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      1. Author :
        Fu, A.; Wilson, R. J.; Smith, B. R.; Mullenix, J.; Earhart, C.; Akin, D.; Guccione, S.; Wang, S. X.; Gambhir, S. S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        ACS Nano
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Fluorescent Dyes/*chemistry/*diagnostic use; Glioblastoma/*pathology; Humans; Magnetic Fields; Magnetite Nanoparticles/*diagnostic use; Materials Testing; Mice; Mice, SCID; Microscopy, Fluorescence/*methods; Nanocapsules/*chemistry/ultrastructure; Particle Size
      12. Abstract :
        Early detection and targeted therapy are two major challenges in the battle against cancer. Novel imaging contrast agents and targeting approaches are greatly needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of cancer theranostic agents. Here, we implemented a novel approach using a magnetic micromesh and biocompatible fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles (FMN) to magnetically enhance cancer targeting in living subjects. This approach enables magnetic targeting of systemically administered individual FMN, containing a single 8 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide core. Using a human glioblastoma mouse model, we show that nanoparticles can be magnetically retained in both the tumor neovasculature and surrounding tumor tissues. Magnetic accumulation of nanoparticles within the neovasculature was observable by fluorescence intravital microscopy in real time. Finally, we demonstrate that such magnetically enhanced cancer targeting augments the biological functions of molecules linked to the nanoparticle surface.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22857784
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10434
      1. Author :
        Nowatzki, P. J.; Koepsel, R. R.; Stoodley, P.; Min, K.; Harper, A.; Murata, H.; Donfack, J.; Hortelano, E. R.; Ehrlich, G. D.; Russell, A. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Acta Biomater
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        8
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        Biofilm-associated infections are a major complication of implanted and indwelling medical devices like urological and venous catheters. They commonly persist even in the presence of an oral or intravenous antibiotic regimen, often resulting in chronic illness. We have developed a new approach to inhibiting biofilm growth on synthetic materials through controlled release of salicylic acid from a polymeric coating. Herein we report the synthesis and testing of a ultraviolet-cured polyurethane acrylate polymer composed, in part, of salicyl acrylate, which hydrolyzes upon exposure to aqueous conditions, releasing salicylic acid while leaving the polymer backbone intact. The salicylic acid release rate was tuned by adjusting the polymer composition. Anti-biofilm performance of the coatings was assessed under several biofilm forming conditions using a novel combination of the MBEC Assay biofilm multi-peg growth system and bioluminescence monitoring for live cell quantification. Films of the salicylic acid-releasing polymers were found to inhibit biofilm formation, as shown by bioluminescent and GFP reporter strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Urinary catheters coated on their inner lumens with the salicylic acid-releasing polymer significantly reduced biofilm formation by E. coli for up to 5 days under conditions that simulated physiological urine flow.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22342353
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 4
      15. Serial :
        10394
      1. Author :
        Engelsman, Anton F; Krom, Bastiaan P; Busscher, Henk J; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Ploeg, Rutger J; van der Mei, Henny C
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Acta biomaterialia
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        5
      8. Issue :
        6
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bioware; Connective Tissue; Diffusion; Drug Implants; Female; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Nitric Oxide; Polyvinyls; Prostheses and Implants; pXen-5; Staphylococcal Infections; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        Infection of surgical meshes used in abdominal wall reconstructions often leads to removal of the implant and increases patient morbidity due to repetitive operations and hospital administrations. Treatment with antibiotics is ineffective due to the biofilm mode of growth of the infecting bacteria and bears the risk of inducing antibiotic resistance. Hence there is a need for alternative methods to prevent and treat mesh infection. Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing coatings have been demonstrated to possess bactericidal properties in vitro. It is the aim of this study to assess possible benefits of a low concentration NO-releasing carbon-based coating on monofilament polypropylene meshes with respect to infection control in vitro and in vivo. When applied on surgical meshes, NO-releasing coatings showed significant bactericidal effect on in vitro biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and CNS. However, using bioluminescent in vivo imaging, no beneficial effects of this NO-releasing coating on subcutaneously implanted surgical meshes in mice could be observed.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19251498
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9019
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Acta biomaterialia
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        3
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Bacterial Adhesion; Biocompatible Materials; Biofilms; Bioware; Coated Materials, Biocompatible; Materials Testing; Polyethylene Glycols; Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Surface Properties; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coatings are known to reduce microbial adhesion in terms of numbers and binding strength. However, bacterial adhesion remains of the order of 10(4)cm(-2). It is unknown whether this density of bacteria will eventually grow into a biofilm. This study investigates the kinetics of staphylococcal biofilm formation on a commercially produced, robust, cross-linked PEG-based polymer coating (OptiChem) in vitro and in vivo. OptiChem inhibits biofilm formation in vitro, and although adsorption of plasma proteins encourages biofilm formation, microbial growth kinetics are still strongly delayed compared to uncoated glass. In vivo, OptiChem-coated and bare silicone rubber samples were inserted into an infected murine subcutaneous pocket model. In contrast to bare silicone rubber, OptiChem samples did not become colonized upon reimplantation despite the fact that surrounding tissues were always culture-positive. We conclude that the commercial OptiChem coating considerably slows down bacterial biofilm formation both in vitro and in vivo, making it an attractive candidate for biomaterials implant coating.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733265
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9041
      1. Author :
        Pan, Y.; Zhong, L. J.; Zhou, H.; Wang, X.; Chen, K.; Yang, H. P.; Xiaokaiti, Y.; Maimaiti, A.; Jiang, L.; Li, X. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Acta Pharmacol Sin
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        33
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, B16-F10-luc-G5, B16F10-luc-G5, B16-F10-luc, B16F10-luc, 14-3-3 Proteins/*genetics; Animals; Anticoagulants/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Apoptosis/drug effects; Cadherins/genetics; Cell Cycle/drug effects; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation/*drug effects; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects; Heparin/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Humans; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Nude; Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy/genetics; Neoplasms/*drug therapy/genetics; Prostate/drug effects/metabolism; Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics; Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics; Vimentin/*genetics
      12. Abstract :
        AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effects of heparin on PC-3M cells proliferation in vitro and B16-F10-luc-G5 cells metastasis in Balb/c nude mice and identify the protein expression patterns to elucidate the action mechanism of heparin. METHODS: Human prostate cancer PC-3M cells were incubated with heparin 0.5 to 125 mug/mL for 24 h. The proliferation of PC-3M cells was assessed by MTS assay. BrdU incoporation and Ki67 expression were detected using a high content screening (HCS) assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of PC-3M cells were tested by flow cytometry. B16-F10-luc-G5 cardinoma cells were injected into the lateral tail vein of 6-week old male Balb/c nude mice and heparin 30 mg/kg was administered iv 30 min before and 24 h after injection. The metasis of B16-F10-luc-G5 cells was detected by bioluminescence assay. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and hemorheological parameters were measured on d 14 after injection of B16-F10-luc-G5 carcinoma cells in Balb/c mice. The global protein changes in PC-3M cells and frozen lung tissues from mice burdened with B16-F10-luc-G5 cells were determined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and image analysis. The protein expression of vimentin and 14-3-3 zeta/delta was measured by Western blot. The mRNA transcription of vimentin, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, E-cadherin, and alpha(v)-integrin was measured by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Heparin 25 and 125 mug/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation, arrested the cells in G(1) phase, and suppressed BrdU incorporation and Ki67 expression in PC-3M cells compared with the model group. But it had no significant effect on apoptosis of PC-3M cells. Heparin 30 mg/kg markedly inhibits the metastasis of B16-F10-luc-G5 cells on day 8. Additionally, heparin administration maintained relatively normal red blood hematocrit but had no influence on APTT in nude mice burdened with B16-F10-luc-G5 cells. Thirty of down-regulated protein spots were identified after heparin treatment, many of which are related to tumor development, extracellular signaling, energy metabolism, and cellular proliferation. Vimentin and 14-3-3 zeta/delta were identified in common in PC-3M cells and the lungs of mice bearing B16-F10-luc-G5 carcinoma cells. Heparin 25 and 125 mug/mL decreased the protein expression of vimentin and 14-3-3 zeta/delta and the mRNA expression of alpha(v)-integrin. Heparin 125 mug/mL decreased vimentin and E-cadherin mRNA transcription while increased TGF-beta mRNA transcription in the PC-3M cells, but the differences were not significant. Transfection of vimentin-targeted siRNA for 48 h significantly decreased the BrdU incoporation and Ki67 expression in PC-3M cells. CONCLUSION: Heparin inhibited PC-3M cell proliferation in vitro and B16-F10-luc-G5 cells metastasis in nude mice by inhibition of vimentin, 14-3-3 zeta/delta, and alpha(v)-integrin expression.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22669117
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 13
      15. Serial :
        10534
      1. Author :
        Nakayama, H.; Kawase, T.; Okuda, K.; Wolff, L. F.; Yoshie, H.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Acta Radiol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        52
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense,, Animals; Bone Neoplasms/*pathology/physiopathology; Calcification, Physiologic/*physiology; Diphosphonates/diagnostic use; Feasibility Studies; Inositol/analogs & derivatives/diagnostic use; Mice; Mice, Hairless; Osteosarcoma/*pathology/physiopathology; Radiopharmaceuticals/diagnostic use; Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared/*methods; Technetium Tc 99m Medronate/analogs & derivatives/diagnostic use; Transplantation, Heterologous
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: In a previous study using a rodent osteosarcoma-grafted rat model, in which cell-dependent mineralization was previously demonstrated to proportionally increase with growth, we performed a quantitative analysis of mineral deposit formation using (99m)Tc-HMDP and found some weaknesses, such as longer acquisition time and narrower dynamic ranges (i.e. images easily saturated). The recently developed near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging technique is expected to non-invasively evaluate changes in living small animals in a quantitative manner. PURPOSE: To test the feasibility of NIR imaging with a dual-channel system as a better alternative for bone scintigraphy by quantitatively evaluating mineralization along with the growth of osteosarcoma lesions in a mouse-xenograft model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The gross volume and mineralization of osteosarcoma lesions were evaluated in living mice simultaneously with dual-channels by NIR dye-labeled probes, 2-deoxyglucose (DG) and pamidronate (OS), respectively. To verify these quantitative data, retrieved osteosarcoma lesions were then subjected to ex-vivo imaging, weighing under wet conditions, microfocus-computed tomography (muCT) analysis, and histopathological examination. RESULTS: Because of less scattering and no anatomical overlapping, as generally shown, specific fluorescence signals targeted to the osteosarcoma lesions could be determined clearly by ex-vivo imaging. These data were well positively correlated with the in-vivo imaging data (r > 0.8, P < 0.02). Other good to excellent correlations (r > 0.8, P < 0.02) were observed between DG accumulation and tumor gross volume and between OS accumulation and mineralization volume. CONCLUSION: This in-vivo NIR imaging technique using DG and OS is sensitive to the level to simultaneously detect and quantitatively evaluate the growth and mineralization occuring in this type of osteosarcoma lesions of living mice without either invasion or sacrifice. By possible mutual complementation, this dual imaging system might be useful for accurate diagnosis even in the presence of overlapping tissues.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21969703
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 7
      15. Serial :
        10472
      1. Author :
        Krespi, Y. P.; Kizhner, V.; Nistico, L.; Hall-Stoodley, L.; Stoodley, P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Am J Otolaryngol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        32
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen31, Xen 31, MRSA, S. aureus, IVIS, Bioluminescence, Biofilms/drug effects/*radiation effects; Ciprofloxacin/*pharmacology; Culture Media; High-Energy Shock Waves; Humans; *Laser Therapy, Low-Level; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/*growth &; development/physiology/*radiation effects; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Reference Values; Sensitivity and Specificity; Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared; Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to study the efficacy of 2 different lasers in vitro, in disrupting biofilm and killing planktonic pathogenic bacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biofilms of a stable bioluminescent of Staphylococcus aureus Xen 31 were grown in a 96-well microtiter plate for 3 days. The study included 7 arms: (a) control; (b) ciprofloxacin (3 mg/L, the established minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]) alone; (c) shock wave (SW) laser alone; (d) near-infrared (NIR) laser alone; (e) SW laser and ciprofloxacin; (f) SW and NIR lasers; (g) SW, NIR lasers, and ciprofloxacin. The results were evaluated with an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) biophotonic system (for live bacteria) and optical density (OD) for total bacteria. RESULTS: Without antibiotics, there was a 43% reduction in OD (P < .05) caused by the combination of SW and NIR suggesting that biofilm had been disrupted. There was an 88% reduction (P < .05) in live biofilm. Ciprofloxacin alone resulted in a decrease of 28% of total live cells (biofilm remaining attached) and 58% of biofilm cells (both P > .05). Ciprofloxacin in combination with SW and SW + NIR lasers caused a decrease of more than 60% in total live biomass and more than 80% of biofilm cells, which was significantly greater than ciprofloxacin alone (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated an effective nonpharmacologic treatment method for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm disruption and killing using 2 different lasers. The preferred treatment sequence is a SW laser disruption of biofilm followed by NIR laser illumination. Treatment optimization of biofilm is possible with the addition of ciprofloxacin in concentrations consistent with planktonic MIC.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20434806
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10554
      1. Author :
        Xie, Chao; Liang, Bojian; Xue, Ming; Lin, Angela S.P.; Loiselle, Alayna; Schwarz, Edward M.; Guldberg, Robert E.; O'Keefe, Regis J.; Zhang, Xinping
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Am J Pathol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        175
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen10, Xen 10, Streptococcus pneumoniae Xen10, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        Although the essential role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in fracture healing is known, the targeted genes and molecular pathways remain unclear. Using prostaglandin E2 receptor (EP)2 and EP4 agonists, we examined the effects of EP receptor activation in compensation for the lack of COX-2 during fracture healing. In a fracture-healing model, COX-2-/- mice showed delayed initiation and impaired endochondral bone repair, accompanied by a severe angiogenesis deficiency. The EP4 agonist markedly improved the impaired healing in COX-2-/- mice, as evidenced by restoration of bony callus formation on day 14, a near complete reversal of bone formation, and an approximately 70% improvement of angiogenesis in the COX-2-/- callus. In comparison, the EP2 agonist only marginally enhanced bone formation in COX-2-/- mice. To determine the differential roles of EP2 and EP4 receptors on COX-2-mediated fracture repair, the effects of selective EP agonists on chondrogenesis were examined in E11.5 long-term limb bud micromass cultures. Only the EP4 agonist significantly increased cartilage nodule formation similar to that observed during prostaglandin E2 treatment. The prostaglandin E2/EP4 agonist also stimulated MMP-9 expression in bone marrow stromal cell cultures. The EP4 agonist further restored the reduction of MMP-9 expression in the COX-2-/- fracture callus. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that EP2 and EP4 have differential functions during endochondral bone repair. Activation of EP4, but not EP2 rescued impaired bone fracture healing in COX-2-/- mice.
      13. URL :
        http://ajp.amjpathol.org/cgi/content/abstract/175/2/772
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10401
      1. Author :
        Zhang, J.; Preda, D. V.; Vasquez, K. O.; Morin, J.; Delaney, J.; Bao, B.; Percival, M. D.; Xu, D.; McKay, D.; Klimas, M.; Bednar, B.; Sur, C.; Gao, D. Z.; Madden, K.; Yared, W.; Rajopadhye, M.; Peterson, J. D.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Am J Physiol Renal Physiol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        303
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        F593-603
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        ReninSense 680 FAST, FMT, Animal Feed/analysis; Animals; Cathepsin D; Cathepsin G; Female; Fluorescent Dyes/*pharmacology; Humans; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Peptides/*pharmacology; Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism; Rats; Renin/*blood/*metabolism; Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology; Sensitivity and Specificity; Sodium, Dietary
      12. Abstract :
        The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is well studied for its regulation of blood pressure and fluid homeostasis, as well as for increased activity associated with a variety of diseases and conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and kidney disease. The enzyme renin cleaves angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I (ANG I), which is further cleaved by angiotensin-converting enzyme to produce ANG II. Although ANG II is the main effector molecule of the RAS, renin is the rate-limiting enzyme, thus playing a pivotal role in regulating RAS activity in hypertension and organ injury processes. Our objective was to develop a near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) renin-imaging agent for noninvasive in vivo detection of renin activity as a measure of tissue RAS and in vitro plasma renin activity. We synthesized a renin-activatable agent, ReninSense 680 FAST (ReninSense), using a NIRF-quenched substrate derived from angiotensinogen that is cleaved specifically by purified mouse and rat renin enzymes to generate a fluorescent signal. This agent was assessed in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo to detect and quantify increases in plasma and kidney renin activity in sodium-sensitive inbred C57BL/6 mice maintained on a low dietary sodium and diuretic regimen. Noninvasive in vivo fluorescence molecular tomographic imaging of the ReninSense signal in the kidney detected increased renin activity in the kidneys of hyperreninemic C57BL/6 mice. The agent also effectively detected renin activity in ex vivo kidneys, kidney tissue sections, and plasma samples. This approach could provide a new tool for assessing disorders linked to altered tissue and plasma renin activity and to monitor the efficacy of therapeutic treatments.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22674025
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10572
      1. Author :
        Kirby, A. C.; Beattie, L.; Maroof, A.; Rooijen, N. van; Kaye, P. M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        American Journal of Pathology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        175
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen, Xen10
      12. Abstract :
        Marginal zone macrophages in the murine spleen play an important role in the capture of blood-borne pathogens and are viewed as an essential component of host defense against the development of pneumococcal sepsis. However, we and others have previously described the loss of marginal zone macrophages associated with the splenomegaly that follows a variety of viral and protozoal infections; this finding raises the question of whether these infected mice would become more susceptible to secondary pneumococcal infection. Contrary to expectations, we found that mice lacking marginal zone macrophages resulting from Leishmania donovani infection have increased resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 and do not develop sepsis. Using biophotonic imaging, we observed that pneumococci are rapidly trapped in the spleens of L. donovani-infected mice. By selective depletion studies using clodronate liposomes, depleting monoclonal antibodies specific for Ly6C/G and Ly6G, and CD11c-DTR mice, we show that the enhanced early resistance in L. donovani-infected mice is entirely due to the activity of SIGNR1? red pulp macrophages. Our data demonstrate, therefore, that the normal requirement for SIGNR1+ marginal zone macrophages to protect against a primary pneumococcal infection can, under conditions of splenomegaly, be readily compensated for by activated red pulp macrophages.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19644016
      14. Call Number :
        139699
      15. Serial :
        7610
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