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      1. Author :
        Meincke, M.; Tiwari, S.; Hattermann, K.; Kalthoff, H.; Mentlein, R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Clin Exp Metastasis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        28
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Breast Neoplasms/metabolism/*pathology; Cattle; Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism; Female; Fluorescent Dyes/diagnostic use; Glioma/metabolism/*pathology; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Mice; Mice, Nude; Receptors, CXCR/*metabolism; Receptors, CXCR4/*metabolism; Serum Albumin, Bovine/metabolism; Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared; Tumor Cells, Cultured
      12. Abstract :
        The chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 play a major role in tumor invasion, proliferation and metastasis. Since both receptors are overexpressed on distinct tumor cells and on the tumor vasculature, we evaluated their potential as targets for detection of cancers by molecular imaging. We synthesized conjugates of CXCL12 and the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye IRDye((R))800CW, tested their selectivity, sensitivity and biological activity in vitro and their feasibility to visualize tumors in vivo. Purified CXCL12-conjugates detected in vitro as low as 500 A764 human glioma cells or MCF-7 breast cancer cells that express CXCR7 alone or together with CXCR4. Binding was time- and concentration-dependent, and the label could be competitively displaced by the native peptide. Control conjugates with bovine serum albumin or lactalbumin failed to label the cells. In mice, the conjugate distributed rapidly. After 1-92 h, subcutaneous tumors of human MCF-7 and A764 cells in immunodeficient mice were detected with high sensitivity. Background was observed in particular in liver within the first 24 h, but also skull and hind limbs yielded some background. Overall, fluorescent CXCL12-conjugates are sensitive and selective probes to detect solid and metastatic tumors by targeting tumor cells and tumor vasculature.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21735100
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 13
      15. Serial :
        10372
      1. Author :
        Zollo, M.; Di Dato, V.; Spano, D.; De Martino, D.; Liguori, L.; Marino, N.; Vastolo, V.; Navas, L.; Garrone, B.; Mangano, G.; Biondi, G.; Guglielmotti, A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Clin Exp Metastasis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        PC-3M-luc2, PC3M-luc2, IVIS, Prostate Cancer, Bioware, Animals; Breast Neoplasms/*pathology; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement; Cell Proliferation; Chemokine CCL2/*biosynthesis/chemistry/metabolism; Female; Humans; Indazoles/*pharmacology; Macrophages/metabolism; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; NF-kappa B/metabolism; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasm Transplantation; Propionates/*pharmacology; Prostatic Neoplasms/*pathology; Signal Transduction
      12. Abstract :
        Prostate and breast cancer are major causes of death worldwide, mainly due to patient relapse upon disease recurrence through formation of metastases. Chemokines are small proteins with crucial roles in the immune system, and their regulation is finely tuned in early inflammatory responses. They are key molecules during inflammatory processes, and many studies are focusing on their regulatory functions in tumor growth and angiogenesis during metastatic cell seeding and spreading. Bindarit is an anti-inflammatory indazolic derivative that can inhibit the synthesis of MCP-1/CCL2, with a potential inhibitory function in tumor progression and metastasis formation. We show here that in vitro, bindarit can modulate cancer-cell proliferation and migration, mainly through negative regulation of TGF-beta and AKT signaling, and it can impair the NF-kappaB signaling pathway through enhancing the expression of the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkB-alpha. In vivo administration of bindarit results in impaired metastatic disease in prostate cancer xenograft mice (PC-3M-Luc2 cells injected intra-cardially) and impairment of local tumorigenesis in syngeneic Balb/c mice injected under the mammary gland with murine breast cancer cells (4T1-Luc cells). In addition, bindarit treatment significantly decreases the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in 4T1-Luc primary tumors. Overall, our data indicate that bindarit is a good candidate for new therapies against prostate and breast tumorigenesis, with an action through impairment of inflammatory cell responses during formation of the tumor-stroma niche microenvironment.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22484917
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10489
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Clinical & experimental metastasis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        26
      8. Issue :
        7
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        4T1-luc2; Animals; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Disease Models, Animal; DNA-Binding Proteins; Female; Flow Cytometry; Killer Cells, Natural; Lung Neoplasms; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Knockout; Mice, SCID; Neoplasm Metastasis; Rats
      12. Abstract :
        The occurrence of metastases is a critical determinant of the prognosis for breast cancer patients. Effective treatment of breast cancer metastases is hampered by a poor understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of these secondary tumor deposits. To study the processes of metastasis, valid in vivo tumor metastasis models are required. Here, we show that increased expression of the EGF receptor in the MTLn3 rat mammary tumor cell-line is essential for efficient lung metastasis formation in the Rag mouse model. EGFR expression resulted in delayed orthotopic tumor growth but at the same time strongly enhanced intravasation and lung metastasis. Previously, we demonstrated the critical role of NK cells in a lung metastasis model using MTLn3 cells in syngenic F344 rats. However, this model is incompatible with human EGFR. Using the highly metastatic EGFR-overexpressing MTLn3 cell-line, we report that only Rag2(-/-)gammac(-/-) mice, which lack NK cells, allow efficient lung metastasis from primary tumors in the mammary gland. In contrast, in nude and SCID mice, the remaining innate immune cells reduce MTLn3 lung metastasis formation. Furthermore, we confirm this finding with the orthotopic transplantation of the 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cell-line. Thus, we have established an improved in vivo model using a Rag2(-/-) gammac(-/-) mouse strain together with MTLn3 cells that have increased levels of the EGF receptor, which enables us to study EGFR-dependent tumor cell autonomous mechanisms underlying lung metastasis formation. This improved model can be used for drug target validation and development of new therapeutic strategies against breast cancer metastasis formation.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19466569
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8940
      1. Author :
        Jenkins, Darlene E; Oei, Yoko; Hornig, Yvette S; Yu, Shang-Fan; Dusich, Joan; Purchio, Tony; Contag, Pamela R
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2003
      5. Publication :
        Clinical & experimental metastasis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        20
      8. Issue :
        8
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        A549-luc-C8; Animals; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Colonic Neoplasms; Fluorouracil; HT-29-luc-D6 cells; Humans; Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted; Longitudinal Studies; Luciferases; Luminescent Measurements; Lung Neoplasms; Lymphatic Metastasis; Male; Mice; Mice, SCID; Mitomycin; Models, Biological; Neoplasm Transplantation; PC-3M-luc; Prostatic Neoplasms
      12. Abstract :
        Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) permits sensitive in vivo detection and quantification of cells specifically engineered to emit visible light. Three stable human tumor cell lines engineered to express luciferase were assessed for their tumorigenicity in subcutaneous, intravenous and spontaneous metastasis models. Bioluminescent PC-3M-luc-C6 human prostate cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into SCID-beige mice and were monitored for tumor growth and response to 5-FU and mitomycin C treatments. Progressive tumor development and inhibition/regression following drug treatment were observed and quantified in vivo using BLI. Imaging data correlated to standard external caliper measurements of tumor volume, but bioluminescent data permitted earlier detection of tumor growth. In a lung colonization model, bioluminescent A549-luc-C8 human lung cancer cells were injected intravenously and lung metastases were monitored in vivo by whole animal imaging. Anesthetized mice were imaged weekly allowing a temporal assessment of in vivo lung tumor growth. This longitudinal study design permitted an accurate, real-time evaluation of tumor burden in the same animals over time. End-point bioluminescence measured in vivo correlated to total lung weight at necropsy. For a spontaneous metastatic tumor model, bioluminescent HT-29-luc-D6 human colon cancer cells implanted subcutaneously produced metastases to lung and lymph nodes in SCID-beige mice. Both primary tumors and micrometastases were detected by BLI in vivo. Ex vivo imaging of excised lung lobes and lymph nodes confirmed the in vivo signals and indicated a slightly higher frequency of metastasis in some mice. Levels of bioluminescence from in vivo and ex vivo images corresponded to the frequency and size of metastatic lesions in lungs and lymph nodes as subsequently confirmed by histology. In summary, BLI provided rapid, non-invasive monitoring of tumor growth and regression in animals. Its application to traditional oncology animal models offers quantitative and sensitive analysis of tumor growth and metastasis. The ability to temporally assess tumor development and responses to drug therapies in vivo also improves upon current standard animal models that are based on single end point data.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14713107
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8980
      1. Author :
        Jenkins, Darlene E; Yu, Shang-Fan; Hornig, Yvette S; Purchio, Tony; Contag, Pamela R
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2003
      5. Publication :
        Clinical & experimental metastasis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        20
      8. Issue :
        8
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antineoplastic Agents; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Disease Models, Animal; Heart Neoplasms; Humans; Injections, Subcutaneous; Luminescent Measurements; Lung Neoplasms; Lymphatic Metastasis; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Nude; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local; PC-3M-luc; Prostatic Neoplasms
      12. Abstract :
        We used the bioluminescent human prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3M-luc-C6 to non-invasively monitor in vivo growth and response of tumors and metastasis before, during and after treatments. Our goal was to determine the utility of a luciferase-based prostate cancer animal model to specifically assess tumor and metastatic recurrence in vivo following chemotherapy. Bioluminescent PC-3M-luc-C6 cells, constitutively expressing luciferase, were implanted into the prostate or under the skin of mice for primary tumor assessment. Cells were also injected into the left ventricle of the heart as an experimental metastasis model. Weekly serial in vivo images were taken of anesthetized mice that were untreated or treated with 5-fluorouracil or mitomycin C. Ex vivo imaging and/or histology was used to confirm and localize metastatic lesions in various tissues initially detected by images in vivo. Our in vivo data detected and quantified early inhibition of subcutaneous and orthotopic prostate tumors in mice as well as significant tumor regrowth post-treatment. Local and distal metastasis was observed within seven days following intracardiac injection of PC-3M-luc-C6 cells. Differential drug responses and metastatic tumor relapse patterns were distinguished over time by in vivo imaging depending on the metastatic site. The longitudinal evaluation of bioluminescent tumor and metastatic development within the same cohorts of animals permitted sensitive and quantitative assessment of both primary and metastatic prostate tumor response and recurrence in vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14713108
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8981
      1. Author :
        Jenkins, D. E.; Oei, Y.; Hornig, Y. S.; Yu, S. F.; Dusich, J.; Purchio, T.; Contag, P. R.
      2. Title :
        Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to improve and refine traditional murine models of tumor growth and metastasis
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2003
      5. Publication :
        Clinical and Experimental Metastasis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        20
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        A549-luc-C8 cells; Animals, Cell Line, Tumor, Colonic Neoplasms/pathology, Fluorouracil/therapeutic use, Humans, Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted, Longitudinal Studies, Luciferases/diagnostic use, Luminescent Measurements, Lung Neoplasms/ secondary, Lymphatic Metastasis, Male, Mice, Mice, SCID, Mitomycin/therapeutic use, Models, Biological, Neoplasm Transplantation, Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy/ pathology IVIS, Xenogen
      12. Abstract :
        Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) permits sensitive in vivo detection and quantification of cells specifically engineered to emit visible light. Three stable human tumor cell lines engineered to express luciferase were assessed for their tumorigenicity in subcutaneous, intravenous and spontaneous metastasis models. Bioluminescent PC-3M-luc-C6 human prostate cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into SCID-beige mice and were monitored for tumor growth and response to 5-FU and mitomycin C treatments. Progressive tumor development and inhibition/regression following drug treatment were observed and quantified in vivo using BLI. Imaging data correlated to standard external caliper measurements of tumor volume, but bioluminescent data permitted earlier detection of tumor growth. In a lung colonization model, bioluminescent A549-luc-C8 human lung cancer cells were injected intravenously and lung metastases were monitored in vivo by whole animal imaging. Anesthetized mice were imaged weekly allowing a temporal assessment of in vivo lung tumor growth. This longitudinal study design permitted an accurate, real-time evaluation of tumor burden in the same animals over time. End-point bioluminescence measured in vivo correlated to total lung weight at necropsy. For a spontaneous metastatic tumor model, bioluminescent HT-29-luc-D6 human colon cancer cells implanted subcutaneously produced metastases to lung and lymph nodes in SCID-beige mice. Both primary tumors and micrometastases were detected by BLI in vivo. Ex vivo imaging of excised lung lobes and lymph nodes confirmed the in vivo signals and indicated a slightly higher frequency of metastasis in some mice. Levels of bioluminescence from in vivo and ex vivo images corresponded to the frequency and size of metastatic lesions in lungs and lymph nodes as subsequently confirmed by histology. In summary, BLI provided rapid, non-invasive monitoring of tumor growth and regression in animals. Its application to traditional oncology animal models offers quantitative and sensitive analysis of tumor growth and metastasis. The ability to temporally assess tumor development and responses to drug therapies in vivo also improves upon current standard animal models that are based on single end point data.
      13. URL :
        N/A
      14. Call Number :
        139189
      15. Serial :
        5565
      1. Author :
        Palma, Joann P; Wang, Yi-Chun; Rodriguez, Luis E; Montgomery, Debra; Ellis, Paul A; Bukofzer, Gail; Niquette, Amanda; Liu, Xuesong; Shi, Yan; Lasko, Loren; Zhu, Gui-Dong; Penning, Thomas D; Giranda, Vincent L; Rosenberg, Saul H; Frost, David J; Donawho, Cherrie K
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Clinical cancer research: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        15
      8. Issue :
        23
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Benzimidazoles; Bioware; Dacarbazine; DNA Damage; DNA Modification Methylases; DNA Repair; DNA Repair Enzymes; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm; Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor; Humans; MDA-MB-231-D3H2LN cells; Mice; Mice, SCID; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasm Transplantation; Tumor Suppressor Proteins
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE ABT-888, currently in phase 2 trials, is a potent oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that enhances the activity of multiple DNA-damaging agents, including temozolomide (TMZ). We investigated ABT-888+TMZ combination therapy in multiple xenograft models representing various human tumors having different responses to TMZ. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN ABT-888+TMZ efficacy in xenograft tumors implanted in subcutaneous, orthotopic, and metastatic sites was assessed by tumor burden, expression of poly(ADP-ribose) polymer, and O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT). RESULTS Varying levels of ABT-888+TMZ sensitivity were evident across a broad histologic spectrum of models (55-100% tumor growth inhibition) in B-cell lymphoma, small cell lung carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, pancreatic, ovarian, breast, and prostate xenografts, including numerous regressions. Combination efficacy in otherwise TMZ nonresponsive tumors suggests that TMZ resistance may be overcome by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition. Profound ABT-888+TMZ efficacy was seen in experimental metastases models that acquired resistance to TMZ. Moreover, TMZ resistance was overcome in crossover treatments, indicating that combination therapy may overcome acquired TMZ resistance. Neither tumor MGMT, mismatch repair, nor poly(ADP-ribose) polymer correlated with the degree of sensitivity to ABT-888+TMZ. CONCLUSIONS Robust ABT-888+TMZ efficacy is observed across a spectrum of tumor types, including orthotopic and metastatic implantation. As many TMZ nonresponsive tumors proved sensitive to ABT-888+TMZ, this novel combination may broaden the clinical use of TMZ beyond melanoma and glioma. Although TMZ resistance may be influenced by MGMT, neither MGMT nor other mechanisms of TMZ resistance (mismatch repair) precluded sensitivity to ABT-888+TMZ. Underlying mechanisms of TMZ resistance in these models are not completely understood but likely involve mechanisms independent of MGMT.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19934293
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8954
      1. Author :
        Ketonis, Constantinos; Barr, Stephanie; Adams, Christopher S; Hickok, Noreen J; Parvizi, Javad
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Clinical orthopaedics and related research
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        468
      8. Issue :
        8
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Anti-Bacterial Agents; Biofilms; Bioware; Bone Substitutes; Bone Transplantation; Prostheses and Implants; Prosthesis-Related Infections; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Transplantation, Homologous; Vancomycin; Xen36
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND Bone grafts are frequently used to supplement bone stock and to establish structural stability. However, graft-associated infection represents a challenging complication leading to increased patient morbidity and healthcare costs. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES We therefore designed this study to (1) determine if increasing initial S. aureus inoculation of bone allograft results in a proportionate increase in colonization; (2) assess if antibiotics decrease colonization and if antibiotic tethering to allograft alters its ability to prevent bacterial colonization; and (3) determine if covalent modification alters the allograft topography or its biological properties. METHODS Allograft bone and vancomycin-modified bone (VAN-bone) was challenged with different doses of S. aureus for times out to 24 hours in the presence or absence of solution vancomycin. Bacterial colonization was assessed by fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by direct colony counting. Cell density and distribution of osteoblast-like cells on control and modified allograft were then compared. RESULTS Bacterial attachment was apparent within 6 hours with colonization and biofilm formation increasing with time and dose. Solution vancomycin failed to prevent bacterial attachment whereas VAN-bone successfully resisted colonization. The allograft modification did not affect the attachment and distribution of osteoblast-like cells. CONCLUSIONS Allograft bone was readily colonized by S. aureus and covered by a biofilm with especially florid growth in natural topographic niches. Using a novel covalent modification, allograft bone was able to resist colonization by organisms while retaining the ability to allow adhesion of osteoblastic cells. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Generation of allograft bone that can resist infection in vivo would be important in addressing one of the most challenging problems associated with the use of allograft, namely infection.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20361282
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9981
      1. Author :
        Priddle, Helen; Grabowska, Anna; Morris, Teresa; Clarke, Philip A; McKenzie, Andrew J; Sottile, Virginie; Denning, Chris; Young, Lorraine; Watson, Sue
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Cloning and stem cells
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        11
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Cell Differentiation; Chick Embryo; Embryonic Stem Cells; Fluorescent Dyes; Humans; Luciferases; Luminescent Measurements; Mice; Mice, SCID; PC-3M-luc; Software; Stem Cell Transplantation; Teratoma
      12. Abstract :
        Research into the behavior, efficacy, and biosafety of stem cells with a view to clinical transplantation requires the development of noninvasive methods for in vivo imaging of cells transplanted into animal models. This is particularly relevant for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), because transplantation of undifferentiated hESCs leads to tumor formation. The present study aimed to monitor hESCs in real time when injected in vivo. hESCs were stably transfected to express luciferase, and luciferase expression was clearly detected in the undifferentiated and differentiated state. When transfected hESCs were injected into chick embryos, bioluminescence could be detected both ex and in ovo. In the SCID mouse model, undifferentiated hESCs were detectable after injection either into the muscle layer of the peritoneum or the kidney capsule. Tumors became detectable between days 10-30, with approximately a 3 log increase in the luminescence signal by day 75. The growth phase occurred earlier in the kidney capsule and then reached a plateau, whilst tumors in the peritoneal wall grew steadily throughout the period analysed. These results show the widespread utility of bioluminescent for in vivo imaging of hESCs in a variety of model systems for preclinical research into regenerative medicine and cancer biology.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19522673
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8961
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