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      1. Author :
        Wallis de Vries BM, van Dam GM, Tio RA, Hillebrands JL, Slart RH and Zeebregts CJ
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Journal of Vascular Surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        48
      8. Issue :
        6
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cardiovascular Research
      11. Keywords :
        In vivo imaging; MMPSense; atherosclerotic carotid plaque
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that plaque vulnerability, rather than the degree of stenosis, is important in predicting the occurrence of subsequent cerebral ischemic events in patients with carotid artery stenosis. The many imaging modalities currently available have different properties with regard to the visualization of the extent of vulnerability in carotid plaque formation.

        METHODS: Original published studies were identified using the MEDLINE database (January 1966 to March 2008). Manual cross-referencing was also performed.

        RESULTS: There is no single imaging modality that can produce definitive information about the state of vulnerability of an atherosclerotic plaque. Each has its own specific drawbacks, which may be the use of ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic contrast agents, an invasive character, low patient tolerability, or simply the paucity of information obtained on plaque vulnerability. Functional molecular imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) and near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) do seem able accurately to visualize and even quantify features of plaque vulnerability and its pathophysiologic processes. Promising new techniques like near infra-red fluorescence imaging are being developed and may be beneficial in this field.

        CONCLUSION: There is a promising role for functional molecular imaging modalities like PET, SPECT, or NIRS related to improvement of selection criteria for carotid intervention, especially when combined with CT or MRI to add further anatomical details to molecular information. Further information will be needed to define whether and where this functional molecular imaging will fit into a clinical strategy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.jvascsurg.org/article/S0741-5214(08)01146-4/abstract
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4643
      1. Author :
        E.A. te Velde; Th. Veerman; V. Subramaniam; Th. Ruers
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        European Journal of Cancer Surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        36
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cancer
      11. Keywords :
        Fluorescent; Sentinel node; Probe; Resection; Oncology; Surgery
      12. Abstract :
        Aims and background: Improved visualization of surgical targets inside of the patient helps to improve radical resection of the tumor while sparing healthy surrounding tissue. In order to achieve an image, optical contrast must be generated by properties intrinsic to the tissue, or require the attachment of special visualization labels to the tumor. In this overview the current status of the clinical use of fluorescent dyes and probes are reviewed.

        Methods: In this review, all experimental and clinical studies concerning fluorescent imaging were included. In addition, in the search for the optimal fluorescent imaging modality, all characteristics of a fluorescent dye were described.

        Findings and conclusions: Although the technique of imaging through fluorescence sounds promising and several animal models show efficacy, official approval of these agents for further clinical evaluation, is eagerly awaited.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ejso.com/article/S0748-7983%2809%2900498-3/abstract
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4491
      1. Author :
        Kim DE, Kim JY, Schellingerhout D, Shon SM, Jeong SW, Kim EJ and Kim WK
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Molecular Imaging
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        8
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cardiovascular Research
      11. Keywords :
        ProSense; in vivo imaging
      12. Abstract :
        Inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques causes plaque vulnerability and rupture, leading to thromboembolic complications. Cathepsin B (CatB) proteases secreted by macrophages play a major role in plaque inflammation. We used a CatB-activatable near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging agent to demonstrate the inflammatory component in mice atheromata and the atherosclerosis- modulating effects of atorvastatin or glucosamine treatments. Apolipoprotein E knockout mice (n = 35) were fed normal chow, a Western diet, a Western diet + atorvastatin, a Western diet + glucosamine, or a Western diet + atorvastatin + glucosamine for 14 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the intravenous injection of a CatB-activatable probe, ex vivo NIRF imaging of the aortas and brains was performed, followed by histology. The CatB-related signal, observed in the aortas but not in the cerebral arteries, correlated very well with protease activity and the presence of macrophages on histology. Animals on Western diets could be distinguished from animals on a normal diet. The antiatherosclerotic effects of atorvastatin and glucosamine could be demonstrated, with reduced CatB-related signal compared with untreated animals. Plaque populations were heterogeneous within individuals, with some plaques showing a high and others a lower CatB-related signal. These differences in signal intensity could not be predicted by visual inspection of the plaques but did correlate with histologic evidence of inflammation in every case. This suggests that vulnerable inflamed plaques can be identified by optical molecular imaging.
      13. URL :
        http://www.bcdecker.com/pubMedLinkOut.aspx?pub=MIO&vol=8&iss=5&page=291
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4558
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