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      1. Author :
        Penna, F. J.; Freilich, D. A.; Alvarenga, C.; Nguyen, H. T.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Urology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        78
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense, Animals; Fluorescence; Fluorescent Dyes/*diagnostic use; Guinea Pigs; Lymph Node Excision/*methods; Male; Models, Animal; *Molecular Imaging; Retroperitoneal Space
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVES: To propose that fluorescent molecular imaging has utility in specifically identifying the lymph nodes, thereby enabling more definitive lymph node visualization and dissection. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is an invasive procedure with significant morbidity. A minimally invasive approach would be of great clinical benefit but has been limited by the extensive perivascular dissection required to remove all lymphatic tissue. Directed lymph node visualization would allow a limited dissection, making a laparoscopic approach more feasible. METHODS: Ten male Hartley guinea pigs underwent nonsurvival RPLND, 5 with the protease activatable in vivo fluorescent molecular imaging agent, ProSense and 5 without image guidance (control). ProSense was administered 24 hours before surgery and detected 24 hours later using a photodynamic detector. In group 1, RPLND was first performed without molecular imaging followed by image-guided lymph node dissection for residual nodes. In group 2, the near infrared detector was used initially for lymph node excision followed by traditionally unassisted extraction of the residual lymph nodes. The lymph nodes were extracted, counted, and sent for histopathologic analysis. RESULTS: With the assistance of molecular imaging, no additional lymph nodes were identified after complete dissection, and all tissue identified by ProSense was confirmed by histopathologic analysis to be lymph nodes. Without molecular imaging, all lymph nodes were not identified, and in 2 instances, the tissue was incorrectly thought to be lymphatic tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular image-guided RPLND is a promising technique to improve in vivo, live visualization and dissection of lymph nodes and has the potential for application in improving the diagnosis and treatment of other urologic malignancies.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21601249
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 13
      15. Serial :
        10474
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Acta biomaterialia
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        3
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Bacterial Adhesion; Biocompatible Materials; Biofilms; Bioware; Coated Materials, Biocompatible; Materials Testing; Polyethylene Glycols; Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Surface Properties; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coatings are known to reduce microbial adhesion in terms of numbers and binding strength. However, bacterial adhesion remains of the order of 10(4)cm(-2). It is unknown whether this density of bacteria will eventually grow into a biofilm. This study investigates the kinetics of staphylococcal biofilm formation on a commercially produced, robust, cross-linked PEG-based polymer coating (OptiChem) in vitro and in vivo. OptiChem inhibits biofilm formation in vitro, and although adsorption of plasma proteins encourages biofilm formation, microbial growth kinetics are still strongly delayed compared to uncoated glass. In vivo, OptiChem-coated and bare silicone rubber samples were inserted into an infected murine subcutaneous pocket model. In contrast to bare silicone rubber, OptiChem samples did not become colonized upon reimplantation despite the fact that surrounding tissues were always culture-positive. We conclude that the commercial OptiChem coating considerably slows down bacterial biofilm formation both in vitro and in vivo, making it an attractive candidate for biomaterials implant coating.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733265
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9041
      1. Author :
        Lim, Ed; Modi, Kshitij D; Kim, Jaebeom
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Journal of visualized experiments: JoVE
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        26
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        4T1-luc2; Animals; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Female; Luciferases; Luminescent Measurements; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental; Mice; Mice, Nude
      12. Abstract :
        4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells can be implanted sub-cutaneously in nu/nu mice to form palpable tumors in 15 to 20 days. This xenograft tumor model system is valuable for the pre-clinical in vivo evaluation of putative antitumor compounds. The 4T1 cell line has been engineered to constitutively express the firefly luciferase gene (luc2). When mice carrying 4T1-luc2 tumors are injected with Luciferin the tumors emit a visual light signal that can be monitored using a sensitive optical imaging system like the IVIS Spectrum. The photon flux from the tumor is proportional to the number of light emitting cells and the signal can be measured to monitor tumor growth and development. IVIS is calibrated to enable absolute quantitation of the bioluminescent signal and longitudinal studies can be performed over many months and over several orders of signal magnitude without compromising the quantitative result. Tumor growth can be monitored for several days by bioluminescence before the tumor size becomes palpable or measurable by traditional physical means. This rapid monitoring can provide insight into early events in tumor development or lead to shorter experimental procedures. Tumor cell death and necrosis due to hypoxia or drug treatment is indicated early by a reduction in the bioluminescent signal. This cell death might not be accompanied by a reduction in tumor size as measured by physical means. The ability to see early events in tumor necrosis has significant impact on the selection and development of therapeutic agents. Quantitative imaging of tumor growth using IVIS provides precise quantitation and accelerates the experimental process to generate results.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19404236
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8941
      1. Author :
        Panizzi, P.; Nahrendorf, M.; Figueiredo, J. L.; Panizzi, J.; Marinelli, B.; Iwamoto, Y.; Keliher, E.; Maddur, A. A.; Waterman, P.; Kroh, H. K.; Leuschner, F.; Aikawa, E.; Swirski, F. K.; Pittet, M. J.; Hackeng, T. M.; Fuentes-Prior, P.; Schneewind, O.; Bock, P. E.; Weissleder, R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Nat Med
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        17
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xen29, Xen 29, Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, Animals; Coagulase/metabolism; Endocarditis, Bacterial/*diagnosis; Mice; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Positron-Emission Tomography; Protein Engineering; Prothrombin/*diagnostic use/*metabolism; Quorum Sensing/physiology; Staphylococcus aureus/*metabolism/pathogenicity
      12. Abstract :
        Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the major causal pathogen of acute endocarditis, a rapidly progressing, destructive infection of the heart valves. Bacterial colonization occurs at sites of endothelial damage, where, together with fibrin and platelets, the bacteria initiate the formation of abnormal growths known as vegetations. Here we report that an engineered analog of prothrombin could be used to detect S. aureus in endocarditic vegetations via noninvasive fluorescence or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. These prothrombin derivatives bound staphylocoagulase and intercalated into growing bacterial vegetations. We also present evidence for bacterial quorum sensing in the regulation of staphylocoagulase expression by S. aureus. Staphylocoagulase expression was limited to the growing edge of mature vegetations, where it was exposed to the host and co-localized with the imaging probe. When endocarditis was induced with an S. aureus strain with genetic deletion of coagulases, survival of mice improved, highlighting the role of staphylocoagulase as a virulence factor.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21857652
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 16
      15. Serial :
        10454
      1. Author :
        Lorenz, U.; Schafer, T.; Ohlsen, K.; Tiurbe, G. C.; Buhler, C.; Germer, C. T.; Kellersmann, R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        41
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xen29, Xen 29, Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, Acetates; Animals; *Biofilms; Bioprosthesis; Blood Vessel Prosthesis/*microbiology; Cattle; Colony Count, Microbial; Luminescent Measurements/*methods; Mice; Microbial Viability; Pericardium; *Photons; Polyesters; Polytetrafluoroethylene; Prospective Studies; Prosthesis-Related Infections/*diagnosis; Random Allocation; Silver Compounds; Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification/*physiology
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVES: Biophotonic imaging was compared to standard enumeration method both for counting Staphylococcus aureus in biofilm and bacterial susceptibility tests of different graft materials. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five types of vascular grafts were placed subcutaneously in 35 mice and challenged with bioluminescent S. aureus. The mice were divided into equal groups as follows: group A (polyester), group B (polytetrafluoroethylene), group C and D (two types of silver acetate-coated polyester) and group E (bovine pericardium). Controls were given only the bacteria. The bioluminescence signal of S. aureus, able to predict number of viable bacteria in biofilm without any manipulation, was measured at different time points. Five days postinfection, regular cultures of adherent bacteria on grafts were obtained. Comparative analyses between bioluminescence activity and culture enumeration were performed. RESULTS: The number of viable bacteria on silver-coated prostheses was the slightest, indicating superior bacterial resistance. The density of bacteria on polytetrafluoroethylene and polyester was comparable, with a non-significant advantage for polytetrafluoroethylene. Moreover, bioluminescence detected the number of viable S. aureus in biofilm more exactly compared to enumeration of bacteria. CONCLUSION: Bioluminescence imaging can be considered a useful tool to characterize susceptibility of any graft material to bacterial biofilm prior to implantation.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943422
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 12
      15. Serial :
        10453
      1. Author :
        Engelsman, Anton F; van Dam, Gooitzen M; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Ploeg, Rutger J
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Annals of surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        251
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Abdominal Wall; Animals; Bioware; Female; Luminescent Measurements; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Polypropylenes; Polytetrafluoroethylene; pXen-5; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Surgical Mesh; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVE To study the influence of morphology of surgical meshes on the course of bacterial infection under the influence of the host immune system in an in vivo chronic bacterial infection model. BACKGROUND The use of prosthetic meshes has increased dramatically the last decades in abdominal wall reconstructive surgery. Whereas infection is becoming a more frequent complication, attention is increasingly drawn to the influence of the surgeon's mesh choice on the course of this complication. METHODS Samples of 6 often applied surgical meshes were contaminated with a bioluminescent strain of Staphylococcus aureus and implanted subcutaneously in an immunocompetent BALB/c mouse. The intensity and the spreading of bioluminescence (ie, p/s/cm/sr) were analyzed non-invasively in vivo during a 10-day follow-up period. RESULTS Over the course of infection, multifilament polypropylene and hydrophobic materials showed a significantly higher persistence of bacteria as well as spreading of infection compared to all other meshes. In contrast, infection resolved in almost all animals with a low-weight polyester mesh. CONCLUSION The results of this study are in accordance with circumstantial evidence from limited clinical reports on infection involving surgical meshes and suggest that multifilament and hydrophobic meshes significantly increase bacterial persistence or spreading in the infected area in contrast to monofilament polypropylene and lightweight meshes. Therefore, the surgeon should consider this outcome when choosing a mesh graft for limiting infection in abdominal wall repair.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19864938
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9017
      1. Author :
        Earley, S.; Vinegoni, C.; Dunham, J.; Gorbatov, R.; Feruglio, P. F.; Weissleder, R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        72
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Annexin Vivo, Annexin-Vivo, Aniline Compounds/*pharmacology; Animals; Antineoplastic Agents/*pharmacology; *Apoptosis; Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy/*physiopathology; Cell Line, Tumor; Female; Green Fluorescent Proteins; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Mice; Mice, Nude; Mitochondrial Membranes/drug effects/*physiology; Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism; Molecular Imaging/*methods; Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy/*physiopathology; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/antagonists & inhibitors; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism; Single-Cell Analysis; Sulfonamides/*pharmacology; Tumor Microenvironment
      12. Abstract :
        Observing drug responses in the tumor microenvironment in vivo can be technically challenging. As a result, cellular responses to molecularly targeted cancer drugs are often studied in cell culture, which does not accurately represent the behavior of cancer cells growing in vivo. Using high-resolution microscopy and fluorescently labeled genetic reporters for apoptosis, we developed an approach to visualize drug-induced cell death at single-cell resolution in vivo. Stable expression of the mitochondrial intermembrane protein IMS-RP was established in human breast and pancreatic cancer cells. Image analysis was then used to quantify release of IMS-RP into the cytoplasm upon apoptosis and irreversible mitochondrial permeabilization. Both breast and pancreatic cancer cells showed higher basal apoptotic rates in vivo than in culture. To study drug-induced apoptosis, we exposed tumor cells to navitoclax (ABT-263), an inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-w, both in vitro and in vivo. Although the tumors responded to Bcl-2 inhibition in vivo, inducing apoptosis in around 20% of cancer cells, the observed response was much higher in cell culture. Together, our findings show an imaging technique that can be used to directly visualize cell death within the tumor microenvironment in response to drug treatment.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22505651
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 11
      15. Serial :
        10433
      1. Author :
        Mumprecht, V.; Honer, M.; Vigl, B.; Proulx, S. T.; Trachsel, E.; Kaspar, M.; Banziger-Tobler, N. E.; Schibli, R.; Neri, D.; Detmar, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        70
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals, B16-F10-luc2, B16F10-luc2; Antibodies, Monoclonal/diagnostic use/immunology; *Diagnostic Imaging; Female; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/diagnostic use; Glycoproteins/*immunology; Humans; Inflammation/*complications/immunology/pathology; Iodine Radioisotopes/diagnostic use/pharmacokinetics; Luminescent Measurements; Lymph Nodes/immunology/pathology/*radionuclide imaging; *Lymphangiogenesis; Lymphatic Metastasis; Melanoma, Experimental/*complications/immunology/pathology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Transgenic; *Positron-Emission Tomography; Prognosis; Radiopharmaceuticals/diagnostic use; Skin/metabolism; Tissue Distribution; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C/metabolism; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3/immunology
      12. Abstract :
        Metastasis to regional lymph nodes (LN) is a prognostic indicator for cancer progression. There is a great demand for sensitive and noninvasive methods to detect metastasis to LNs. Whereas conventional in vivo imaging approaches have focused on the detection of cancer cells, lymphangiogenesis within tumor-draining LNs might be the earliest sign of metastasis. In mouse models of LN lymphangiogenesis, we found that systemically injected antibodies to lymphatic epitopes accumulated in the lymphatic vasculature in tissues and LNs. Using a (124)I-labeled antibody against the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1), we imaged, for the first time, inflammation- and tumor-draining LNs with expanded lymphatic networks in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). Anti-LYVE-1 immuno-PET enabled visualization of lymphatic vessel expansion in LNs bearing metastases that were not detected by [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, which is clinically applied to detect cancer metastases. Immuno-PET with lymphatic-specific antibodies may open up new avenues for the early detection of metastasis, and the images obtained might be used as biomarkers for the progression of diseases associated with lymphangiogenesis.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20978206
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10349
      1. Author :
        Rice, B W; Cable, M D; Nelson, M B
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2001
      5. Publication :
        Journal of biomedical optics
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        4
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Diagnostic Imaging; Fluorescent Dyes; Green Fluorescent Proteins; Luciferases; Luminescent Measurements; Luminescent Proteins; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Neoplasms; PC-3M-luc; Pneumonia
      12. Abstract :
        In vivo imaging of cells tagged with light-emitting probes, such as firefly luciferase or fluorescent proteins, is a powerful technology that enables a wide range of biological studies in small research animals. Reporters with emission in the red to infrared (>600 nm) are preferred due to the low absorption in tissue at these wavelengths. Modeling of photon diffusion through tissue indicates that bioluminescent cell counts as low as a few hundred can be detected subcutaneously, while approximately 10(6) cells are required to detect signals at approximately 2 cm depth in tissue. Signal-to-noise estimates show that cooled back-thinned integrating charge coupled devices (CCDs) are preferred to image-intensified CCDs for this application, mainly due to their high quantum efficiency (approximately 85%) at wavelengths >600 nm where tissue absorption is low. Instrumentation for in vivo imaging developed at Xenogen is described and several examples of images of mice with bioluminescent cells are presented.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11728202
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8984
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