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      1. Author :
        Asai, T.; Matsushita, S.; Kenjo, E.; Tsuzuku, T.; Yonenaga, N.; Koide, H.; Hatanaka, K.; Dewa, T.; Nango, M.; Maeda, N.; Kikuchi, H.; Oku, N.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Bioconjug Chem
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        22
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals, B16-F10-luc2, B16F10-luc2; Base Sequence; Cell Line, Tumor; Cholesterol/metabolism; Ethylenediamines/*chemistry; Fibrosarcoma/metabolism/pathology; Gene Silencing; Humans; Injections, Intravenous; Liposomes/administration & dosage/chemical; synthesis/*chemistry/pharmacokinetics; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Molecular Imaging; Phosphoric Acid Esters/*chemistry; Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics/*metabolism; Spectrophotometry, Infrared
      12. Abstract :
        Dicetyl phosphate-tetraethylenepentamine (DCP-TEPA) conjugate was newly synthesized and formed into liposomes for efficient siRNA delivery. Formulation of DCP-TEPA-based polycation liposomes (TEPA-PCL) complexed with siRNA was examined by performing knockdown experiments using stable EGFP-transfected HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and siRNA for GFP. An adequate amount of DCP-TEPA in TEPA-PCL and N/P ratio of TEPA-PCL/siRNA complexes were determined based on the knockdown efficiency. Then, the biodistribution of TEPA-PCL modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was examined in BALB/c mice. As a result, TEPA-PCL modified with PEG6000 avoided reticuloendothelial system uptake and showed long circulation in the bloodstream. On the other hand, PEGylation of TEPA-PCL/siRNA complexes caused dissociation of a portion of the siRNA from the liposomes. However, we found that the use of cholesterol-conjugated siRNA improved the interaction between TEPA-PCL and siRNA, which allowed PEGylation of TEPA-PCL/siRNA complexes without siRNA dissociation. In addition, TEPA-PCL complexed with cholesterol-conjugated siRNA showed potent knockdown efficiency in stable luciferase-transfected B16-F10 murine melanoma cells. Finally, the biodistribution of cholesterol-conjugated siRNA formulated in PEGylated TEPA-PCL was examined by performing near-infrared fluorescence imaging in Colon26 NL-17 murine carcinoma-bearing mice. Our results showed that tumor targeting with siRNA via systemic administration was achieved by using PEGylated TEPA-PCL combined with active targeting with Ala-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gly, a peptide used for targeting angiogenic endothelium.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21361311
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 7
      15. Serial :
        10347
      1. Author :
        Kadurugamuwa, J. L.; Sin, L.; Albert, E.; Yu, J.; Francis, K.; DeBoer, M.; Rubin, M.; Bellinger-Kawahara, C.; Jr, T. R. Parr; Contag, P. R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2003
      5. Publication :
        Infection and Immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        71
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals, Bioware, Xen29, Xen5, Biofilms/ growth & development, Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects, Chemiluminescent Measurements, Colony Count, Microbial, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Humans, Luciferases/genetics/metabolism, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Pseudomonas Infections/ microbiology, Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics/ growth & development, Staphylococcal Infections/ microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus/genetics/ growth & development IVIS, Xenogen
      12. Abstract :
        We have developed a rapid, continuous method for real-time monitoring of biofilms, both in vitro and in a mouse infection model, through noninvasive imaging of bioluminescent bacteria colonized on Teflon catheters. Two important biofilm-forming bacterial pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were made bioluminescent by insertion of a complete lux operon. These bacteria produced significant bioluminescent signals for both in vitro studies and the development of an in vivo model, allowing effective real-time assessment of the physiological state of the biofilms. In vitro viable counts and light output were parallel and highly correlated (S. aureus r = 0.98; P. aeruginosa r = 0.99) and could be maintained for 10 days or longer, provided that growth medium was replenished every 12 h. In the murine model, subcutaneous implantation of the catheters (precolonized or postimplant infected) was well tolerated. An infecting dose of 10 (3) to 10 (5) CFU/catheter for S. aureus and P. aeruginosa resulted in a reproducible, localized infection surrounding the catheter that persisted until the termination of the experiment on day 20. Recovery of the bacteria from the catheters of infected animals showed that the bioluminescent signal corresponded to the CFU and that the lux constructs were highly stable even after many days in vivo. Since the metabolic activity of viable cells could be detected directly on the support matrix, nondestructively, and noninvasively, this method is especially appealing for the study of chronic biofilm infections and drug efficacy studies in vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12540570
      14. Call Number :
        139339
      15. Serial :
        5926
      1. Author :
        Griffin, A. J.; Li, L. X.; Voedisch, S.; Pabst, O.; McSorley, S. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Infect Immun
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        79
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen26, Xen 26, Salmonella typhumurium, Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use; Cell Separation; Disease Models, Animal; Flow Cytometry; Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use; Intestine, Small/microbiology; Lymph Nodes/*microbiology; Mesentery/immunology/microbiology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Monocytes/immunology/*microbiology; Recurrence; Salmonella Infections, Animal/immunology/*microbiology/pathology; Salmonella typhi/immunology
      12. Abstract :
        Enteric pathogens can cause relapsing infections in a proportion of treated patients, but greater understanding of this phenomenon is hindered by the lack of appropriate animal models. We report here a robust animal model of relapsing primary typhoid that initiates after apparently successful antibiotic treatment of susceptible mice. Four days of enrofloxacin treatment were sufficient to reduce bacterial loads below detectable levels in all major organs, and mice appeared otherwise healthy. However, any interruption of further antibiotic therapy allowed renewed fecal shedding and renewed bacterial growth in systemic tissues to occur, and mice eventually succumbed to relapsing infection. In vivo imaging of luminescent Salmonella identified the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) as a major reservoir of relapsing infection. A magnetic-bead enrichment strategy isolated MLN-resident CD11b(+) Gr-1(-) monocytes associated with low numbers of persistent Salmonella. However, the removal of MLNs increased the severity of typhoid relapse, demonstrating that this organ serves as a protective filter to restrain the dissemination of bacteria during antibiotic therapy. Together, these data describe a robust animal model of typhoid relapse and identify an important intestinal phagocyte subset involved in protection against the systemic spread of enteric infection.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21263018
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10559
      1. Author :
        Gillrie, Mark R; Zbytnuik, Lori; McAvoy, Erin; Kapadia, Roxna; Lee, Kristine; Waterhouse, Christopher C M; Davis, Shevaun P; Muruve, Daniel A; Kubes, Paul; Ho, May
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        European journal of immunology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        40
      8. Issue :
        6
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Chemotaxis, Leukocyte; Endothelial Cells; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Humans; Interferon-gamma; Lipopolysaccharides; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Teichoic Acids; Toll-Like Receptor 2; Transplantation Chimera; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        The response of leukocytes to lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a TLR2-dependent major cell wall component of Staphylococcus aureus, is linked to the outcome of an infection. In this study we investigated the role of nonhematopoietic TLR2 in response to LTA and S. aureus by creating bone marrow chimeras. Significant leukocyte recruitment in response to LTA required IFN-gamma priming in WT C57BL/6 and TLR2(-/-)-->WT mice, but was not observed in TLR2(-/-) or WT-->TLR2(-/-) animals. LTA also induced a proinflammatory response in IFN-gamma primed primary human microvascular endothelial cells leading to leukocyte recruitment in vitro. When mice were infected with S. aureus, the most profound elevation of TNF-alpha and IL-6 was seen in TLR2(-/-) and TLR2(-/-)-->WT mice. TLR2(-/-), but not chimeric mice, demonstrated increased IL-17, blood leukocytosis and pulmonary neutrophilia compared to WT mice. Collectively, the results suggest an essential role for IFN-gamma and nonhematopoietic TLR2 for leukocyte recruitment in response to LTA. In contrast, TLR2 on both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells appears to orchestrate an inhibitory response to S. aureus such that in complete TLR2 deficiency, there is an exaggerated proinflammatory response and/or skewing of the immune response towards a Th17 phenotype that may contribute to the decreased survival of TLR2(-/-) mice.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20306471
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9036
      1. Author :
        Shan, Liang; Wang, Songping; Sridhar, Rajagopalan; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Wang, Paul C
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Molecular imaging
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Breast Neoplasms; Cell Line, Tumor; Fluorescence; Fluorescent Dyes; Humans; Liposomes; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Magnetics; MDA-MB-231-D3H1 cells; Mice; Mice, Inbred Strains; Microscopy, Confocal; Molecular Probes; Optics and Photonics; Transferrin; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        A dual probe with fluorescent and magnetic reporter groups was constructed by linkage of the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent transferrin conjugate (Tf(NIR)) on the surface of contrast agent-encapsulated cationic liposome (Lip-CA). This probe was used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging of MDA-MB-231-luc breast cancer cells grown as a monolayer in vitro and as solid tumor xenografts in nude mice. Confocal microscopy, optical imaging, and MRI showed a dramatic increase of in vitro cellular uptake of the fluorescent and magnetic reporter groups from the probe compared with the uptake of contrast agent or Lip-CA alone. Pretreatment with transferrin (Tf) blocked uptake of the probe reporters, indicating the importance and specificity of the Tf moiety for targeting. Intravenous administration of the dual probe to nude mice significantly enhanced the tumor contrast in MRI, and preferential accumulation of the fluorescent signal was clearly seen in NIR-based optical images. More interestingly, the contrast enhancement in MRI showed a heterogeneous pattern within tumors, which reflected the tumor's morphologic heterogeneity. These results indicate that the newly developed dual probe enhances the tumor image contrast and is superior to contrast agent alone for identifying the tumor pathologic features on the basis of MRI but also is suitable for NIR-based optical imaging.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17445503
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8992
      1. Author :
        Xie, B. W.; Mol, I. M.; Keereweer, S.; van Beek, E. R.; Que, I.; Snoeks, T. J.; Chan, A.; Kaijzel, E. L.; Lowik, C. W.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        4T1-luc2, ProSense, MMPSense, CRi, Maestro, IVIS Animals; Benzenesulfonates/diagnostic use; Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation/*methods; Disease Models, Animal; Disease Progression; Fluorescent Dyes/*diagnostic use; Indoles/diagnostic use; Luminescent Measurements/instrumentation/*methods; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/*diagnosis/pathology; Mice
      12. Abstract :
        Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has shown its appeal as a sensitive technique for in vivo whole body optical imaging. However, the development of injectable tumor-specific near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) probes makes fluorescence imaging (FLI) a promising alternative to BLI in situations where BLI cannot be used or is unwanted (e.g., spontaneous transgenic tumor models, or syngeneic mice to study immune effects).In this study, we addressed the questions whether it is possible to detect tumor progression using FLI with appropriate sensitivity and how FLI correlates with BLI measurements. In addition, we explored the possibility to simultaneously detect multiple tumor characteristics by dual-wavelength FLI (~700 and ~800 nm) in combination with spectral unmixing. Using a luciferase-expressing 4T1-luc2 mouse breast cancer model and combinations of activatable and targeting NIRF probes, we showed that the activatable NIRF probes (ProSense680 and MMPSense680) and the targeting NIRF probes (IRDye 800CW 2-DG and IRDye 800CW EGF) were either activated by or bound to 4T1-luc2 cells. In vivo, we implanted 4T1-luc2 cells orthotopically in nude mice and were able to follow tumor progression longitudinally both by BLI and dual-wavelength FLI. We were able to reveal different probe signals within the tumor, which co-localized with immuno-staining. Moreover, we observed a linear correlation between the internal BLI signals and the FLI signals obtained from the NIRF probes. Finally, we could detect pulmonary metastases both by BLI and FLI and confirmed their presence histologically.Taken together, these data suggest that dual-wavelength FLI is a feasible approach to simultaneously detect different features of one tumor and to follow tumor progression with appropriate specificity and sensitivity. This study may open up new perspectives for the detection of tumors and metastases in various experimental models and could also have clinical applications, such as image-guided surgery.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22348134
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10426
      1. Author :
        Chung, HM; Cartwright, MM; Bortz, DM; Jackson, TL; Younger, JG
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Shock
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        30
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen, Xen39
      12. Abstract :
        Unlike many localized infections, the development and resolution of bacteremia involves physical and immunological interactions between many anatomic sites. In an effort to better understand these interactions, we developed a computational model of bacteremia as a dynamical system fashioned after multicompartmental pharmacodynamic models, incorporating bacterial proliferation and clearance in the blood, liver, spleen, and lungs, and the transport of pathogens between these sites. A system of four first-order homogeneous ODEs was developed. Blood and organ bacterial burdens were measured at various time points from 3 to 48 h postinoculation using an LD25 murine model of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteremia. Using these empiric data, solutions to the mathematical model were recovered. A bootstrap resampling method was used to generate 95% confidence intervals around the solved parameters. The validity of the model was examined in parallel experiments using animals acutely immunocompromised with cyclophosphamide; the model captured abnormalities in bacterial partitioning previously described with this antineoplastic agent. Lastly, the approach was used to explore possible benefits to clinically observed hyperdynamic blood flow during sepsis: in simulation, normal mice, but not those treated with cyclophosphamide, enjoyed significantly more rapid bacterial clearance from the bloodstream under hyperdynamic conditions.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18317411
      14. Call Number :
        136975
      15. Serial :
        5976
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