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      1. Author :
        Xu, D.; Takeshita, F.; Hino, Y.; Fukunaga, S.; Kudo, Y.; Tamaki, A.; Matsunaga, J.; Takahashi, R. U.; Takata, T.; Shimamoto, A.; Ochiya, T.; Tahara, H.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Cell Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        193
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        Cellular senescence acts as a barrier to cancer progression, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are thought to be potential senescence regulators. However, whether senescence-associated miRNAs (SA-miRNAs) contribute to tumor suppression remains unknown. Here, we report that miR-22, a novel SA-miRNA, has an impact on tumorigenesis. miR-22 is up-regulated in human senescent fibroblasts and epithelial cells but down-regulated in various cancer cell lines. miR-22 overexpression induces growth suppression and acquisition of a senescent phenotype in human normal and cancer cells. miR-22 knockdown in presenescent fibroblasts decreased cell size, and cells became more compact. miR-22-induced senescence also decreases cell motility and inhibits cell invasion in vitro. Synthetic miR-22 delivery suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in vivo by inducing cellular senescence in a mouse model of breast carcinoma. We confirmed that CDK6, SIRT1, and Sp1, genes involved in the senescence program, are direct targets of miR-22. Our study provides the first evidence that miR-22 restores the cellular senescence program in cancer cells and acts as a tumor suppressor.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21502362
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10417
      1. Author :
        Lim, E.; Modi, K.; Christensen, A.; Meganck, J.; Oldfield, S.; Zhang, N.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Vis Exp
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence, Animals; Bone Neoplasms/*secondary; Breast Neoplasms/*pathology; Cell Line, Tumor; Female; Humans; Luminescent Measurements/*methods; Mice; Mice, Nude; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasm Transplantation; Tomography, X-Ray Computed/*methods; Transplantation, Heterologous
      12. Abstract :
        Following intracardiac delivery of MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN cells to Nu/Nu mice, systemic metastases developed in the injected animals. Bioluminescence imaging using IVIS Spectrum was employed to monitor the distribution and development of the tumor cells following the delivery procedure including DLIT reconstruction to measure the tumor signal and its location. Development of metastatic lesions to the bone tissues triggers osteolytic activity and lesions to tibia and femur were evaluated longitudinally using micro CT. Imaging was performed using a Quantum FX micro CT system with fast imaging and low X-ray dose. The low radiation dose allows multiple imaging sessions to be performed with a cumulative X-ray dosage far below LD50. A mouse imaging shuttle device was used to sequentially image the mice with both IVIS Spectrum and Quantum FX achieving accurate animal positioning in both the bioluminescence and CT images. The optical and CT data sets were co-registered in 3-dimentions using the Living Image 4.1 software. This multi-mode approach allows close monitoring of tumor growth and development simultaneously with osteolytic activity.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21525842
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10416
      1. Author :
        Defresne, F.; Bouzin, C.; Grandjean, M.; Dieu, M.; Raes, M.; Hatzopoulos, A. K.; Kupatt, C.; Feron, O.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        Tumor progression is associated with the release of signaling substances from the primary tumor into the bloodstream. Tumor-derived cytokines are known to promote the mobilization and the recruitment of cells from the bone marrow, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Here, we examined whether such paracrine influence could also influence the capacity of EPC to interfere with circulating metastatic cells. We therefore consecutively injected EPC pre-stimulated by tumor conditioned medium (CM-EPC) and luciferase-expressing B16 melanoma cells to mice. A net decrease in metastases spreading (vs non-stimulated EPC) led us to carry out a 2D-DIGE proteomic study to identify possible mediators of EPC-driven protection. Among 33 proteins exhibiting significant changes in expression, SPARC presented the highest induction after EPC exposure to CM. We then showed that contrary to control EPC, SPARC-silenced EPC were not able to reduce the extent of metastases when injected with B16 melanoma cells. Using adhesion tests and the hanging drop assay, we further documented that cell-cell interactions between CM-EPC and melanoma cells were promoted in a SPARC-dependent manner. This interaction led to the engulfment of melanoma cells by CM-EPC, a process prevented by SPARC silencing and mimicked by recombinant SPARC. Finally, we showed that contrary to melanoma cells, the pro-metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231-D3H2 reduced SPARC expression in human EPC and stimulated metastases spreading. Our findings unravel the influence of tumor cells on EPC phenotypes through a SPARC-driven accentuation of macrophagic capacity associated with limitations to metastatic spread.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21616936
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10415
      1. Author :
        Zeng, Q.; Yang, Z.; Gao, Y. J.; Yuan, H.; Cui, K.; Shi, Y.; Wang, H.; Huang, X.; Wong, S. T.; Wang, Y.; Kesari, S.; Ji, R. R.; Xu, X.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Eur J Cancer
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        46
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence, Animals; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/*therapeutic use; Cell Hypoxia/physiology; Cell Line, Tumor; Cyclophosphamide/*therapeutic use; Female; Immunohistochemistry; Lung Neoplasms/prevention & control/secondary; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/*drug therapy/genetics/pathology; Mice; Mice, Nude; Sirolimus/*therapeutic use; Tumor Burden; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit the growth of oestrogen positive breast cancer. However, triple-negative (TN) breast cancer is resistant to rapamycin treatment in vitro. We set to test a combination treatment of rapamycin with DNA-damage agent, cyclophosphamide, in a TN breast cancer model. By binding to and disrupting cellular DNA, cyclophosphamide kills cells via interfering with their normal functions. We assessed the responses of nude mice bearing tumour xenografts of TN MDA-MB-231 cells to the combination of rapamycin and cyclophosphamide in both orthotopic mammary and lung-metastasis models. We tracked tumour growth and metastasis by bioluminescent imaging and examined the expression of Ki67, CD34 and HIF-1alpha in tumour tissues by immunohistochemistry and apoptosis index with TUNEL assay, and found that MDA-MB-231 cells are sensitive to rapamycin therapy in orthotopic mammary, but not in lung with metastasis. Rapamycin when combined with cyclophosphamide is found to have a more significant effect in reducing tumour volume and metastasis with a much improved survival rate. Our data also show that the sensitivity of TN tumours to rapamycin is associated with the microenvironment of the tumour cells. The data indicate that in a relatively hypoxic environment HIF-1alpha may play a role in mediating the anti-cancer effect of rapamycin and cyclophosphamide may prevent the feedback activation of Akt by rapamycin. Overall our results show that rapamycin plus cyclophosphamide can achieve an improved efficacy in suppressing tumour growth and metastasis, suggesting that the combination therapy can be a promising treatment option for TN cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20156674
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10414
      1. Author :
        Chantry, A. D.; Heath, D.; Mulivor, A. W.; Pearsall, S.; Baud'huin, M.; Coulton, L.; Evans, H.; Abdul, N.; Werner, E. D.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Key, M. L.; Seehra, J.; Arnett, T. R.; Vanderkerken, K.; Croucher, P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        J Bone Miner Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        25
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence, Activins/*metabolism; Animals; Bone Neoplasms/*complications/pathology/physiopathology/secondary; Bone Resorption/*etiology/pathology/physiopathology/*prevention & control; Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects; Cell Line, Tumor; HEK293 Cells; Humans; Mice; Multiple Myeloma/complications/pathology/physiopathology; Neoplasm Transplantation; Organ Size/drug effects; Osteoblasts/drug effects/pathology; *Osteogenesis/drug effects; Osteolysis/blood/complications/physiopathology/prevention & control; Paraproteins/metabolism; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology; *Signal Transduction/drug effects; Survival Analysis; Tumor Burden/drug effects
      12. Abstract :
        Cancers that grow in bone, such as myeloma and breast cancer metastases, cause devastating osteolytic bone destruction. These cancers hijack bone remodeling by stimulating osteoclastic bone resorption and suppressing bone formation. Currently, treatment is targeted primarily at blocking bone resorption, but this approach has achieved only limited success. Stimulating osteoblastic bone formation to promote repair is a novel alternative approach. We show that a soluble activin receptor type IIA fusion protein (ActRIIA.muFc) stimulates osteoblastogenesis (p < .01), promotes bone formation (p < .01) and increases bone mass in vivo (p < .001). We show that the development of osteolytic bone lesions in mice bearing murine myeloma cells is caused by both increased resorption (p < .05) and suppression of bone formation (p < .01). ActRIIA.muFc treatment stimulates osteoblastogenesis (p < .01), prevents myeloma-induced suppression of bone formation (p < .05), blocks the development of osteolytic bone lesions (p < .05), and increases survival (p < .05). We also show, in a murine model of breast cancer bone metastasis, that ActRIIA.muFc again prevents bone destruction (p < .001) and inhibits bone metastases (p < .05). These findings show that stimulating osteoblastic bone formation with ActRIIA.muFc blocks the formation of osteolytic bone lesions and bone metastases in models of myeloma and breast cancer and paves the way for new approaches to treating this debilitating aspect of cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20533325
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 4
      15. Serial :
        10413
      1. Author :
        Bernthal, N. M.; Pribaz, J. R.; Stavrakis, A. I.; Billi, F.; Cho, J. S.; Ramos, R. I.; Francis, K. P.; Iwakura, Y.; Miller, L. S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Orthop Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS, Animals; Arthroplasty; Biofilms/growth & development; Bone Wires/microbiology; Interleukin-1beta/*metabolism; Male; Mice; Mice, Congenic; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism; Neutrophil Infiltration; Prosthesis-Related Infections/*immunology/metabolism; Staphylococcal Infections/*immunology/metabolism; Staphylococcus aureus; Toll-Like Receptor 2/*metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        MyD88 is an adapter molecule that is used by both IL-1R and TLR family members to initiate downstream signaling and promote immune responses. Given that IL-1beta is induced after Staphylococcus aureus infections and TLR2 is activated by S. aureus lipopeptides, we hypothesized that IL-1beta and TLR2 contribute to MyD88-dependent protective immune responses against post-arthroplasty S. aureus infections. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse model of a post-arthroplasty S. aureus infection to compare the bacterial burden, biofilm formation and neutrophil recruitment in IL-1beta-deficient, TLR2-deficient and wild-type (wt) mice. By using in vivo bioluminescence imaging, we found that the bacterial burden in IL-1beta-deficient mice was 26-fold higher at 1 day after infection and remained 3- to 10-fold greater than wt mice through day 42. In contrast, the bacterial burden in TLR2-deficient mice did not differ from wt mice. In addition, implants harvested from IL-1beta-deficient mice had more biofilm formation and 14-fold higher adherent bacteria compared with those from wt mice. Finally, IL-1beta-deficient mice had approximately 50% decreased neutrophil recruitment to the infected postoperative joints than wt mice. Taken together, these findings suggest a mechanism by which IL-1beta induces neutrophil recruitment to help control the bacterial burden and the ensuing biofilm formation in a post-surgical joint.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21445990
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10411
      1. Author :
        Brand, A. M.; de Kwaadsteniet, M.; Dicks, L. M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Lett Appl Microbiol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        51
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS, Animals; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Nisin/*pharmacology; Peritoneal Cavity/*microbiology; Staphylococcal Infections/*prevention & control; Staphylococcus aureus/*drug effects/growth & development
      12. Abstract :
        AIMS: To determine the ability of nisin F to control systematic infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus, using C57BL/6 mice as a model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1 x 10(8) viable cells of Staph. aureus Xen 36 containing the modified Photorhabdus luminescence luxABCDE operon on plasmid pAUL-A Tn4001. After 4 h, six mice were intraperitoneally injected with 640 arbitrary units (AU) nisin F, and six were injected with sterile saline. Six mice, not infected with Staph. aureus, were treated with nisin F, and six not infected were left untreated. The viability of Staph. aureus Xen 36 was monitored over 48 h by recording photon emission levels. Nisin F suppressed Staph. aureus for 15 min in vivo. No abnormalities were recorded in blood analyses and internal organs of mice treated with nisin F. CONCLUSIONS: Nisin F suppressed the growth of Staph. aureus in the peritoneal cavity for at least 15 min. Re-emergence of Staph. aureus bioluminescence over the next 44 h suggests that nisin F was inactivated, most probably by proteolytic enzymes. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: A single dosage of nisin F administered in the peritoneal cavity controlled the growth of Staph. aureus for at least 15 min in vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21029139
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10410
      1. Author :
        Hosman, A. H.; Bulstra, S. K.; Sjollema, J.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Neut, D.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Orthop Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        Wear of metal-on-metal (cobalt-chromium, Co-Cr particles) and metal-on-polyethylene (ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, UHMWPE particles) bearing surfaces in hip prostheses is a major problem in orthopedics. This study aimed to compare the influence of Co-Cr and UHMWPE particles on the persistence of infection. Bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus Xen36 were injected in air pouches prepared in subcutaneous tissue of immuno-competent BALB/c mice (control), as a model for the joint space, in the absence or presence of Co-Cr or UHMWPE particles. Bioluminescence was monitored longitudinally up to 21 days, corrected for absorption and reflection by the particles and expressed relative to the bioluminescence found in the presence of staphylococci only. After termination, air pouch fluid and air pouch membrane were cultured and histologically analyzed. Bioluminescence was initially lower in mice exposed to UHMWPE particles with staphylococci than in mice injected with staphylococci only, possibly because UHMWPE particles initially stimulated a higher macrophage presence in murine air pouch membranes. For mice exposed to Co-Cr particles with staphylococci, bioluminescence was observed to be higher in two out of six animals compared to the presence of staphylococci alone. In the majority of mice, infection risk in the absence or presence of Co-Cr and UHMWPE particles appeared similar, assuming that the longevity of an elevated bioluminescence is indicative of a higher infection risk. However, the presence of Co-Cr particles yielded a higher bioluminescence in two out of six mice, possibly because the macrophage degradative function was hampered by the presence of Co-Cr particles. (c) 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21866572
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10409
      1. Author :
        Ketonis, C.; Barr, S.; Adams, C. S.; Shapiro, I. M.; Parvizi, J.; Hickok, N. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Antimicrob Agents Chemother
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        55
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS, Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry/*pharmacology; Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects; Biofilms/drug effects/growth & development; *Bone Transplantation; Bone and Bones/*chemistry/*microbiology; Cell Adhesion/drug effects; Cell Line; Colony Count, Microbial; Humans; Microscopy, Confocal; Osteoblasts/cytology; Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects/*growth & development/physiology; Vancomycin/chemistry/*pharmacology
      12. Abstract :
        Infection is an important medical problem associated with the use of bone allografts. To retard bacterial colonization, we have recently reported on the modification of bone allografts with the antibiotic vancomycin (VAN). In this report, we examine the ability of this antibiotic-modified allograft to resist bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. When antibiotic was coupled to the allograft, a uniform distribution of the antibiotic was apparent. Following challenges with Staphylococcus aureus for 6 h, the covalently bonded VAN decreased colonization as a function of inoculum, ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 log(10) CFU. Furthermore, the VAN-modified surface resisted biofilm formation, even in topographical niches that provide a protected environment for bacterial adhesion. Attachment of the antibiotic to the allograft surface was robust, and the bonded VAN was stable whether incubated in aqueous media or in air, maintaining levels of 75 to 100% of initial levels over 60 days. While the VAN-modified allograft inhibited the Gram-positive S. aureus colonization, in keeping with VAN's spectrum of activity, the VAN-modified allograft was readily colonized by the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Finally, initial toxicity measures indicated that the VAN-modified allograft did not influence osteoblast colonization or viability. Since the covalently tethered antibiotic is stable, is active, retains its specificity, and does not exhibit toxicity, it is concluded that this modified allograft holds great promise for decreasing bone graft-associated infections.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21098245
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 8
      15. Serial :
        10408
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