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      1. Author :
        Zhou, H.; Roy, S.; Cochran, E.; Zouaoui, R.; Chu, C. L.; Duffner, J.; Zhao, G.; Smith, S.; Galcheva-Gargova, Z.; Karlgren, J.; Dussault, N.; Kwan, R. Y.; Moy, E.; Barnes, M.; Long, A.; Honan, C.; Qi, Y. W.; Shriver, Z.; Ganguly, T.; Schultes, B.; Venkataraman, G.; Kishimoto, T. K.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, 4T1-luc2
      12. Abstract :
        Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a key role in shaping the tumor microenvironment by presenting growth factors, cytokines, and other soluble factors that are critical for host cell recruitment and activation, as well as promoting tumor progression, metastasis, and survival. M402 is a rationally engineered, non-cytotoxic heparan sulfate (HS) mimetic, designed to inhibit multiple factors implicated in tumor-host cell interactions, including VEGF, FGF2, SDF-1alpha, P-selectin, and heparanase. A single s.c. dose of M402 effectively inhibited seeding of B16F10 murine melanoma cells to the lung in an experimental metastasis model. Fluorescent-labeled M402 demonstrated selective accumulation in the primary tumor. Immunohistological analyses of the primary tumor revealed a decrease in microvessel density in M402 treated animals, suggesting anti-angiogenesis to be one of the mechanisms involved in-vivo. M402 treatment also normalized circulating levels of myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice. Chronic administration of M402, alone or in combination with cisplatin or docetaxel, inhibited spontaneous metastasis and prolonged survival in an orthotopic 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model. These data demonstrate that modulating HSPG biology represents a novel approach to target multiple factors involved in tumor progression and metastasis.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21698156
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10362
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Blood
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        112
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antigen Presentation; Antigens, Neoplasm; B16-F10-luc-G5 cells; Bioware; B-Lymphocytes; Cell Adhesion; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement; dendritic cells; Female; Lectins, C-Type; Lymphatic Metastasis; Lymphatic System; Macrophages; Male; Mannose-Binding Lectins; Melanoma, Experimental; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Receptors, Cell Surface; T-Lymphocytes
      12. Abstract :
        Macrophage mannose receptor (MR) participates in pathogen recognition, clearance of endogenous serum glycoproteins, and antigen presentation. MR is also present on lymphatic vessels, where its function is unknown. Here we show that migration of lymphocytes from the skin into the draining lymph nodes through the afferent lymphatics is reduced in MR-deficient mice, while the structure of lymphatic vasculature remains normal in these animals. Moreover, in a tumor model the primary tumors grow significantly bigger in MR(-/-) mice than in the wild-type (WT) controls, whereas the regional lymph node metastases are markedly smaller. Adhesion of both normal lymphocytes and tumor cells to lymphatic vessels is significantly decreased in MR-deficient mice. The ability of macrophages to present tumor antigens is indistinguishable between the 2 genotypes. Thus, MR on lymphatic endothelial cells is involved in leukocyte trafficking and contributes to the metastatic behavior of cancer cells. Blocking of MR may provide a new approach to controlling inflammation and cancer metastasis by targeting the lymphatic vasculature.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18434610
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9000
      1. Author :
        Shi, Lei; Takahashi, Kazue; Dundee, Joseph; Shahroor-Karni, Sarit; Thiel, Steffen; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Gad, Faten; Hamblin, Michael R; Sastry, Kedarnath N; Ezekowitz, R Alan B
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2004
      5. Publication :
        The Journal of experimental medicine
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        199
      8. Issue :
        10
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Disease Susceptibility; DNA, Bacterial; Lung; Mannose-Binding Lectin; Mice; Mice, Knockout; Reference Values; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Spleen; Staphylococcal Infections; Xen8.1
      12. Abstract :
        Gram-positive organisms like Staphylococcus aureus are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Humoral response molecules together with phagocytes play a role in host responses to S. aureus. The mannose-binding lectin (MBL, also known as mannose-binding protein) is an oligomeric serum molecule that recognizes carbohydrates decorating a broad range of infectious agents including S. aureus. Circumstantial evidence in vitro and in vivo suggests that MBL plays a key role in first line host defense. We tested this contention directly in vivo by generating mice that were devoid of all MBL activity. We found that 100% of MBL-null mice died 48 h after exposure to an intravenous inoculation of S. aureus compared with 45% mortality in wild-type mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that neutrophils and MBL are required to limit intraperitoneal infection with S. aureus. Our study provides direct evidence that MBL plays a key role in restricting the complications associated with S. aureus infection in mice and raises the idea that the MBL gene may act as a disease susceptibility gene against staphylococci infections in humans.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15148336
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9994
      1. Author :
        Kwong, G. A.; von Maltzahn, G.; Murugappan, G.; Abudayyeh, O.; Mo, S.; Papayannopoulos, I. A.; Sverdlov, D. Y.; Liu, S. B.; Warren, A. D.; Popov, Y.; Schuppan, D.; Bhatia, S. N.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Nat Biotechnol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        31
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        VivoTag, IVIS, Vivotag
      12. Abstract :
        Biomarkers are becoming increasingly important in the clinical management of complex diseases, yet our ability to discover new biomarkers remains limited by our dependence on endogenous molecules. Here we describe the development of exogenously administered 'synthetic biomarkers' composed of mass-encoded peptides conjugated to nanoparticles that leverage intrinsic features of human disease and physiology for noninvasive urinary monitoring. These protease-sensitive agents perform three functions in vivo: they target sites of disease, sample dysregulated protease activities and emit mass-encoded reporters into host urine for multiplexed detection by mass spectrometry. Using mouse models of liver fibrosis and cancer, we show that these agents can noninvasively monitor liver fibrosis and resolution without the need for invasive core biopsies and substantially improve early detection of cancer compared with current clinically used blood biomarkers. This approach of engineering synthetic biomarkers for multiplexed urinary monitoring should be broadly amenable to additional pathophysiological processes and point-of-care diagnostics.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23242163
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10567
      1. Author :
        Laurie E. Littlepage; Mark D. Sternlicht; Nathalie Rougier; Joanna Phillips; Eugenio Gallo; Ying Yu; Kurt Williams; Audrey Brenot; Jeffrey I. Gordon; Zena Werb
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Research
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        70
      8. Issue :
        6
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cancer
      11. Keywords :
        matrix metalloproteinase; neuroendocrine; prostate cancer; metatasis
      12. Abstract :
        Prostate cancer is the leading form of cancer in men. Prostate tumors often contain neuroendocrine differentiation, which correlates with androgen-independent progression and poor prognosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), a family of enzymes that remodel the microenvironment, are associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. To evaluate MMPs during metastatic prostatic neuroendocrine cancer development, we used transgenic mice expressing SV40 large T antigen in their prostatic neuroendocrine cells, under the control of transcriptional regulatory elements from the mouse cryptdin-2 gene (CR2-TAg). These mice have a stereotypical pattern of tumorigenesis and metastasis. MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 activities increased concurrently with the transition to invasive metastatic carcinoma, but they were expressed in different prostatic cell types: stromal, luminal epithelium, and macrophages, respectively. CR2-TAg mice treated with AG3340/Prinomastat, an MMP inhibitor that blocks activity of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-14, had reduced tumor burden. CR2-TAg animals were crossed to mice homozygous for null alleles of MMP-2, MMP-7, or MMP-9 genes. At 24 weeks CR2-TAg; MMP-2-/- mice showed reduced tumor burden, prolonged survival, decreased lung metastasis, and decreased blood vessel density, whereas deficiencies in MMP-7 or MMP-9 did not influence tumor growth or survival. Mice deficient for MMP-7 had reduced endothelial area coverage and decreased vessel size, and mice lacking MMP-9 had increased numbers of invasive foci and increased perivascular invasion, as well as decreased tumor blood vessel size. Together, these results suggest distinct contributions by MMPs to the progression of aggressive prostate tumor and to helping tumors cleverly find alternative routes to malignant progression.
      13. URL :
        http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/70/6/2224.abstract
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4490
      1. Author :
        O'Connor, A. E.; Mc Gee, M. M.; Likar, Y.; Ponomarev, V.; Callanan, J. J.; O'Shea D, F.; Byrne, A. T.; Gallagher, W. M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Int J Cancer
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H1, MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H1, IVIS, Bioware, Breast Cancer
      12. Abstract :
        Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment modality for cancer. ADPM06 is an emerging non-porphyrin PDT agent which has been specifically designed for therapeutic application. Recently, we have demonstrated that ADPM06-PDT is well tolerated in vivo and elicits impressive complete response rates in various models of cancer when a short drug-light interval is applied. Herein, the mechanism of action of ADPM06-PDT in vitro and in vivo is outlined. Using a drug and light combination that reduces the clonogenicity of MDA-MB-231 cells by >90%, we detected a well-orchestrated apoptotic response accompanied by the activation of various caspases in vitro. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photosensitizer irradiation was found to be the key instigator in the observed apoptotic response, with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) found to be the intracellular site of initial PDT damage, as determined by induction of a rapid ER stress response post-PDT. PDT-induced apoptosis was also found to be independent of p53 tumor suppressor status. A robust therapeutic response in vivo was demonstrated, with a substantial reduction in tumor proliferation observed, as well as a rapid induction of apoptosis and initiation of ER stress, mirroring numerous aspects of the mechanism of action of ADPM06 in vitro. Finally, using a combination of (18) F-labeled 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ((18) F-FLT) nuclear and optical imaging, a considerable decrease in tumor proliferation over 24-hr in two models of human cancer was observed. Taken together, this data clearly establishes ADPM06 as an exciting novel PDT agent with significant potential for further translational development.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21413012
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10516
      1. Author :
        Park, Hae-Sun; Francis, Kevin P; Yu, Jun; Cleary, P Patrick
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2003
      5. Publication :
        Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        171
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Administration, Intranasal; Animals; Bioware; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Intracellular Fluid; Lymphoid Tissue; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Nasal Mucosa; Nasopharynx; Palatine Tonsil; pXen-5; Streptococcal Infections; Streptococcus pyogenes
      12. Abstract :
        Human tonsils are suspected to be an antibiotic-impervious human reservoir for group A streptococcus. An intranasal infection model in mice and a bioluminescent-tagged strain were used to investigate this possibility. Viable streptococci were predominantly found both intra- and extracellularly in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), a human tonsil homologue. Ulex europaeus-1, a membranous (M) cell-specific lectin, identified cells harboring streptococci at the epithelial surface of NALT and blocked bacterial colonization of this tissue. These results suggest that M cells in NALT transport this Gram-positive pathogen across the epithelial layers in a manner similar to those in Peyer's patches, which permit enteric pathogens to invade deeper tissues from the gastrointestinal tract.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12928403
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9025
      1. Author :
        Beckers, Annelies; Organe, Sophie; Timmermans, Leen; Vanderhoydonc, Frank; Deboel, Ludo; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Brusselmans, Koen; Verhoeven, Guido; Swinnen, Johannes V
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2006
      5. Publication :
        Molecular cancer therapeutics
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        5
      8. Issue :
        9
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Adenosine Triphosphate; Aminoimidazole Carboxamide; AMP-Activated Protein Kinases; Bioware; Breast Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Cell Line, Tumor; DNA, Neoplasm; Drug Synergism; Enzyme Activation; Humans; Lipids; Methotrexate; Multienzyme Complexes; Nucleotide Deaminases; PC-3M-luc; Phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide Formyltransferase; Phosphoribosylglycinamide Formyltransferase; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; Purines; Ribonucleosides; Ribonucleotides; RNA Interference
      12. Abstract :
        Because of its ability to mimic a low energy status of the cell, the cell-permeable nucleoside 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) riboside was proposed as an antineoplastic agent switching off major energy-consuming processes associated with the malignant phenotype (lipid production, DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell migration, etc.). Key to the antineoplastic action of AICA riboside is its conversion to ZMP, an AMP mimetic that at high concentrations activates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Here, in an attempt to increase the efficacy of AICA riboside, we pretreated cancer cells with methotrexate, an antimetabolite blocking the metabolism of ZMP. Methotrexate enhanced the AICA riboside-induced accumulation of ZMP and led to a decrease in the levels of ATP, which functions as an intrasteric inhibitor of AMPK. Consequently, methotrexate markedly sensitized AMPK for activation by AICA riboside and potentiated the inhibitory effects of AICA riboside on tumor-associated processes. As cotreatment elicited antiproliferative effects already at concentrations of compounds that were only marginally effective when used alone, our findings on the cooperation between methotrexate and AICA riboside provide new opportunities both for the application of classic antimetabolic chemotherapeutics, such as methotrexate, and for the exploitation of the energy-sensing machinery as a target for cancer intervention.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16985054
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8978
      1. Author :
        Orihuela, C. J.; Radin, J. N.; Sublett, J. E.; Gao, G.; Kaushal, D.; Tuomanen, E. I.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2004
      5. Publication :
        Infection and Immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        72
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen, Xen7, Xen35
      12. Abstract :
        Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of invasive bacterial disease. This is the first study to examine the expression of S. pneumoniae genes in vivo by using whole-genome microarrays available from The Institute for Genomic Research. Total RNA was collected from pneumococci isolated from infected blood, infected cerebrospinal fluid, and bacteria attached to a pharyngeal epithelial cell line in vitro. Microarray analysis of pneumococcal genes expressed in these models identified body site-specific patterns of expression for virulence factors, transporters, transcription factors, translation-associated proteins, metabolism, and genes with unknown function. Contributions to virulence predicted for several unknown genes with enhanced expression in vivo were confirmed by insertion duplication mutagenesis and challenge of mice with the mutants. Finally, we cross-referenced our results with previous studies that used signature-tagged mutagenesis and differential fluorescence induction to identify genes that are potentially required by a broad range of pneumococcal strains for invasive disease.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15385455
      14. Call Number :
        141856
      15. Serial :
        6874
      1. Author :
        Galina Gabriely, Thomas Wurdinger, Santosh Kesari, Christine C. Esau, Julja Burchard, Peter S. Linsley and Anna M. Krichevsky
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Molecular and Cellular Biology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        28
      8. Issue :
        17
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Neuroscience
      11. Keywords :
        in vivo imaging; MMPSense; microRNA 21; glioma
      12. Abstract :
        Substantial data indicate that microRNA 21 (miR-21) is significantly elevated in glioblastoma (GBM) and in many other tumors of various origins. This microRNA has been implicated in various aspects of carcinogenesis, including cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. We demonstrate that miR-21 regulates multiple genes associated with glioma cell apoptosis, migration, and invasiveness, including the RECK and TIMP3 genes, which are suppressors of malignancy and inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Specific inhibition of miR-21 with antisense oligonucleotides leads to elevated levels of RECK and TIMP3 and therefore reduces MMP activities in vitro and in a human model of gliomas in nude mice. Moreover, downregulation of miR-21 in glioma cells leads to decreases of their migratory and invasion abilities. Our data suggest that miR-21 contributes to glioma malignancy by downregulation of MMP inhibitors, which leads to activation of MMPs, thus promoting invasiveness of cancer cells. Our results also indicate that inhibition of a single oncomir, like miR-21, with specific antisense molecules can provide a novel therapeutic approach for “physiological” modulation of multiple proteins whose expression is deregulated in cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://mcb.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/28/17/5369
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4546
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