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      1. Author :
        Orihuela, Carlos J; Gao, Geli; McGee, Mackenzie; Yu, Jun; Francis, Kevin P; Tuomanen, Elaine
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2003
      5. Publication :
        Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        35
      8. Issue :
        9
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Lung; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Pneumococcal Infections; pXen-5; Serotyping; Streptococcus pneumoniae, Xen10, Xen7, Xen35
      12. Abstract :
        The variability of the course of infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae is well known but poorly understood. Most animal models of pneumonia, sepsis or meningitis have been forced to use site-specific bacterial inoculation to mimic localized human infection. This study examined the differences in the progression of disease-causing strains D39 (serotype 2), A66.1 (serotype 3) and TIGR4 (serotype 4) using isolates transformed with the Gram-positive lux transposon cassette, Tn4001 luxABCDE Km(r). Expression of the lux operon results in bioluminescence, permitting the detection of the bacteria within a living animal while using a CCD camera. Mice infected intranasally with A66.1 developed only pneumonia, those challenged with D39 experienced high-grade sepsis, while TIGR4 infection resulted in low-grade pneumonia and bacteremia ultimately progressing to meningitis. Quantitative analysis of bacterial titers confirmed these patterns, which were consistent across different lineages of mice. Mice anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine developed more severe forms of the disease compared with isoflurane. These studies unambiguously characterize 3 distinct models of the natural course of pneumococcal infection. Mapping these models provides a framework for detailed molecular modeling of pneumococcal virulence determinants at specific stages of disease.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14620149
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9026
      1. Author :
        Filip K. Swirski, Matthias Nahrendorf, Martin Etzrodt, Moritz Wildgruber, Virna Cortez-Retamozo, Peter Panizzi, Jose-Luiz Figueiredo, Rainer H. Kohler, Aleksey Chudnovskiy, Peter Waterman, Elena Aikawa, Thorsten R. Mempel, Peter Libby, Ralph Weissleder and Mikael J. Pittet
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Science
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        325
      8. Issue :
        5940
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cardiovascular Research; Immunology
      11. Keywords :
        splenic monocytes; in vivo imaging; ProSense; FMT; fluorescence molecular tomography
      12. Abstract :
        A current paradigm states that monocytes circulate freely and patrol blood vessels but differentiate irreversibly into dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages upon tissue entry. Here we show that bona fide undifferentiated monocytes reside in the spleen and outnumber their equivalents in circulation. The reservoir monocytes assemble in clusters in the cords of the subcapsular red pulp and are distinct from macrophages and DCs. In response to ischemic myocardial injury, splenic monocytes increase their motility, exit the spleen en masse, accumulate in injured tissue, and participate in wound healing. These observations uncover a role for the spleen as a site for storage and rapid deployment of monocytes and identify splenic monocytes as a resource that the body exploits to regulate inflammation.
      13. URL :
        http://www.sciencemag.org/content/325/5940/612.abstract
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4567
      1. Author :
        Hardy, J.; Francis, K. P.; DeBoer, M.; Chu, P.; Gibbs, K.; Contag, C. H.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2004
      5. Publication :
        Science
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        303
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        animal cell, animal model, article, bacterial colonization, bacterial growth, bacterial virulence, bioluminescence, cell culture, controlled study, extracellular space, gallbladder, in vivo study, Listeria monocytogenes, mouse, nonhuman, priority journal IVIS, Xenogen, Xen32
      12. Abstract :
        The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can cause a life-threatening systemic illness in humans. Despite decades of progress in animal models of listeriosis, much remains unknown about the processes of infection and colonization. Here, we report that L. monocytogenes can replicate in the murine gall bladder and provide evidence that its replication there is extracellular and intraluminal. In vivo bioluminescence imaging was employed to determine the location of the infection over time in live animals, revealing strong signals from the gall bladder over a period of several days, in diseased as well as asymptomatic animals. The data suggest that L. monocytogenes may be carried in the human gall bladder.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14764883
      14. Call Number :
        138442
      15. Serial :
        6154
      1. Author :
        Singh, Abhinav; Massoud, Tarik F; Deroose, Christophe; Gambhir, Sanjiv S
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Seminars in nuclear medicine
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        38
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Bioware; Diagnostic Imaging; Genes, Reporter; Humans; Male; Molecular Probe Techniques; Neoplasm Proteins; PC-3M-luc; Prostatic Neoplasms; Tumor Markers, Biological
      12. Abstract :
        Prostate cancer remains an important and growing health problem. Advances in imaging of prostate cancer may help to achieve earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. We review the various strategies using reporter genes for molecular imaging of prostate cancer. These approaches are emerging as valuable tools for monitoring gene expression in laboratory animals and humans. Further development of more sensitive and selective reporters, combined with improvements in detection technology, will consolidate the position of reporter gene imaging as a versatile method for understanding of intracellular biological processes and the underlying molecular basis of prostate cancer, as well as potentially establishing a future role in the clinical management of patients afflicted with this disease.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18096460
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8966
      1. Author :
        Chung, HM; Cartwright, MM; Bortz, DM; Jackson, TL; Younger, JG
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Shock
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        30
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen, Xen39
      12. Abstract :
        Unlike many localized infections, the development and resolution of bacteremia involves physical and immunological interactions between many anatomic sites. In an effort to better understand these interactions, we developed a computational model of bacteremia as a dynamical system fashioned after multicompartmental pharmacodynamic models, incorporating bacterial proliferation and clearance in the blood, liver, spleen, and lungs, and the transport of pathogens between these sites. A system of four first-order homogeneous ODEs was developed. Blood and organ bacterial burdens were measured at various time points from 3 to 48 h postinoculation using an LD25 murine model of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteremia. Using these empiric data, solutions to the mathematical model were recovered. A bootstrap resampling method was used to generate 95% confidence intervals around the solved parameters. The validity of the model was examined in parallel experiments using animals acutely immunocompromised with cyclophosphamide; the model captured abnormalities in bacterial partitioning previously described with this antineoplastic agent. Lastly, the approach was used to explore possible benefits to clinically observed hyperdynamic blood flow during sepsis: in simulation, normal mice, but not those treated with cyclophosphamide, enjoyed significantly more rapid bacterial clearance from the bloodstream under hyperdynamic conditions.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18317411
      14. Call Number :
        136975
      15. Serial :
        5976
      1. Author :
        Lee, S. K.; Han, M. S.; Asokan, S.; Tung, C. H.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Small
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        364-70
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        LnCaP-luc2, Prostate Cancer, IVIS, *Gene Silencing; *Gold; Metal Nanoparticles/*chemistry/ultrastructure; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission; Polylysine/chemistry; RNA, Small Interfering/*genetics
      12. Abstract :
        Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been widely proposed to treat various diseases by silencing genes, but its delivery remains a challenge. A well controlled assembly approach is applied to prepare a protease-assisted nanodelivery system. Protease-degradable poly-L-lysine (PLL) and siRNA are fabricated onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), by alternating the charged polyelectrolytes. In this study, up to 4 layers of PLL and 3 layers of siRNA (sR3P) are coated. Due to the slow degradation of PLL, the incorporated siRNA is released gradually and shows extended gene-silencing effects. Importantly, the inhibition effect in cells is found to correlate with the number of siRNA layers.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21294265
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10547
      1. Author :
        Liang, H.; Ma, S. Y.; Mohammad, K.; Guise, T. A.; Balian, G.; Shen, F. H.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Spine (Phila Pa 1976)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        36
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H1, MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H1, IVIS, Bioware, Breast Cancer
      12. Abstract :
        STUDY DESIGN: In vivo experiments to develop a rat spine single metastasis model by using human breast cancer cells. OBJECTIVE: To study the survival and tumorigenesis of the human breast cancer cells after transplantation to vertebral body (VB) by intraosseous injection as a model for therapeutic studies of spine metastatic tumor. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VBs are the most common bones involved in the metastases of breast cancer. To develop experimental therapeutics requires an appropriate animal model. Moreover, it is also important to establish accurate and sensitive detection methods for the evaluation. METHODS: MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were injected into 3-week-old female athymic rats. The tumorigenesis was assayed with quantitative in vivo bioluminescence (IVIS), microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), quantitative CT (qCT), micro position emission tomography (micro-PET), and histologic studies. RESULTS: A spine single metastasis model of human breast cancer was successfully developed in rats. The IVIS signal intensity from the cancer cells increased after 2 weeks. Signal from the tumor in spine can be detected by micro-PET at day 1. The signal intensity decreased after 1 week and then recovered and continually increased afterwards. Bone destruction was demonstrated in the qCT and micro-CT images. However, both qCT and micro-CT found that the bone density in the cancer cell-injected VB increased before the appearance of osteolysis. The growth of tumor and the reaction of bone in the VB were observed simultaneously by histology. CONCLUSION: A spine single metastasis model was developed by injection of human breast cancer cells into the VB of athymic rats. This is the first report of quantitative evaluation with micro-PET in a spine metastasis model. In addition, the detection of osteogenesis after the introduction of MDA-MB-231 cells in vivo is a novel observation.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21422981
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10515
      1. Author :
        Sharma, Prashant K; Engels, Eefje; Van Oeveren, Wim; Ploeg, Rutger J; van Henny der Mei, C; Busscher, Henk J; Van Dam, Gooitzen M; Rakhorst, Gerhard
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        147
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bacteroides fragilis; Diagnostic Imaging; Disease Progression; Escherichia coli; Luciferases, Bacterial; Luminescent Agents; Male; Peritoneal Lavage; Peritonitis; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Xen14
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND Bacterial peritonitis is a life-threatening abdominal infection associated with high morbidity and mortality. The rat is a popular animal model for studying peritonitis and its treatment, but longitudinal monitoring of the progression of peritonitis in live animals has been impossible until now and thus required a large number of animals. Our objective was to develop a noninvasive in vivo imaging technique to monitor the spatiotemporal spread of bacterial peritonitis. METHODS Peritonitis was induced in 8 immunocompetent male Wistar rats by placing fibrin clots containing 5x10(8) cells of both Bacteroides fragilis (American Type Tissue Culture [ATCC)] 25,285 and bioluminescent Escherichia coli Xen14. After 1 or 2 days, infected clots were removed and open abdomen lavage was performed. In vivo bioluminescent imaging was used to monitor the spread of peritonitis. RESULTS Bioluminescent in vivo imaging showed an increase in the area of spread, and the number of E. coli tripled into the rat's abdominal cavity on day 1 after clot insertion; however, on day 2, encapsulation of the clot confined bacterial spread. Bioluminescent E. coli respread over the peritoneal cavity after lavage; within 10 days, however, in vivo imaging showed a decrease of 3-4 orders of magnitude in bacterial load. CONCLUSION Bioluminescent in vivo imaging can be effectively used to monitor the spatiotemporal behavior of the peritonitis during 3 different stages of the disease process: initiation, treatment, and follow-up. Imaging allows researchers to repeatedly image the same animal, thereby reducing variability and providing greater confidence in determining treatment efficacies for therapeutic interventions using a small number of animals.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733882
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        10005
      1. Author :
        Sharma, P. K.; Engels, E.; Van Oeveren, W.; Ploeg, R. J.; van Henny der Mei, C.; Busscher, H. J.; Van Dam, G. M.; Rakhorst, G.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        147
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Animals; Bacteroides fragilis/*isolation & purification; Diagnostic Imaging/methods; Disease Progression; Escherichia coli/*isolation & purification; Luciferases, Bacterial/*diagnostic use; Luminescent Agents/*diagnostic use; Male; Peritoneal Lavage; Peritonitis/*microbiology/pathology/therapy; Rats; Rats, Wistar
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Bacterial peritonitis is a life-threatening abdominal infection associated with high morbidity and mortality. The rat is a popular animal model for studying peritonitis and its treatment, but longitudinal monitoring of the progression of peritonitis in live animals has been impossible until now and thus required a large number of animals. Our objective was to develop a noninvasive in vivo imaging technique to monitor the spatiotemporal spread of bacterial peritonitis. METHODS: Peritonitis was induced in 8 immunocompetent male Wistar rats by placing fibrin clots containing 5x10(8) cells of both Bacteroides fragilis (American Type Tissue Culture [ATCC)] 25,285 and bioluminescent Escherichia coli Xen14. After 1 or 2 days, infected clots were removed and open abdomen lavage was performed. In vivo bioluminescent imaging was used to monitor the spread of peritonitis. RESULTS: Bioluminescent in vivo imaging showed an increase in the area of spread, and the number of E. coli tripled into the rat's abdominal cavity on day 1 after clot insertion; however, on day 2, encapsulation of the clot confined bacterial spread. Bioluminescent E. coli respread over the peritoneal cavity after lavage; within 10 days, however, in vivo imaging showed a decrease of 3-4 orders of magnitude in bacterial load. CONCLUSION: Bioluminescent in vivo imaging can be effectively used to monitor the spatiotemporal behavior of the peritonitis during 3 different stages of the disease process: initiation, treatment, and follow-up. Imaging allows researchers to repeatedly image the same animal, thereby reducing variability and providing greater confidence in determining treatment efficacies for therapeutic interventions using a small number of animals.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733882
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 7
      15. Serial :
        10396