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      1. Author :
        Swirski, F. K.; Nahrendorf, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Immunol Cell Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense
      12. Abstract :
        Macrophages are central regulators of disease progression in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (MI). In atherosclerosis, macrophages are the dominant leukocyte population that influences lesional development. In MI, which is caused by atherosclerosis, macrophages accumulate readily and have important roles in inflammation and healing. Molecular imaging has grown considerably as a field and can reveal biological process at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Here, we explore how various imaging modalities, from intravital microscopy in mice to organ-level imaging in patients, are contributing to our understanding of macrophages and their progenitors in cardiovascular disease.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 4 December 2012; doi:10.1038/icb.2012.72.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23207281
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 12
      15. Serial :
        10441
      1. Author :
        Scatena, Caroline D; Hepner, Mischa A; Oei, Yoko A; Dusich, Joan M; Yu, Shang-Fan; Purchio, Tony; Contag, Pamela R; Jenkins, Darlene E
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2004
      5. Publication :
        The Prostate
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        59
      8. Issue :
        3
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Disease Models, Animal; Humans; LnCaP-luc cells; Luciferases; Luminescent Measurements; Male; Mice; Mice, SCID; Neoplasm Metastasis; Phenotype; Plasmids; Prostatic Neoplasms; Transfection; Transplantation, Heterologous; Tumor Cells, Cultured
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND Animal experiments examining hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer using the human LNCaP cell line have been limited to endpoint analyses. To permit longitudinal studies, we generated a luciferase-expressing cell line and used bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to non-invasively monitor the in vivo growth of primary LNCaP tumors and metastasis. METHODS LNCaP.FGC cells were transfected to constitutively express firefly luciferase. LNCaP-luc-M6 cells were tested for bioluminescent signal intensity and hormone responsiveness in vitro. The cells were implanted in subcutaneous and orthotopic sites in SCID-bg mice and imaged over time. RESULTS The LNCaP-luc-M6 cells formed subcutaneous and orthotopic tumors in SCID-bg mice, and nearly all tumor-bearing animals developed pulmonary metastases. Early detection and temporal growth of primary tumors and metastatic lesions was successfully monitored by BLI. CONCLUSIONS The LNCaP-luc-M6 cell line is a bioluminescent, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line applicable for BLI studies to non-invasively monitor subcutaneous and orthotopic prostate tumor growth and metastasis in vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15042605
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9015
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        PloS one
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        2
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Adhesins, Bacterial; Animals; Antigens, CD46; Bacteremia; Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins; Bacterial Proteins; Bacterial Translocation; Bioware; Blood-Brain Barrier; Central Nervous System; Disease Progression; Female; Luminescent Measurements; Luminescent Proteins; Male; Meningitis, Meningococcal; Meningococcal Infections; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Nasal Cavity; pXen-13; Recombinant Fusion Proteins; Respiratory System; Sepsis; Thyroid Gland
      12. Abstract :
        Neisseria meningitidis is a human pathogen that causes septicemia and meningitis with high mortality. The disease progression is rapid and much remains unknown about the disease process. The understanding of disease development is crucial for development of novel therapeutic strategies and vaccines against meningococcal disease. The use of bioluminescent imaging combined with a mouse disease model allowed us to investigate the progression of meningococcal sepsis over time. Injection of bacteria in blood demonstrated waves of bacterial clearance and growth, which selected for Opa-expressing bacteria, indicating the importance of this bacterial protein. Further, N. meningitidis accumulated in the thyroid gland, while thyroid hormone T4 levels decreased. Bacteria reached the mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract, which required expression of the meningococcal PilC1 adhesin. Surprisingly, PilC1 was dispensable for meningococcal growth in blood and for crossing of the blood-brain barrier, indicating that the major role of PilC1 is to interact with mucosal surfaces. This in vivo study reveals disease dynamics and organ targeting during meningococcal disease and presents a potent tool for further investigations of meningococcal pathogenesis and vaccines in vivo. This might lead to development of new strategies to improve the outcome of meningococcal disease in human patients.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17311106
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9032
      1. Author :
        Tremoleda, J. L.; Khalil, M.; Gompels, L. L.; Wylezinska-Arridge, M.; Vincent, T.; Gsell, W.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        EJNMMI Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        1
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense
      12. Abstract :
        Preclinical models for musculoskeletal disorders are critical for understanding the pathogenesis of bone and joint disorders in humans and the development of effective therapies. The assessment of these models primarily relies on morphological analysis which remains time consuming and costly, requiring large numbers of animals to be tested through different stages of the disease. The implementation of preclinical imaging represents a keystone in the refinement of animal models allowing longitudinal studies and enabling a powerful, non-invasive and clinically translatable way for monitoring disease progression in real time. Our aim is to highlight examples that demonstrate the advantages and limitations of different imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and optical imaging. All of which are in current use in preclinical skeletal research. MRI can provide high resolution of soft tissue structures, but imaging requires comparatively long acquisition times; hence, animals require long-term anaesthesia. CT is extensively used in bone and joint disorders providing excellent spatial resolution and good contrast for bone imaging. Despite its excellent structural assessment of mineralized structures, CT does not provide in vivo functional information of ongoing biological processes. Nuclear medicine is a very promising tool for investigating functional and molecular processes in vivo with new tracers becoming available as biomarkers. The combined use of imaging modalities also holds significant potential for the assessment of disease pathogenesis in animal models of musculoskeletal disorders, minimising the use of conventional invasive methods and animal redundancy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214535
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 15
      15. Serial :
        10477
      1. Author :
        Leong, H. S.; Lizardo, M. M.; Ablack, A.; McPherson, V. A.; Wandless, T. J.; Chambers, A. F.; Lewis, J. D.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2Ln, D3H2Ln, IVIS, Breast cancer, Bioware, Animals; Birds/embryology; Breast Neoplasms/*metabolism; Cadherins/*metabolism; Cell Line, Tumor; Diagnostic Imaging; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects; Female; Humans; Microscopy, Confocal; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Morpholines/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology; Transplantation, Heterologous; Vimentin/metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        The analysis of dynamic events in the tumor microenvironment during cancer progression is limited by the complexity of current in vivo imaging models. This is coupled with an inability to rapidly modulate and visualize protein activity in real time and to understand the consequence of these perturbations in vivo. We developed an intravital imaging approach that allows the rapid induction and subsequent depletion of target protein levels within human cancer xenografts while assessing the impact on cell behavior and morphology in real time. A conditionally stabilized fluorescent E-cadherin chimera was expressed in metastatic breast cancer cells, and the impact of E-cadherin induction and depletion was visualized using real-time confocal microscopy in a xenograft avian embryo model. We demonstrate the assessment of protein localization, cell morphology and migration in cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal and mesenchymal-epithelial transitions in breast tumors. This technique allows for precise control over protein activity in vivo while permitting the temporal analysis of dynamic biophysical parameters.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22276156
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10508
      1. Author :
        Hsieh, C. H.; Chang, H. T.; Shen, W. C.; Shyu, W. C.; Liu, R. S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Mol Imaging Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        14
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MMPSense, IVIS, Animals; Cell Hypoxia; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement; Enzyme Activation; Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism; Gene Knockdown Techniques; Glioblastoma/*enzymology/*pathology; Humans; JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism; Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism; Mice; Mice, SCID; Molecular Imaging/*methods; NADPH Oxidase/*metabolism; NF-kappa B/metabolism; Neoplasm Invasiveness; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism; Tumor Microenvironment; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE: We determined the impact of the cycling hypoxia tumor microenvironment on tumor cell invasion and infiltration in U87 human glioblastoma cells and investigated the underlying mechanisms using molecular bio-techniques and imaging. PROCEDURES: The invasive phenotype of U87 cells and xenografts exposed to experimentally imposed cycling hypoxic stress in vitro and in vivo was determined by the matrigel invasion assay in vitro and dual optical reporter gene imaging in vivo. RNAi-knockdown technology was utilized to study the role of the NADPH oxidase subunit 4 (Nox4) on cycling hypoxia-mediated tumor invasion. RESULTS: Cycling hypoxic stress significantly promoted tumor invasion in vitro and in vivo. However, Nox4 knockdown inhibited this effect. Nox4-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required for cycling hypoxia-induced invasive potential in U87 cells through the activation of NF-kappaB- and ERK-mediated stimulation of MMP-9. CONCLUSIONS: Cycling hypoxia-induced ROS via Nox4 should be considered for therapeutic targeting of tumor cell invasion and infiltration in glioblastoma.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21870211
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10461
      1. Author :
        Gule, N. P.; Bshena, O.; de Kwaadsteniet, M.; Cloete, T. E.; Klumperman, B.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Biomacromolecules
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        13
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen5, Xen 5, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
      12. Abstract :
        The ability of brominated furanones and other furanone compounds with 2(3H) and 2(5H) cores to inhibit bacterial adhesion of surfaces as well deactivate (destroy) them has been previously reported. The furanone derivatives 4-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone and 5-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)-ethoxy)methyl)-2(5H)-furanone were synthesized in our laboratory. These furanone derivatives were then covalently immobilized onto poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMA) and electrospun to fabricate nonwoven nanofibrous mats with antimicrobial and cell-adhesion inhibition properties. The electrospun nanofibrous mats were tested for their ability to inhibit cell attachment by strains of bacteria commonly found in water ( Klebsiella pneumoniae Xen 39, Staphylococcus aureus Xen 36, Escherichia coli Xen 14, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen 5, and Salmonella tymphimurium Xen 26). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), electrospray mass spectroscopy (ES-MS), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used to confirm the structures of the synthesized furanones as well as their successful immobilization on SMA. To ascertain that the immobilized furanone compounds do not leach into filtered water, samples of water, filtered through the nanofibrous mats were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The morphology of the electrospun nanofibers was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22947312
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10550
      1. Author :
        Rahul Anil Sheth; Rabi Upadhyay; Lars Stangenberg; Rucha Sheth; Ralph Weissleder; Umar Mahmood
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Gynecologic Oncology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        112
      8. Issue :
        3
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cancer
      11. Keywords :
        Ovarian cancer; Molecular imaging; Intraoperative imaging; Fluorescence imaging
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVES: Cytoreductive surgery is a cornerstone of therapy in metastatic ovarian cancer. While conventional white light (WL) inspection detects many obvious tumor foci, careful histologic comparison has shown considerable miss rates for smaller foci. The goal of this study was to compare tumor detection using WL versus near infrared (NIR) imaging with a protease activatable probe, as well as to evaluate the ability to quantify NIR fluorescence using a novel quantitative optical imaging system.

        METHODS: A murine model for peritoneal carcinomatosis was generated and metastatic foci were imaged using WL and NIR imaging following the i.v. administration of the protease activatable probe ProSense750. The presence of tumor was confirmed by histology. Additionally, the ability to account for variations in fluorescence signal intensity due to changes in distance between the catheter and target lesion during laparoscopic procedures was evaluated.

        RESULTS: NIR imaging with a ProSense750 significantly improved upon the target-to-background ratios (TBRs) of tumor foci in comparison to WL imaging (minimum improvement was approximately 3.5 fold). Based on 52 histologically validated samples, the sensitivity for WL imaging was 69%, while the sensitivity for NIR imaging was 100%. The effects of intraoperative distance changes upon fluorescence intensity were corrected in realtime, resulting in a decrease from 89% to 5% in signal variance during fluorescence laparoscopy.

        CONCLUSIONS: With its molecular specificity, low background autofluorescence, high TBRs, and quantitative signal, optical imaging with NIR protease activatable probes greatly improves upon the intraoperative detection of ovarian cancer metastases.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19135233?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4497
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