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      1. Author :
        Alsaadi, M.; Italia, J. L.; Mullen, A. B.; Ravi Kumar, M. N.; Candlish, A. A.; Williams, R. A.; Shaw, C. D.; Al Gawhari, F.; Coombs, G. H.; Wiese, M.; Thomson, A. H.; Puig-Sellart, M.; Wallace, J.; Sharp, A.; Wheeler, L.; Warn, P.; Carter, K. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Control Release
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        160
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, B16-F10-luc-G5, B16F10-luc-G5, B16-F10-luc, B16F10-luc, Aerosols; Amphotericin B/*administration & dosage; Animals; Antifungal Agents/*administration & dosage; Cricetinae; Disease Models, Animal; Drug Carriers/*administration & dosage; Female; Firefly Luciferin/administration & dosage; Leishmaniasis/*drug therapy/metabolism/microbiology; Liver/metabolism/microbiology; Lung/metabolism/microbiology; Mesocricetus; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Pulmonary Aspergillosis/*drug therapy/metabolism/microbiology; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Surface-Active Agents/*administration & dosage
      12. Abstract :
        Amphotericin B (AMB) is used to treat both fungal and leishmanial infections, which are of major significance to human health. Clinical use of free AMB is limited by its nephrotoxicity, whereas liposomal AMB is costly and requires parenteral administration, thus development of novel formulations with enhanced efficacy, minimal toxicity and that can be applied via non-invasive routes is required. In this study we analysed the potential of non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NIV) given by nebulisation to deliver AMB to the lungs, liver and skin. Treatment with AMB-NIV resulted in significantly higher drug levels in the lungs and skin (p<0.05) compared to similar treatment with AMB solution but significantly lower plasma levels (p<0.05). Treatment with AMB-NIV resulted in a significant reduction in fungal lung burdens in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (p<0.05) compared to treatment with the carrier alone. Treatment with AMB-NIV but not AMB solution significantly suppressed Leishmania donovani liver parasite burdens (p<0.05) but could not inhibit the growth of cutaneous Leishmania major lesions. The results of this study indicate that aerosolised NIV enhanced pulmonary and hepatic delivery whilst minimising systemic exposure and toxicity.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22516093
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 15
      15. Serial :
        10528
      1. Author :
        Subbarayan, P. R.; Sarkar, M.; Nagaraja Rao, S.; Philip, S.; Kumar, P.; Altman, N.; Reis, I.; Ahmed, M.; Ardalan, B.; Lokeshwar, B. L.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Ethnopharmacol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        142
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        523-30
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        BxPC-3, BxPC-3-luc2, IVIS, Achyranthes; Animals; Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Apoptosis/*drug effects; Caspase 3/genetics/metabolism; Gene Expression/drug effects; Humans; Injections, Intraperitoneal; Medicine, Ayurvedic; Mice; Mice, Nude; Pancreatic Neoplasms/*drug therapy/genetics/metabolism; Phosphorylation; *Phytotherapy; Plant Extracts/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Plant Leaves; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism; RNA, Messenger/metabolism; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Achyranthes aspera (Family Amaranthacea) is used for cancer therapy by ayurvedic medical practitioners in India. However, due to the non formal nature of its use, there are no systematic studies validating its medicinal properties. Thus, it's utility as an anti cancer agent remains anecdotal. Earlier, we demonstrated A. aspera to exhibit time and dose-dependent preferential cytotoxicity to cultured human pancreatic cancer cells. In this report we validate in vivo anti tumor properties of A. aspera. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vivo anti tumor activity of leaf extract (LE) was tested by intraperitoneal (IP) injections into athymic mice harboring human pancreatic tumor subcutaneous xenograft. Toxicity was monitored by recording changes in behavioral, histological, hematological and body weight parameters. RESULTS: Dosing LE to athymic mice by I.P. injection for 32 days showed no adverse reactions in treated mice. Compared to the control set, IP administration of LE to tumor bearing mice significantly reduced both tumor weight and volume. Gene expression analysis using Real time PCR methods revealed that LE significantly induced caspase-3 mRNA (p<0.001) and suppressed expression of the pro survival kinase Akt-1 (p<0.05). TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry confirmed apoptosis induction by activation of caspase-3 and inhibiting Akt phosphorylation in treated sets. These results are in agreement with RT PCR data. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these data suggest A. aspera to have potent anti cancer property.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22640722
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10484
      1. Author :
        Brandl, K.; Plitas, G.; Schnabl, B.; DeMatteo, R. P.; Pamer, E. G.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        J Exp Med
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        204
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals, Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism/microbiology, Gene Expression Regulation, Intestines/metabolism, Kinetics, Lectins/chemistry, Listeria Infections/*metabolism/*prevention & control, Listeria monocytogenes/*metabolism, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Transgenic, Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism/*physiology, Proteins/*metabolism, Recombinant Proteins/metabolism, Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism IVIS, Xenogen, Xen32
      12. Abstract :
        Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne bacterial pathogen that causes systemic infection by traversing the intestinal mucosa. Although MyD88-mediated signals are essential for defense against systemic L. monocytogenes infection, the role of Toll-like receptor and MyD88 signaling in intestinal immunity against this pathogen has not been defined. We show that clearance of L. monocytogenes from the lumen of the distal small intestine is impaired in MyD88(-/-) mice. The distal ileum of wild-type (wt) mice expresses high levels of RegIII gamma, which is a bactericidal lectin that is secreted into the bowel lumen, whereas RegIII gamma expression in MyD88(-/-) mice is nearly undetectable. In vivo depletion of RegIII gamma from the small intestine of wt mice diminishes killing of luminal L. monocytogenes, whereas reconstitution of MyD88-deficient mice with recombinant RegIII gamma enhances intestinal bacterial clearance. Experiments with bone marrow chimeric mice reveal that MyD88-mediated signals in nonhematopoietic cells induce RegIII gamma expression in the small intestine, thereby enhancing bacterial killing. Our findings support a model of MyD88-mediated epithelial conditioning that protects the intestinal mucosa against bacterial invasion by inducing RegIII gamma.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=17635956
      14. Call Number :
        136402
      15. Serial :
        7029
      1. Author :
        Leuschner, F.; Rauch, P. J.; Ueno, T.; Gorbatov, R.; Marinelli, B.; Lee, W. W.; Dutta, P.; Wei, Y.; Robbins, C.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sena, B.; Chudnovskiy, A.; Panizzi, P.; Keliher, E.; Higgins, J. M.; Libby, P.; Moskowitz, M. A.; Pittet, M. J.; Swirski, F. K.; Weissleder, R.; Nahrendorf, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Exp Med
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        209
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Adoptive Transfer; Animals; Biological Markers/metabolism; Cell Death/genetics; Disease Models, Animal; Female; *Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary; Inflammation/immunology/metabolism; Interleukin-1beta/genetics/metabolism; Kinetics; Macrophages/cytology/*physiology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Models, Biological; Monocytes/*cytology/*physiology; Myeloid Cells/metabolism; Myocardial Infarction/immunology/pathology/*physiopathology; Signal Transduction; Spleen/physiology; Stroke/immunology/metabolism; Wound Healing/physiology
      12. Abstract :
        Monocytes (Mo) and macrophages (MPhi) are emerging therapeutic targets in malignant, cardiovascular, and autoimmune disorders. Targeting of Mo/MPhi and their effector functions without compromising innate immunity's critical defense mechanisms first requires addressing gaps in knowledge about the life cycle of these cells. Here we studied the source, tissue kinetics, and clearance of Mo/MPhi in murine myocardial infarction, a model of acute inflammation after ischemic injury. We found that a) Mo tissue residence time was surprisingly short (20 h); b) Mo recruitment rates were consistently high even days after initiation of inflammation; c) the sustained need of newly made Mo was fostered by extramedullary monocytopoiesis in the spleen; d) splenic monocytopoiesis was regulated by IL-1beta; and e) the balance of cell recruitment and local death shifted during resolution of inflammation. Depending on the experimental approach, we measured a 24 h Mo/MPhi exit rate from infarct tissue between 5 and 13% of the tissue cell population. Exited cells were most numerous in the blood, liver, and spleen. Abrogation of extramedullary monocytopoiesis proved deleterious for infarct healing and accelerated the evolution of heart failure. We also detected rapid Mo kinetics in mice with stroke. These findings expand our knowledge of Mo/MPhi flux in acute inflammation and provide the groundwork for novel anti-inflammatory strategies for treating heart failure.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22213805
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 27
      15. Serial :
        10370
      1. Author :
        Waldner, M. J.; Wirtz, S.; Jefremow, A.; Warntjen, M.; Neufert, C.; Atreya, R.; Becker, C.; Weigmann, B.; Vieth, M.; Rose-John, S.; Neurath, M. F.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        J Exp Med
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        207
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Blotting, Western; Cell Proliferation/drug effects; Cells, Cultured; Colitis/chemically induced/complications; Colonic Neoplasms/etiology/genetics/*metabolism; Dextran Sulfate; Endothelial Cells/metabolism; Epithelial Cells/metabolism; Gene Expression; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/genetics/*metabolism; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Mice, Transgenic; Microscopy, Confocal; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics/metabolism; *Signal Transduction; Up-Regulation; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics/metabolism/pharmacology; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/genetics/metabolism; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/genetics/*metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        Whereas the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has shown promising results in sporadic colon cancer, the role of VEGF signaling in colitis-associated cancer (CAC) has not been addressed. We found that, unlike sporadic colorectal cancer and control patients, patients with CAC show activated VEGFR2 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We then explored the function of VEGFR2 in a murine model of colitis-associated colon cancer characterized by increased VEGFR2 expression. Epithelial cells in tumor tissue expressed VEGFR2 and responded to VEGF stimulation with augmented VEGFR2-mediated proliferation. Blockade of VEGF function via soluble decoy receptors suppressed tumor development, inhibited tumor angiogenesis, and blocked tumor cell proliferation. Functional studies revealed that chronic inflammation leads to an up-regulation of VEGFR2 on IECs. Studies in conditional STAT3 mutant mice showed that VEGFR signaling requires STAT3 to promote epithelial cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. Thus, VEGFR-signaling acts as a direct growth factor for tumor cells in CAC, providing a molecular link between inflammation and the development of colon cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21098094
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 34
      15. Serial :
        10385
      1. Author :
        Wang, J.; Barke, R. A.; Charboneau, R.; Schwendener, R.; Roy, S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        J Immunol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        180
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals, Cell Line, Cell Line, Transformed, Humans, Macrophages, Alveolar/*drug effects/immunology/*microbiology/pathology, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Morphine/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use, NF-kappa B/*antagonists & inhibitors/physiology, Neutrophil Infiltration/drug effects/immunology, Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/*drug therapy/*immunology/microbiology/mortality, Signal Transduction/*drug effects/immunology, Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects/*immunology, Time Factors, Toll-Like Receptor 2/physiology, Toll-Like Receptor 4/physiology, Toll-Like Receptor 9/*antagonists & inhibitors/physiology IVIS, Xenogen, Xen10
      12. Abstract :
        Resident alveolar macrophages and respiratory epithelium constitutes the first line of defense against invading lung pneumococci. Results from our study showed that increased mortality and bacterial outgrowth and dissemination seen in morphine-treated mice were further exaggerated following depletion of alveolar macrophages with liposomal clodronate. Using an in vitro alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial cells infection model, we show significant release of MIP-2 from alveolar macrophages, but not from lung epithelial cells, following 4 h of exposure of cells to pneumococci infection. Morphine treatment reduced MIP-2 release in pneumococci stimulated alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, morphine treatment inhibited Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced NF-kappaB-dependent gene transcription in alveolar macrophages following 2 h of in vitro infection. S. pneumoniae infection resulted in a significant induction of NF-kappaB activity only in TLR9 stably transfected HEK 293 cells, but not in TLR2 and TLR4 transfected HEK 293 cells, and morphine treatment inhibited S. pneumoniae-induced NF-kappaB activity in these cells. Moreover, morphine treatment also decreased bacterial uptake and killing in alveolar macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that morphine treatment impairs TLR9-NF-kappaB signaling and diminishes bacterial clearance following S. pneumoniae infection in resident macrophages during the early stages of infection, leading to a compromised innate immune response.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=18292587
      14. Call Number :
        144073
      15. Serial :
        6976
      1. Author :
        Nijnik, A.; Madera, L.; Ma, S.; Waldbrook, M.; Elliott, M. R.; Easton, D. M.; Mayer, M. L.; Mullaly, S. C.; Kindrachuk, J.; Jenssen, H.; Hancock, R. E.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        J Immunol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        184
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemical synthesis/*pharmacology; Bacterial Infections/*metabolism/microbiology/prevention & control; Cell Line; Cells, Cultured; Chemokine CCL2/metabolism; Chemokine CCL7/metabolism; Chemokine CXCL1/metabolism; Chemokines/*metabolism; Female; Humans; Interleukin-8/metabolism; Leukocytes/cytology/*metabolism; Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology/drug effects/metabolism; Macrophages/cytology/drug effects/metabolism; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Molecular Sequence Data; NF-kappa B/metabolism; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism; Phosphorylation/drug effects; Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology/prevention & control; Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        With the rapid rise in the incidence of multidrug resistant infections, there is substantial interest in host defense peptides as templates for production of new antimicrobial therapeutics. Natural peptides are multifunctional mediators of the innate immune response, with some direct antimicrobial activity and diverse immunomodulatory properties. We have previously developed an innate defense regulator (IDR) 1, with protective activity against bacterial infection mediated entirely through its effects on the immunity of the host, as a novel approach to anti-infective therapy. In this study, an immunomodulatory peptide IDR-1002 was selected from a library of bactenecin derivatives based on its substantially more potent ability to induce chemokines in human PBMCs. The enhanced chemokine induction activity of the peptide in vitro correlated with stronger protective activity in vivo in the Staphylococcus aureus-invasive infection model, with a >5-fold reduction in the protective dose in direct comparison with IDR-1. IDR-1002 also afforded protection against the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli. Chemokine induction by IDR-1002 was found to be mediated through a Gi-coupled receptor and the PI3K, NF-kappaB, and MAPK signaling pathways. The protective activity of the peptide was associated with in vivo augmentation of chemokine production and recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the site of infection. These results highlight the importance of the chemokine induction activity of host defense peptides and demonstrate that the optimization of the ex vivo chemokine-induction properties of peptides is a promising method for the rational development of immunomodulatory IDR peptides with enhanced anti-infective activity.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20107187
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10393
      1. Author :
        Yan, J.; Meng, X.; Wancket, L. M.; Lintner, K.; Nelin, L. D.; Chen, B.; Francis, K. P.; Smith, C. V.; Rogers, L. K.; Liu, Y.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Immunol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        188
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Escherichia coli/immunology; Escherichia coli Infections/enzymology/immunology/*prevention & control; Extracellular Space/genetics/*immunology/metabolism; Glutathione Reductase/deficiency/genetics/*physiology; Humans; Mice; Mice, Inbred C3H; Mice, Knockout; Neutrophils/*immunology/*metabolism/microbiology; Oxidative Stress/genetics/*immunology; Phagocytosis/genetics/*immunology; Staphylococcal Infections/enzymology/immunology/*prevention & control; Staphylococcus aureus/immunology
      12. Abstract :
        Glutathione reductase (Gsr) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide to glutathione, which plays an important role in the bactericidal function of phagocytes. Because Gsr has been implicated in the oxidative burst in human neutrophils and is abundantly expressed in the lymphoid system, we hypothesized that Gsr-deficient mice would exhibit marked defects during the immune response against bacterial challenge. We report in this study that Gsr-null mice exhibited enhanced susceptibility to Escherichia coli challenge, indicated by dramatically increased bacterial burden, cytokine storm, striking histological abnormalities, and substantially elevated mortality. Additionally, Gsr-null mice exhibited elevated sensitivity to Staphylococcus aureus. Examination of the bactericidal functions of the neutrophils from Gsr-deficient mice in vitro revealed impaired phagocytosis and defective bacterial killing activities. Although Gsr catalyzes the regeneration of glutathione, a major cellular antioxidant, Gsr-deficient neutrophils paradoxically produced far less reactive oxygen species upon activation both ex vivo and in vivo. Unlike wild-type neutrophils that exhibited a sustained oxidative burst upon stimulation with phorbol ester and fMLP, Gsr-deficient neutrophils displayed a very transient oxidative burst that abruptly ceased shortly after stimulation. Likewise, Gsr-deficient neutrophils also exhibited an attenuated oxidative burst upon encountering E. coli. Biochemical analysis revealed that the hexose monophosphate shunt was compromised in Gsr-deficient neutrophils. Moreover, Gsr-deficient neutrophils displayed a marked impairment in the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, a bactericidal mechanism that operates after neutrophil death. Thus, Gsr-mediated redox regulation is crucial for bacterial clearance during host defense against massive bacterial challenge.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22279102
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10398
      1. Author :
        Thurlow, L. R.; Hanke, M. L.; Fritz, T.; Angle, A.; Aldrich, A.; Williams, S. H.; Engebretsen, I. L.; Bayles, K. W.; Horswill, A. R.; Kielian, T.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Immunol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        186
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xen29, Xen 29, Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, Animals; *Biofilms; Catheter-Related Infections/immunology/metabolism/microbiology; Cytokines/immunology/metabolism; Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology; Immune Evasion/immunology; Inflammation/*immunology/metabolism; Macrophages/*immunology/metabolism; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Mice, Transgenic; Microscopy, Confocal; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Models, Immunological; Phagocytosis/*immunology; Staphylococcal Infections/*immunology/metabolism/microbiology; Staphylococcus aureus/*immunology/physiology/ultrastructure; Toll-Like Receptor 2/genetics/immunology; Toll-Like Receptor 9/genetics/immunology
      12. Abstract :
        Biofilms are complex communities of bacteria encased in a matrix composed primarily of polysaccharides, extracellular DNA, and protein. Staphylococcus aureus can form biofilm infections, which are often debilitating due to their chronicity and recalcitrance to antibiotic therapy. Currently, the immune mechanisms elicited during biofilm growth and their impact on bacterial clearance remain to be defined. We used a mouse model of catheter-associated biofilm infection to assess the functional importance of TLR2 and TLR9 in the host immune response during biofilm formation, because ligands for both receptors are present within the biofilm. Interestingly, neither TLR2 nor TLR9 impacted bacterial density or inflammatory mediator secretion during biofilm growth in vivo, suggesting that S. aureus biofilms circumvent these traditional bacterial recognition pathways. Several potential mechanisms were identified to account for biofilm evasion of innate immunity, including significant reductions in IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, CXCL2, and CCL2 expression during biofilm infection compared with the wound healing response elicited by sterile catheters, limited macrophage invasion into biofilms in vivo, and a skewing of the immune response away from a microbicidal phenotype as evidenced by decreases in inducible NO synthase expression concomitant with robust arginase-1 induction. Coculture studies of macrophages with S. aureus biofilms in vitro revealed that macrophages successful at biofilm invasion displayed limited phagocytosis and gene expression patterns reminiscent of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that S. aureus biofilms are capable of attenuating traditional host proinflammatory responses, which may explain why biofilm infections persist in an immunocompetent host.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21525381
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 19
      15. Serial :
        10457
      1. Author :
        Albanesi, M.; Mancardi, D. A.; Macdonald, L. E.; Iannascoli, B.; Zitvogel, L.; Murphy, A. J.; Leusen, J. H.; Bruhns, P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Immunol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        189
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        B16-F10-luc2, B16F10-luc2, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        mAb therapy for experimental metastatic melanoma relies on activating receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (FcgammaR). Opposing results on the respective contribution of mouse FcgammaRI, FcgammaRIII, and FcgammaRIV have been reported using the gp75-expressing B16 melanoma and the protective anti-gp75 mAb TA99. We analyzed the contribution of FcgammaRs to this therapy model using bioluminescent measurement of lung metastases loads, novel mouse strains, and anti-FcgammaR blocking mAbs. We found that the TA99 mAb-mediated effects in a combination therapy using cyclophosphamide relied on activating FcgammaRs. The combination therapy, however, was not more efficient than mAb therapy alone. We demonstrate that FcgammaRI and, unexpectedly, FcgammaRIII contributed to TA99 mAb therapeutic effects, whereas FcgammaRIV did not. Therefore, FcgammaRIII and FcgammaRI are, together, responsible for anti-gp75 mAb therapy of B16 lung metastases. Our finding that mouse FcgammaRIII contributes to Ab-induced tumor reduction correlates with clinical data on its human functional equivalent human FcgammaRIIIA (CD16A).
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23150715
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 8
      15. Serial :
        10482
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