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      1. Author :
        Xing, Yifei; Lu, Xiaochun; Pua, Eric C; Zhong, Pei
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Biochemical and biophysical research communications
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        375
      8. Issue :
        4
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; B16-F10-luc-G5 cells; Bioware; Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic; Female; Melanoma, Experimental; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Neoplasm Metastasis; Ultrasonic Therapy
      12. Abstract :
        This study aims to assess the risk of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy on the incidence of distant metastases and to investigate its association with HIFU-elicited anti-tumor immunity in a murine melanoma (B16-F10) model. Tumor-bearing legs were amputated immediately after or 2 days following HIFU treatment to differentiate the contribution of the elicited anti-tumor immunity. In mice undergoing amputation immediately after mechanical, thermal, or no HIFU treatment, metastasis rates were comparable (18.8%, 13.3%, and 12.5%). In contrast, with a 2-day delay in amputation, the corresponding metastasis rates were 6.7%, 11.8%, and 40%, respectively. Animal survival rate was higher and CTL activity was enhanced in the HIFU treatment groups. Altogether, our results suggest that HIFU treatment does not increase the risk of distant metastasis. Instead, HIFU treatment can elicit an anti-tumor immune response that may be harnessed to improve the overall effectiveness and quality of cancer therapy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18727919
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8998
      1. Author :
        Alsaadi, M.; Italia, J. L.; Mullen, A. B.; Ravi Kumar, M. N.; Candlish, A. A.; Williams, R. A.; Shaw, C. D.; Al Gawhari, F.; Coombs, G. H.; Wiese, M.; Thomson, A. H.; Puig-Sellart, M.; Wallace, J.; Sharp, A.; Wheeler, L.; Warn, P.; Carter, K. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Control Release
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        160
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, B16-F10-luc-G5, B16F10-luc-G5, B16-F10-luc, B16F10-luc, Aerosols; Amphotericin B/*administration & dosage; Animals; Antifungal Agents/*administration & dosage; Cricetinae; Disease Models, Animal; Drug Carriers/*administration & dosage; Female; Firefly Luciferin/administration & dosage; Leishmaniasis/*drug therapy/metabolism/microbiology; Liver/metabolism/microbiology; Lung/metabolism/microbiology; Mesocricetus; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Pulmonary Aspergillosis/*drug therapy/metabolism/microbiology; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Surface-Active Agents/*administration & dosage
      12. Abstract :
        Amphotericin B (AMB) is used to treat both fungal and leishmanial infections, which are of major significance to human health. Clinical use of free AMB is limited by its nephrotoxicity, whereas liposomal AMB is costly and requires parenteral administration, thus development of novel formulations with enhanced efficacy, minimal toxicity and that can be applied via non-invasive routes is required. In this study we analysed the potential of non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NIV) given by nebulisation to deliver AMB to the lungs, liver and skin. Treatment with AMB-NIV resulted in significantly higher drug levels in the lungs and skin (p<0.05) compared to similar treatment with AMB solution but significantly lower plasma levels (p<0.05). Treatment with AMB-NIV resulted in a significant reduction in fungal lung burdens in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (p<0.05) compared to treatment with the carrier alone. Treatment with AMB-NIV but not AMB solution significantly suppressed Leishmania donovani liver parasite burdens (p<0.05) but could not inhibit the growth of cutaneous Leishmania major lesions. The results of this study indicate that aerosolised NIV enhanced pulmonary and hepatic delivery whilst minimising systemic exposure and toxicity.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22516093
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 15
      15. Serial :
        10528
      1. Author :
        Pozo, J. L. del; Rouse, M. S.; Mandrekar, J. N.; Steckelberg, J. M.; Patel, R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Antimicrob Agents Chemother
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        53
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Aza Compounds/pharmacology, Biofilms/drug effects/*growth & development, Electricity/*adverse effects, Pseudomonas/drug effects/*growth & development, Quinolines/pharmacology, Staphylococcus/drug effects/*growth & development, Tobramycin/pharmacology IVIS, Xenogen, Xen30
      12. Abstract :
        The activity of electrical current against planktonic bacteria has previously been demonstrated. The short-term exposure of the bacteria in biofilms to electrical current in the absence of antimicrobials has been shown to have no substantial effect; however, longer-term exposure has not been studied. A previously described in vitro model was used to determine the effect of prolonged exposure (i.e., up to 7 days) to low-intensity (i.e., 20-, 200-, and 2,000-microampere) electrical direct currents on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Dose- and time-dependent killing was observed. A maximum of a 6-log(10)-CFU/cm(2) reduction was observed when S. epidermidis biofilms were exposed to 2,000 microamperes for at least 2 days. A 4- to 5-log(10)-CFU/cm(2) reduction was observed when S. aureus biofilms were exposed to 2,000 microamperes for at least 2 days. Finally, a 3.5- to 5-log(10)-CFU/cm(2) reduction was observed when P. aeruginosa biofilms were exposed to electrical current for 7 days. A higher electrical current intensity correlated with greater decreases in viable bacteria at all time points studied. In conclusion, low-intensity electrical current substantially reduced the numbers of viable bacteria in staphylococcal or Pseudomonas biofilms, a phenomenon we have labeled the “electricidal effect.”
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=18955534
      14. Call Number :
        137350
      15. Serial :
        7845
      1. Author :
        Cernak, I.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Front Neurol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        1
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, RediJect Inflammation Probe, chemiluminescence, XenoLight
      12. Abstract :
        Due to complex injurious environment where multiple blast effects interact with the body parallel, blast-induced neurotrauma is a unique clinical entity induced by systemic, local, and cerebral responses. Activation of autonomous nervous system; sudden pressure increase in vital organs such as lungs and liver; and activation of neuroendocrine-immune system are among the most important mechanisms that contribute significantly to molecular changes and cascading injury mechanisms in the brain. It has been hypothesized that vagally mediated cerebral effects play a vital role in the early response to blast: this assumption has been supported by experiments where bilateral vagotomy mitigated bradycardia, hypotension, and apnea, and also prevented excessive metabolic alterations in the brain of animals exposed to blast. Clinical experience suggests specific blast-body-nervous system interactions such as (1) direct interaction with the head either through direct passage of the blast wave through the skull or by causing acceleration and/or rotation of the head; and (2) via hydraulic interaction, when the blast overpressure compresses the abdomen and chest, and transfers its kinetic energy to the body's fluid phase, initiating oscillating waves that traverse the body and reach the brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays important role in the pathogenesis of long-term neurological deficits due to blast. These include memory decline, motor function and balance impairments, and behavioral alterations, among others. Experiments using rigid body- or head protection in animals subjected to blast showed that head protection failed to prevent inflammation in the brain or reduce neurological deficits, whereas body protection was successful in alleviating the blast-induced functional and morphological impairments in the brain.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21206523
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10420
      1. Author :
        Hosman, A. H.; Bulstra, S. K.; Sjollema, J.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Neut, D.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Orthop Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        Wear of metal-on-metal (cobalt-chromium, Co-Cr particles) and metal-on-polyethylene (ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, UHMWPE particles) bearing surfaces in hip prostheses is a major problem in orthopedics. This study aimed to compare the influence of Co-Cr and UHMWPE particles on the persistence of infection. Bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus Xen36 were injected in air pouches prepared in subcutaneous tissue of immuno-competent BALB/c mice (control), as a model for the joint space, in the absence or presence of Co-Cr or UHMWPE particles. Bioluminescence was monitored longitudinally up to 21 days, corrected for absorption and reflection by the particles and expressed relative to the bioluminescence found in the presence of staphylococci only. After termination, air pouch fluid and air pouch membrane were cultured and histologically analyzed. Bioluminescence was initially lower in mice exposed to UHMWPE particles with staphylococci than in mice injected with staphylococci only, possibly because UHMWPE particles initially stimulated a higher macrophage presence in murine air pouch membranes. For mice exposed to Co-Cr particles with staphylococci, bioluminescence was observed to be higher in two out of six animals compared to the presence of staphylococci alone. In the majority of mice, infection risk in the absence or presence of Co-Cr and UHMWPE particles appeared similar, assuming that the longevity of an elevated bioluminescence is indicative of a higher infection risk. However, the presence of Co-Cr particles yielded a higher bioluminescence in two out of six mice, possibly because the macrophage degradative function was hampered by the presence of Co-Cr particles. (c) 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21866572
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10409
      1. Author :
        Abdelwahab, M. G.; Fenton, K. E.; Preul, M. C.; Rho, J. M.; Lynch, A.; Stafford, P.; Scheck, A. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        GL261-luc2, IVIS, 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid/metabolism; Animals; Blood Glucose/metabolism; Brain/metabolism/pathology; Combined Modality Therapy; Disease Models, Animal; Glioma/*diet therapy/*radiotherapy; Humans; Kaplan-Meier Estimate; *Ketogenic Diet; Ketones/blood; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Neoplasm Transplantation; Time Factors
      12. Abstract :
        INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that alters metabolism by increasing the level of ketone bodies in the blood. KetoCal(R) (KC) is a nutritionally complete, commercially available 4:1 (fat:carbohydrate+protein) ketogenic formula that is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for the management of refractory pediatric epilepsy. Diet-induced ketosis causes changes to brain homeostasis that have potential for the treatment of other neurological diseases such as malignant gliomas. METHODS: We used an intracranial bioluminescent mouse model of malignant glioma. Following implantation animals were maintained on standard diet (SD) or KC. The mice received 2x4 Gy of whole brain radiation and tumor growth was followed by in vivo imaging. RESULTS: Animals fed KC had elevated levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.0173) and an increased median survival of approximately 5 days relative to animals maintained on SD. KC plus radiation treatment were more than additive, and in 9 of 11 irradiated animals maintained on KC the bioluminescent signal from the tumor cells diminished below the level of detection (p<0.0001). Animals were switched to SD 101 days after implantation and no signs of tumor recurrence were seen for over 200 days. CONCLUSIONS: KC significantly enhances the anti-tumor effect of radiation. This suggests that cellular metabolic alterations induced through KC may be useful as an adjuvant to the current standard of care for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22563484
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10485
      1. Author :
        Bondareva, A.; Downey, C. M.; Ayres, F.; Liu, W.; Boyd, S. K.; Hallgrimsson, B.; Jirik, F. R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        4
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen
      12. Abstract :
        Lysyl oxidase (LOX), an extracellular matrix remodeling enzyme, appears to have a role in promoting breast cancer cell motility and invasiveness. In addition, increased LOX expression has been correlated with decreases in both metastases-free, and overall survival in breast cancer patients. With this background, we studied the ability of beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), an irreversible inhibitor of LOX, to regulate the metastatic colonization potential of the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. BAPN was administered daily to mice starting either 1 day prior, on the same day as, or 7 days after intracardiac injection of luciferase expressing MDA-MB-231-Luc2 cells. Development of metastases was monitored by in vivo bioluminescence imaging, and tumor-induced osteolysis was assessed by micro-computed tomography (microCT). We found that BAPN administration was able to reduce the frequency of metastases. Thus, when BAPN treatment was initiated the day before, or on the same day as the intra-cardiac injection of tumor cells, the number of metastases was decreased by 44%, and 27%, and whole-body photon emission rates (reflective of total tumor burden) were diminished by 78%, and 45%, respectively. In contrast, BAPN had no effect on the growth of established metastases. Our findings suggest that LOX activity is required during extravasation and/or initial tissue colonization by circulating MDA-MB-231 cells, lending support to the idea that LOX inhibition might be useful in metastasis prevention.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19440335
      14. Call Number :
        136327
      15. Serial :
        7869
      1. Author :
        Rao, S. M.; Auger, J. L.; Gaillard, P.; Weissleder, R.; Wada, E.; Torres, R.; Kojima, M.; Benoist, C.; Mathis, D.; Binstadt, B. A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Arthritis Res Ther
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        14
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Arthritis/genetics/*immunology/metabolism; Autoantibodies/*immunology; Bone Marrow Cells/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Calcium/immunology/metabolism; Female; Male; Mast Cells/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Inbred NOD; Mice, Knockout; Mice, Transgenic; Neuropeptides/deficiency/genetics/*immunology; Protein Isoforms/deficiency/genetics/immunology; Receptors, Neurotensin/deficiency/genetics/immunology; Receptors, Neurotransmitter/deficiency/genetics/*immunology; Spleen/immunology/metabolism/pathology
      12. Abstract :
        INTRODUCTION: Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide with pro-inflammatory activity. The primary goal of this study was to determine if NMU promotes autoantibody-induced arthritis. Additional studies addressed the cellular source of NMU and sought to define the NMU receptor responsible for its pro-inflammatory effects. METHODS: Serum containing arthritogenic autoantibodies from K/BxN mice was used to induce arthritis in mice genetically lacking NMU. Parallel experiments examined whether NMU deficiency impacted the early mast-cell-dependent vascular leak response induced by these autoantibodies. Bone-marrow chimeric mice were generated to determine whether pro-inflammatory NMU is derived from hematopoietic cells or stromal cells. Mice lacking the known NMU receptors singly and in combination were used to determine susceptibility to serum-transferred arthritis and in vitro cellular responses to NMU. RESULTS: NMU-deficient mice developed less severe arthritis than control mice. Vascular leak was not affected by NMU deficiency. NMU expression by bone-marrow-derived cells mediated the pro-arthritogenic effect. Deficiency of all of the known NMU receptors, however, had no impact on arthritis severity and did not affect the ability of NMU to stimulate intracellular calcium flux. CONCLUSIONS: NMU-deficient mice are protected from developing autoantibody-induced inflammatory arthritis. NMU derived from hematopoietic cells, not neurons, promotes the development of autoantibody-induced inflammatory arthritis. This effect is mediated by a receptor other than the currently known NMU receptors.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22314006
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 13
      15. Serial :
        10438