. J.; van der Laan, A. M.; Tanke, H. J.; Kaijzel, E. L.; Que, I.; van de Velde, C. J.; Lowik, C. W.; Vahrmeijer, A. L.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Eur J Surg Oncol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        37
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Colorectal Neoplasms/*metabolism/*secondary; Disease Models, Animal; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Integrin alphaVbeta3/*metabolism; Intraoperative Period; Liver Neoplasms/*pathology; Male; Neoplasm Transplantation; Rats; Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared/*methods; Tumor Cells, Cultured
      12. Abstract :
        AIM: Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence optical imaging is a promising technique to assess the extent of colorectal metastases during curative-intended surgery. However, NIR fluorescence imaging of liver metastases is highly challenging due to hepatic uptake and clearance of many fluorescent dyes. In the current study, the biodistribution and the ability to demarcate liver and peritoneal metastases were assessed during surgery in a syngeneic rat model of colorectal cancer using an integrin alpha(v)beta(3)-directed NIR fluorescence probe. METHODS: Liver tumors and peritoneal metastases were induced in 7 male WAG/Rij rats by subcapsular inoculation of 0.5 x 10(6) CC531 colorectal cancer rat cells into three distinct liver lobes. Intraoperative and ex vivo fluorescence measurements were performed 24 (N = 3 rats, 7 tumors) and 48 h (N = 4 rats, 9 tumors) after intravenous administration of the integrin alpha(v)beta(3)-directed NIR fluorescence probe. RESULTS: Colorectal metastases had a minimal two-fold higher NIR fluorescence signal than healthy liver tissue and other abdominal organs (p < 0.001). The tumor-to-background ratio was independent of time of imaging (24 h vs. 48 h post-injection; p = 0.31), which facilitates flexible operation planning in future clinical applications. Total fluorescence intensity was significantly correlated with the size of metastases (R(2) = 0.92 for the 24 h group, R(2) = 0.96 for the 48 h group). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that colorectal intra-abdominal metastases can be clearly demarcated during surgery using an integrin alpha(v)beta(3) targeting NIR fluorescence probe. Translating these findings to the clinic will have an excellent potential to substantially improve the quality of cancer surgery.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21215590
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 23
      15. Serial :
        10366
      1. Author :
        E.A. te Velde; Th. Veerman; V. Subramaniam; Th. Ruers
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        European Journal of Cancer Surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        36
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cancer
      11. Keywords :
        Fluorescent; Sentinel node; Probe; Resection; Oncology; Surgery
      12. Abstract :
        Aims and background: Improved visualization of surgical targets inside of the patient helps to improve radical resection of the tumor while sparing healthy surrounding tissue. In order to achieve an image, optical contrast must be generated by properties intrinsic to the tissue, or require the attachment of special visualization labels to the tumor. In this overview the current status of the clinical use of fluorescent dyes and probes are reviewed.

        Methods: In this review, all experimental and clinical studies concerning fluorescent imaging were included. In addition, in the search for the optimal fluorescent imaging modality, all characteristics of a fluorescent dye were described.

        Findings and conclusions: Although the technique of imaging through fluorescence sounds promising and several animal models show efficacy, official approval of these agents for further clinical evaluation, is eagerly awaited.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ejso.com/article/S0748-7983%2809%2900498-3/abstract
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4491
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