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      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Infection and immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        77
      8. Issue :
        7
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animal Structures; Animals; Antibodies, Bacterial; Antigens, Bacterial; Bacterial Proteins; Bioware; Cell Wall; Colony Count, Microbial; Female; Humans; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Neutrophils; Opsonin Proteins; Proteome; Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcal Vaccines; Staphylococcus aureus; Vaccines, Subunit; Vaccines, Synthetic; Whole Body Imaging; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen with increasing clinical impact due to the extensive spread of antibiotic-resistant strains. Therefore, development of a protective polyvalent vaccine is of great clinical interest. We employed an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparation as a source of antibodies directed against anchorless S. aureus surface proteins for identification of novel vaccine candidates. In order to identify such proteins, subtractive proteome analysis (SUPRA) of S. aureus anchorless cell wall proteins was performed. Proteins reacting with IVIG but not with IVIG depleted of S. aureus-specific opsonizing antibodies were considered vaccine candidates. Nearly 40 proteins were identified by this preselection method using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization--time of flight analysis. Three of these candidate proteins, enolase (Eno), oxoacyl reductase (Oxo), and hypothetical protein hp2160, were expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, purified, and used for enrichment of corresponding immunoglobulin Gs from IVIG by affinity chromatography. Use of affinity-purified anti-Eno, anti-Oxo, and anti-hp2160 antibodies resulted in opsonization, phagocytosis, and killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils. High specific antibody titers were detected in mice immunized with recombinant antigens. In mice challenged with bioluminescent S. aureus, reduced staphylococcal spread was measured by in vivo imaging. The recovery of S. aureus CFU from organs of immunized mice was diminished 10- to 100-fold. Finally, mice immunized with hp2160 displayed statistically significant higher survival rates after lethal challenge with clinically relevant S. aureus strains. Taken together, our data suggest that anchorless cell wall proteins might be promising vaccine candidates and that SUPRA is a valuable tool for their identification.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19364833
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9039
      1. Author :
        Xu, Xiulan; Miller, Sally A; Baysal-Gurel, Fulya; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Rajashekara, Gireesh
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Applied and environmental microbiology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        76
      8. Issue :
        12
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Actinomycetales; Bioware; Genes, Reporter; Genetic Engineering; Luminescent Proteins; Lycopersicon esculentum; Mirabilis; Plant Diseases; pXen-13; Recombinant Proteins; Seeds; Staining and Labeling
      12. Abstract :
        Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes wilting and cankers, leading to severe economic losses in commercial tomato production worldwide. The disease is transmitted from infected seeds to seedlings and mechanically from plant to plant during seedling production, grafting, pruning, and harvesting. Because of the lack of tools for genetic manipulation, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of seed and seedling infection and movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in grafted plants, two focal points for application of bacterial canker control measures in tomato. To facilitate studies on the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis movement in tomato seed and grafted plants, we isolated a bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain using the modified Tn1409 containing a promoterless lux reporter. A total of 19 bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis mutants were obtained. All mutants tested induced a hypersensitive response in Mirabilis jalapa and caused wilting of tomato plants. Real-time colonization studies of germinating seeds using a virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent strain, BL-Cmm17, showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis aggregated on hypocotyls and cotyledons at an early stage of germination. In grafted seedlings in which either the rootstock or scion was exposed to BL-Cmm17 via a contaminated grafting knife, bacteria were translocated in both directions from the graft union at higher inoculum doses. These results emphasize the use of bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to help better elucidate the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-tomato plant interactions. Further, we demonstrated the broader applicability of this tool by successful transformation of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis with Tn1409::lux. Thus, our approach would be highly useful to understand the pathogenesis of diseases caused by other subspecies of the agriculturally important C. michiganensis.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20400561
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9028
      1. Author :
        Hardy, Jonathan; Margolis, Jeffrey J; Contag, Christopher H
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2006
      5. Publication :
        Infection and immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        74
      8. Issue :
        3
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bacterial Toxins; Biliary Tract; Bioware; Feces; Food Contamination; Intestines; Listeria monocytogenes; Listeriosis; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; pXen-5
      12. Abstract :
        Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous gram-positive bacterium that can cause systemic and often life-threatening disease in immunocompromised hosts. This organism is largely an intracellular pathogen; however, we have determined that it can also grow extracellularly in animals, in the lumen of the gallbladder. The significance of growth in the gallbladder with respect to the pathogenesis and spread of listeriosis depends on the ability of the bacterium to leave this organ and be disseminated to other tissues and into the environment. Should this process be highly inefficient, growth in the gallbladder would have no impact on pathogenesis or spread, but if it occurs efficiently, bacterial growth in this organ may contribute to listeriosis and dissemination of this organism. Here, we use whole-body imaging to determine the efficacy and kinetics of food- and hormone-induced biliary excretion of L. monocytogenes from the murine gallbladder, demonstrating that transit through the bile duct into the intestine can occur within 5 min of induction of gallbladder contraction by food or cholecystokinin and that movement of bacteria through the intestinal lumen can occur very rapidly in the absence of fecal material. These studies demonstrate that L. monocytogenes bacteria replicating in the gallbladder can be expelled from the organ efficiently and that the released bacteria move into the intestinal tract, where they pass into the environment and may possibly reinfect the animal.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16495556
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9024
      1. Author :
        Schwan, William R; Lehmann, Lynn; McCormick, James
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2006
      5. Publication :
        Infection and immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        74
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral; Animals; Bacterial Proteins; Bioware; Blotting, Northern; Disease Models, Animal; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Humans; Lac Operon; Mice; Osmolar Concentration; Proline; pXen-5; Recombinant Fusion Proteins; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Symporters; Transcriptional Activation
      12. Abstract :
        Staphylococcus aureus can grow virtually anywhere in the human body but needs to import proline through low- and high-affinity proline transporters to survive. This study examined the regulation of the S. aureus putP gene, which encodes a high-affinity proline permease. putP::lacZ and putP::lux transcriptional fusions were constructed and integrated into the genomes of several S. aureus strains. Enzyme activity was measured after growth in media with various osmolyte concentrations. As osmolarity rose, putP expression increased, with a plateau at 2 M for NaCl in strain LL3-1. Proline concentrations as low as 17.4 muM activated expression of the putP gene. The putP::lux fusion was also integrated into the genomes of S. aureus strains that were either SigB inactive (LL3-1, 8325-4, and SH1003) or SigB active (Newman and SH1000). SigB inactive strains showed increased putP gene expression as NaCl concentrations rose, whereas SigB active strains displayed a dramatic decrease in putP expression, suggesting that the alternative sigma factor B plays a negative role in putP regulation. Mice inoculated with S. aureus strains containing the putP::lux fusion exhibited up to a 715-fold increase in putP expression, although levels in the various murine organs differed. Moreover, urine from human patients infected with S. aureus showed elevated putP levels by use of a PCR procedure, whereas blood and some abscess material had no significant increase. Thus, putP is transcriptionally activated by a low-proline and high osmotic environment both in growth media and in murine or human clinical specimens.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16368996
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9023
      1. Author :
        Kuklin, Nelly A; Clark, Desmond J; Secore, Susan; Cook, James; Cope, Leslie D; McNeely, Tessie; Noble, Liliane; Brown, Martha J; Zorman, Julie K; Wang, Xin Min; Pancari, Gregory; Fan, Hongxia; Isett, Kevin; Burgess, Bruce; Bryan, Janine; Brownlow, Michelle; George, Hugh; Meinz, Maria; Liddell, Mary E; Kelly, Rosemarie; Schultz, Loren; Montgomery, Donna; Onishi, Janet; Losada, Maria; Martin, Melissa; Ebert, Timothy; Tan, Charles Y; Schofield, Timothy L; Nagy, Eszter; Meineke, Andreas; Joyce, Joseph G; Kurtz, Myra B; Caulfield, Michael J; Jansen, Kathrin U; McClements, William; Anderson, Annaliesa S
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2006
      5. Publication :
        Infection and immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        74
      8. Issue :
        4
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antibodies, Bacterial; Antigens, Bacterial; Bioware; Cation Transport Proteins; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; Macaca mulatta; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Inbred ICR; Sepsis; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcal Vaccines; Staphylococcus aureus; Survival Rate; Xen8.1
      12. Abstract :
        Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide, and the rate of resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics, such as methicillin, is increasing; furthermore, there has been an increase in the number of methicillin-resistant S. aureus community-acquired infections. Effective treatment and prevention strategies are urgently needed. We investigated the potential of the S. aureus surface protein iron surface determinant B (IsdB) as a prophylactic vaccine against S. aureus infection. IsdB is an iron-sequestering protein that is conserved in diverse S. aureus clinical isolates, both methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive, and it is expressed on the surface of all isolates tested. The vaccine was highly immunogenic in mice when it was formulated with amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate adjuvant, and the resulting antibody responses were associated with reproducible and significant protection in animal models of infection. The specificity of the protective immune responses in mice was demonstrated by using an S. aureus strain deficient for IsdB and HarA, a protein with a high level of identity to IsdB. We also demonstrated that IsdB is highly immunogenic in rhesus macaques, inducing a more-than-fivefold increase in antibody titers after a single immunization. Based on the data presented here, IsdB has excellent prospects for use as a vaccine against S. aureus disease in humans.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16552052
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9989
      1. Author :
        Mann, B.; Orihuela, C.; Antikainen, J.; Gao, G.; Sublett, J.; Korhonen, T. K.; Tuomanen, E.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2006
      5. Publication :
        Infection and Immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        74
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen, Xen7
      12. Abstract :
        Members of the choline binding protein (Cbp) family are noncovalently bound to phosphorylcholine residues on the surface of Streptococcus pneumoniae. It has been suggested that CbpG plays a role in adherence and increase virulence both at the mucosal surface and in the bloodstream, but the function of this protein has been unclear. A new sequence analysis indicated that CbpG is a possible member of the S1 family of multifunctional surface-associated serine proteases. Clinical isolates contained two alleles of cbpG, and one-third of the strains expressed a truncated protein lacking the C-terminal, cell wall-anchoring choline binding domain. CbpG on the surface of pneumococci (full length) or released into the supernatant (truncated) showed proteolytic activity for fibronectin and casein, as did CbpG expressed on lactobacilli or as a purified full-length or truncated recombinant protein. Recombinant CbpG (rCbpG)-coated beads adhered to eukaryotic cells, and TIGR4 mutants lacking CbpG or having a truncated CbpG protein showed decreased adherence in vitro and attenuation of disease in mouse challenge models of colonization, pneumonia, and bacteremia. Immunization with rCbpG was protective in an animal model of colonization and sepsis. We propose that CbpG is a multifunctional surface protein that in the cell-attached or secreted form cleaves host extracellular matrix and in the cell-attached form participates in bacterial adherence. This is the first example of distinct functions in virulence that are dependent on natural variation in expression of a choline binding domain.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16428724
      14. Call Number :
        140887
      15. Serial :
        6992
      1. Author :
        Georgel, Philippe; Crozat, Karine; Lauth, Xavier; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Seltmann, Holger; Sovath, Sosathya; Hoebe, Kasper; Du, Xin; Rutschmann, Sophie; Jiang, Zhengfan; Bigby, Timothy; Nizet, Victor; Zouboulis, Christos C; Beutler, Bruce
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2005
      5. Publication :
        Infection and immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        73
      8. Issue :
        8
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bioware; Chromosome Mapping; Eye Diseases; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; Likelihood Functions; Lod Score; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Oleic Acid; Receptors, Immunologic; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Skin; Staphylococcal Skin Infections; Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase; Streptococcus pyogenes; Time Factors; Toll-Like Receptor 2; Xen8.1, Xen20, Xen14
      12. Abstract :
        flake (flk), an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced recessive germ line mutation of C57BL/6 mice, impairs the clearance of skin infections by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, gram-positive pathogens that elicit innate immune responses by activating Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Positional cloning and sequencing revealed that flk is a novel allele of the stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 gene (Scd1). flake homozygotes show reduced sebum production and are unable to synthesize the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) palmitoleate (C(16:1)) and oleate (C(18:1)), both of which are bactericidal against gram-positive (but not gram-negative) organisms in vitro. However, intradermal MUFA administration to S. aureus-infected mice partially rescues the flake phenotype, which indicates that an additional component of the sebum may be required to improve bacterial clearance. In normal mice, transcription of Scd1-a gene with numerous NF-kappaB elements in its promoter--is strongly and specifically induced by TLR2 signaling. Similarly, the SCD1 gene is induced by TLR2 signaling in a human sebocyte cell line. These observations reveal the existence of a regulated, lipid-based antimicrobial effector pathway in mammals and suggest new approaches to the treatment or prevention of infections with gram-positive bacteria.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16040962
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9990
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