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      1. Author :
        Georgel, P.; Radosavljevic, M.; Macquin, C.; Bahram, S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Mol Immunol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        48
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Female; Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics/*immunology; Humans; Klebsiella Infections/*immunology/prevention & control; Klebsiella pneumoniae/*immunology; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout
      12. Abstract :
        As opposed to the well established role of MHC-linked, polymorphic, class I (MHC-I) genes in adaptive immunity, a universal role for non-conventional MHC-I is unknown, thus requiring a case-by-case study. The MHC unlinked, monomorphic, but beta(2)microglobulin (beta(2)m)-associated “MHC class I related” MR1 molecule interacts with a semi-invariant TCR. The pathophysiology of this interaction or more importantly of this peculiar MHC-I remains mostly unknown. Recently it was shown that beta(2)m deficient mice were more susceptible to infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae, a widely spread Gram-negative bacteria that causes diverse and often severe ailments in man. Here we demonstrate, using both an in vivo imaging system and survival tests, the increased susceptibility to K. pneumoniae (but not to several other Gram negative bacteria) of MR1 deficient mice. This is accompanied by a consequent change in body temperature and systemic cytokine profile. Hence MR1 controls K. pneumoniae infection in vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21190736
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 9
      15. Serial :
        10392
      1. Author :
        Mathew, B.; Lennon, F.E.; Siegler, J.; Mirzapoiazova, T.; Mambetsariev, N.; Sammani, S.; Gerhold, L.M.; Lariviere, P.J.; Chen, C.-T.; Garcia, J.G.N.; Salgia, R.; Moss, J.; Singleton, P.A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Anesthesia and Analgesia
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        112
      8. Issue :
        3
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Cancer; flank tumor; In vivo; MMPSense 750; ProSense 680; tomography; VisEn FMT
      12. Abstract :
        <AbstractText Label=“BACKGROUND” NlmCategory=“BACKGROUND”>The possibility that μ opioid agonists can influence cancer recurrence is a subject of recent interest. Epidemiologic studies suggested that there were differences in cancer recurrence in breast and prostate cancer contingent on anesthetic regimens. In this study, we identify a possible mechanism for these epidemiologic findings on the basis of μ opioid receptor (MOR) regulation of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumorigenicity in cell and animal models.</AbstractText> <AbstractText Label=“METHODS” NlmCategory=“METHODS”>We used human lung tissue and human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and evaluated MOR expression using immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis. LLC cells were treated with the peripheral opioid antagonist methylnaltrexone (MNTX) or MOR shRNA and evaluated for proliferation, invasion, and soft agar colony formation in vitro and primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in C57BL/6 and MOR knockout mice using VisEn fluorescence mediated tomography imaging and immunohistochemical analysis.</AbstractText> <AbstractText Label=“RESULTS” NlmCategory=“RESULTS”>We provide several lines of evidence that the MOR may be a potential target for lung cancer, a disease with high mortality and few treatment options. We first observed that there is ~5- to 10-fold increase in MOR expression in lung samples from patients with NSCLC and in several human NSCLC cell lines. The MOR agonists morphine and [d-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) increased in vitro LLC cell growth. Treatment with MNTX or silencing MOR expression inhibited LLC invasion and anchorage-independent growth by 50%-80%. Injection of MOR silenced LLC lead to a ~65% reduction in mouse lung metastasis. In addition, MOR knockout mice do not develop significant tumors when injected with LLC in comparison with wild-type controls. Finally, continuous infusion of the peripheral opioid antagonist MNTX attenuates primary LLC tumor growth and reduces lung metastasis.</AbstractText> <AbstractText Label=“CONCLUSIONS” NlmCategory=“CONCLUSIONS”>Taken together, our data suggest a possible direct effect of opiates on lung cancer progression, and provide a plausible explanation for the epidemiologic findings. Our observations further suggest a possible therapeutic role for opioid antagonists.</AbstractText>
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21156980
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ user @ 8557
      15. Serial :
        4797
      1. Author :
        Sjollema, Jelmer; Sharma, Prashant K; Dijkstra, Rene J B; van Dam, Gooitzen M; van der Mei, Henny C; Engelsman, Anton F; Busscher, Henk J
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Biomaterials
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        31
      8. Issue :
        8
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Anti-Infective Agents; Bacteria; Bacterial Infections; Biocompatible Materials; Biofilms; Bioware; Coated Materials, Biocompatible; Fluorescent Dyes; Humans; Image Enhancement; Light; Luminescent Measurements; Luminescent Proteins; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Prosthesis-Related Infections; Sensitivity and Specificity; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        This review presents the current state of Bioluminescence and Fluorescent Imaging technologies (BLI and FLI) as applied to Biomaterial-Associated Infections (BAI). BLI offers the opportunity to observe the in vivo course of BAI in small animals without the need to sacrifice animals at different time points after the onset of infection. BLI is highly dependent on the bacterial cell metabolism which makes BLI a strong reporter of viable bacterial presence. Fluorescent sources are generally more stable than bioluminescent ones and specifically targeted, which renders the combination of BLI and FLI a promising tool for imaging BAI. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of both imaging tools are, however, dependent on the imaging system used and the tissue characteristics, which makes the interpretation of images, in terms of the location and shape of the illuminating source, difficult. Tomographic reconstruction of the luminescent source is possible in the most modern instruments, enabling exact localization of a colonized implant material, spreading of infecting organisms in surrounding tissue and immunological tissue reactions. BLI studies on BAI have successfully distinguished between different biomaterials with respect to the development and clearance of BAI in vivo, simultaneously reducing animal use and experimental variation. It is anticipated that bio-optical imaging will become an indispensable technology for the in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial coatings.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19969345
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9038
      1. Author :
        Sjollema, J.; Sharma, P. K.; Dijkstra, R. J.; van Dam, G. M.; van der Mei, H. C.; Engelsman, A. F.; Busscher, H. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Biomaterials
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        31
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Animals; Anti-Infective Agents/*pharmacology/therapeutic use; Bacteria/*drug effects/pathogenicity; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/*etiology; Biocompatible Materials/*adverse effects/chemistry; Biofilms; Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry; Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry/metabolism; Humans; Image Enhancement/methods; Light; Luminescent Measurements/instrumentation/*methods; Luminescent Proteins/metabolism; Microscopy, Fluorescence/instrumentation/*methods; Prosthesis-Related Infections/drug therapy/microbiology; Sensitivity and Specificity
      12. Abstract :
        This review presents the current state of Bioluminescence and Fluorescent Imaging technologies (BLI and FLI) as applied to Biomaterial-Associated Infections (BAI). BLI offers the opportunity to observe the in vivo course of BAI in small animals without the need to sacrifice animals at different time points after the onset of infection. BLI is highly dependent on the bacterial cell metabolism which makes BLI a strong reporter of viable bacterial presence. Fluorescent sources are generally more stable than bioluminescent ones and specifically targeted, which renders the combination of BLI and FLI a promising tool for imaging BAI. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of both imaging tools are, however, dependent on the imaging system used and the tissue characteristics, which makes the interpretation of images, in terms of the location and shape of the illuminating source, difficult. Tomographic reconstruction of the luminescent source is possible in the most modern instruments, enabling exact localization of a colonized implant material, spreading of infecting organisms in surrounding tissue and immunological tissue reactions. BLI studies on BAI have successfully distinguished between different biomaterials with respect to the development and clearance of BAI in vivo, simultaneously reducing animal use and experimental variation. It is anticipated that bio-optical imaging will become an indispensable technology for the in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial coatings.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19969345
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 8
      15. Serial :
        10397
      1. Author :
        Liang, H.; Ma, S. Y.; Mohammad, K.; Guise, T. A.; Balian, G.; Shen, F. H.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Spine (Phila Pa 1976)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        36
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H1, MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H1, IVIS, Bioware, Breast Cancer
      12. Abstract :
        STUDY DESIGN: In vivo experiments to develop a rat spine single metastasis model by using human breast cancer cells. OBJECTIVE: To study the survival and tumorigenesis of the human breast cancer cells after transplantation to vertebral body (VB) by intraosseous injection as a model for therapeutic studies of spine metastatic tumor. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VBs are the most common bones involved in the metastases of breast cancer. To develop experimental therapeutics requires an appropriate animal model. Moreover, it is also important to establish accurate and sensitive detection methods for the evaluation. METHODS: MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were injected into 3-week-old female athymic rats. The tumorigenesis was assayed with quantitative in vivo bioluminescence (IVIS), microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), quantitative CT (qCT), micro position emission tomography (micro-PET), and histologic studies. RESULTS: A spine single metastasis model of human breast cancer was successfully developed in rats. The IVIS signal intensity from the cancer cells increased after 2 weeks. Signal from the tumor in spine can be detected by micro-PET at day 1. The signal intensity decreased after 1 week and then recovered and continually increased afterwards. Bone destruction was demonstrated in the qCT and micro-CT images. However, both qCT and micro-CT found that the bone density in the cancer cell-injected VB increased before the appearance of osteolysis. The growth of tumor and the reaction of bone in the VB were observed simultaneously by histology. CONCLUSION: A spine single metastasis model was developed by injection of human breast cancer cells into the VB of athymic rats. This is the first report of quantitative evaluation with micro-PET in a spine metastasis model. In addition, the detection of osteogenesis after the introduction of MDA-MB-231 cells in vivo is a novel observation.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21422981
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10515
      1. Author :
        Qingbei Zhang; Meng Yang; Jikun Shen; Lynnette M. Geerhold; Robert M Hoffman; H. Rosie Xing
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        International Journal of Cancer
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        126
      8. Issue :
        11
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cancer
      11. Keywords :
        metastasis; hemotogenous spread; prostate cancer; GFP; in vivo imaging
      12. Abstract :
        Metastasis is primarily responsible for the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Improved therapeutic outcomes and prognosis depend on improved understanding of mechanisms regulating the establishment of early metastasis. In this study, use of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing PC-3 orthotopic model of human prostate cancer and two complementary fluorescence in vivo imaging systems (Olympus OV100 and VisEn FMT) allowed for the first time real-time characterization of cancer cell-endothelium interactions during spontaneous metastatic colonization of the liver and lung in live mice. We observed that prior to the detection of extra-vascular metastases, GFP-expressing PC-3 cancer cells resided initially inside the blood vessels of the liver and the lung, where they proliferated and expressed Ki-67 and exhibited matrix metalloprotenases (MMP) activity. Thus, the intravascular cancer cells produced their own microenvironment, where they could continue to proliferate. Extravasation occurred earlier in the lung than in the liver. Our results demonstrate that the intravascular microenvironment is a critical staging area for the development of metastasis that later can invade the parenchyma. Intravascular tumor cells may represent a therapeutic target to inhibit the development of extravascular metastases. Therefore, this imageable model of intravascular metastasis may be used for evaluation of novel anti-metastatic agents.
      13. URL :
        http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.24979/abstract
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4493
      1. Author :
        Thobe, M N; Gurusamy, D; Pathrose, P; Waltz, S E
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Oncogene
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antigens, CD31; Bioware; Blotting, Western; Cell Line; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement; Chemokine CXCL1; Chemokine CXCL5; Chemokines; Endothelial Cells; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Interleukin-8; Male; Mice; Mice, Nude; Neoplasms, Experimental; Neovascularization, Pathologic; NF-kappa B; PC-3M-luc2; Prostatic Neoplasms; Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; RNA Interference; Transplantation, Heterologous
      12. Abstract :
        Overexpression of the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase has recently been shown in a wide variety of human cancers. However, no studies have examined Ron receptor expression or function during prostate tumorigenesis. In this study we report that Ron is highly expressed in human prostate adenocarcinoma and metastatic lymph nodes when compared with normal prostate or benign prostate hyperplasia. Furthermore, we show that Ron is overexpressed in PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines, and that the levels of angiogenic chemokines produced by prostate cancer cells positively correlate with Ron expression. The knockdown of Ron in PC-3 or DU145 cells results in a significant decrease in angiogenic chemokine production and is associated with a decreased activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Moreover, exogenous overexpression of Ron in LNCaP cells is sufficient to induce a significant increase in angiogenic chemokines that can be abrogated by inhibition of NF-kappaB signaling. Given that the function of angiogenic chemokines is important in the development of new blood vessels, we also examined the ability of Ron to modulate endothelial cell migration. Our data show that knockdown of Ron in prostate cancer cells results in significantly less endothelial cell chemotaxis when compared with Ron-expressing cells in vitro as well as in reduced tumor growth and decreased microvessel density after orthotopic transplantation into the prostate in vivo. In total, our data suggest that the Ron receptor is important in modulating prostate tumor growth by modulating angiogenic chemokine production and subsequent endothelial cell recruitment.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19838218
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8943
      1. Author :
        E.A. te Velde; Th. Veerman; V. Subramaniam; Th. Ruers
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        European Journal of Cancer Surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        36
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cancer
      11. Keywords :
        Fluorescent; Sentinel node; Probe; Resection; Oncology; Surgery
      12. Abstract :
        Aims and background: Improved visualization of surgical targets inside of the patient helps to improve radical resection of the tumor while sparing healthy surrounding tissue. In order to achieve an image, optical contrast must be generated by properties intrinsic to the tissue, or require the attachment of special visualization labels to the tumor. In this overview the current status of the clinical use of fluorescent dyes and probes are reviewed.

        Methods: In this review, all experimental and clinical studies concerning fluorescent imaging were included. In addition, in the search for the optimal fluorescent imaging modality, all characteristics of a fluorescent dye were described.

        Findings and conclusions: Although the technique of imaging through fluorescence sounds promising and several animal models show efficacy, official approval of these agents for further clinical evaluation, is eagerly awaited.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ejso.com/article/S0748-7983%2809%2900498-3/abstract
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4491
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