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      1. Author :
        Pello, O. M.; Chevre, R.; Laoui, D.; De Juan, A.; Lolo, F.; Andres-Manzano, M. J.; Serrano, M.; Van Ginderachter, J. A.; Andres, V.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense
      12. Abstract :
        Although tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are involved in tumor growth and metastasis, the mechanisms controlling their pro-tumoral activities remain largely unknown. The transcription factor c-MYC has been recently shown to regulate in vitro human macrophage polarization and be expressed in macrophages infiltrating human tumors. In this study, we exploited the predominant expression of LysM in myeloid cells to generate c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice, which lack c-Myc in macrophages, to investigate the role of macrophage c-MYC expression in cancer. Under steady-state conditions, immune system parameters in c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice appeared normal, including the abundance of different subsets of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, precursors and circulating cells, macrophage density, and immune organ structure. In a model of melanoma, however, TAMs lacking c-Myc displayed a delay in maturation and showed an attenuation of pro-tumoral functions (e.g., reduced expression of VEGF, MMP9, and HIF1alpha) that was associated with impaired tissue remodeling and angiogenesis and limited tumor growth in c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice. Macrophage c-Myc deletion also diminished fibrosarcoma growth. These data identify c-Myc as a positive regulator of the pro-tumoral program of TAMs and suggest c-Myc inactivation as an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23028984
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 33
      15. Serial :
        10376
      1. Author :
        Tsurumi, C.; Esser, N.; Firat, E.; Gaedicke, S.; Follo, M.; Behe, M.; Elsasser-Beile, U.; Grosu, A. L.; Graeser, R.; Niedermann, G.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        5
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Antigens, CD/*biosynthesis/*metabolism; Flow Cytometry/methods; Glioma/metabolism; Glycoproteins/*biosynthesis/*metabolism; Humans; Hybridomas/metabolism; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Models, Biological; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasm Transplantation; Neoplasms/*metabolism; Neoplastic Stem Cells; Peptides/*metabolism; Recurrence
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells are thought to play a pivotal role in tumor maintenance, metastasis, tumor therapy resistance and relapse. Hence, the development of methods for non-invasive in vivo detection of cancer stem cells is of great importance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe successful in vivo detection of CD133/prominin, a cancer stem cell surface marker for a variety of tumor entities. The CD133-specific monoclonal antibody AC133.1 was used for quantitative fluorescence-based optical imaging of mouse xenograft models based on isogenic pairs of CD133 positive and negative cell lines. A first set consisted of wild-type U251 glioblastoma cells, which do not express CD133, and lentivirally transduced CD133-overexpressing U251 cells. A second set made use of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells, which uniformly express CD133 at levels comparable to primary glioblastoma stem cells, and a CD133-negative HCT116 derivative. Not surprisingly, visualization and quantification of CD133 in overexpressing U251 xenografts was successful; more importantly, however, significant differences were also found in matched HCT116 xenograft pairs, despite the lower CD133 expression levels. The binding of i.v.-injected AC133.1 antibodies to CD133 positive, but not negative, tumor cells isolated from xenografts was confirmed by flow cytometry. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results show that non-invasive antibody-based in vivo imaging of tumor-associated CD133 is feasible and that CD133 antibody-based tumor targeting is efficient. This should facilitate developing clinically applicable cancer stem cell imaging methods and CD133 antibody-based therapeutics.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21187924
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 15
      15. Serial :
        10382
      1. Author :
        Lamppa, J. W.; Ackerman, M. E.; Lai, J. I.; Scanlon, T. C.; Griswold, K. E.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen5, Xen 5, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen 5
      12. Abstract :
        Alginate lyase enzymes represent prospective biotherapeutic agents for treating bacterial infections, particularly in the cystic fibrosis airway. To effectively deimmunize one therapeutic candidate while maintaining high level catalytic proficiency, a combined genetic engineering-PEGylation strategy was implemented. Rationally designed, site-specific PEGylation variants were constructed by orthogonal maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. In contrast to random PEGylation of the enzyme by NHS-ester mediated chemistry, controlled mono-PEGylation of A1-III alginate lyase produced a conjugate that maintained wild type levels of activity towards a model substrate. Significantly, the PEGylated variant exhibited enhanced solution phase kinetics with bacterial alginate, the ultimate therapeutic target. The immunoreactivity of the PEGylated enzyme was compared to a wild type control using in vitro binding studies with both enzyme-specific antibodies, from immunized New Zealand white rabbits, and a single chain antibody library, derived from a human volunteer. In both cases, the PEGylated enzyme was found to be substantially less immunoreactive. Underscoring the enzyme's potential for practical utility, >90% of adherent, mucoid, Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were removed from abiotic surfaces following a one hour treatment with the PEGylated variant, whereas the wild type enzyme removed only 75% of biofilms in parallel studies. In aggregate, these results demonstrate that site-specific mono-PEGylation of genetically engineered A1-III alginate lyase yielded an enzyme with enhanced performance relative to therapeutically relevant metrics.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21340021
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10388
      1. Author :
        Xie, B. W.; Mol, I. M.; Keereweer, S.; van Beek, E. R.; Que, I.; Snoeks, T. J.; Chan, A.; Kaijzel, E. L.; Lowik, C. W.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        4T1-luc2, ProSense, MMPSense, CRi, Maestro, IVIS Animals; Benzenesulfonates/diagnostic use; Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation/*methods; Disease Models, Animal; Disease Progression; Fluorescent Dyes/*diagnostic use; Indoles/diagnostic use; Luminescent Measurements/instrumentation/*methods; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/*diagnosis/pathology; Mice
      12. Abstract :
        Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has shown its appeal as a sensitive technique for in vivo whole body optical imaging. However, the development of injectable tumor-specific near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) probes makes fluorescence imaging (FLI) a promising alternative to BLI in situations where BLI cannot be used or is unwanted (e.g., spontaneous transgenic tumor models, or syngeneic mice to study immune effects).In this study, we addressed the questions whether it is possible to detect tumor progression using FLI with appropriate sensitivity and how FLI correlates with BLI measurements. In addition, we explored the possibility to simultaneously detect multiple tumor characteristics by dual-wavelength FLI (~700 and ~800 nm) in combination with spectral unmixing. Using a luciferase-expressing 4T1-luc2 mouse breast cancer model and combinations of activatable and targeting NIRF probes, we showed that the activatable NIRF probes (ProSense680 and MMPSense680) and the targeting NIRF probes (IRDye 800CW 2-DG and IRDye 800CW EGF) were either activated by or bound to 4T1-luc2 cells. In vivo, we implanted 4T1-luc2 cells orthotopically in nude mice and were able to follow tumor progression longitudinally both by BLI and dual-wavelength FLI. We were able to reveal different probe signals within the tumor, which co-localized with immuno-staining. Moreover, we observed a linear correlation between the internal BLI signals and the FLI signals obtained from the NIRF probes. Finally, we could detect pulmonary metastases both by BLI and FLI and confirmed their presence histologically.Taken together, these data suggest that dual-wavelength FLI is a feasible approach to simultaneously detect different features of one tumor and to follow tumor progression with appropriate specificity and sensitivity. This study may open up new perspectives for the detection of tumors and metastases in various experimental models and could also have clinical applications, such as image-guided surgery.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22348134
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10426
      1. Author :
        Bratlie, K. M.; Dang, T. T.; Lyle, S.; Nahrendorf, M.; Weissleder, R.; Langer, R.; Anderson, D. G.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        5
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Prosense, IVIS, Animals; Biocompatible Materials/*diagnostic use; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; *Fluorescence; Macrophage Activation; Materials Testing/*methods; Mice; Models, Animal; Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism; Phagocytes
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Many materials are unsuitable for medical use because of poor biocompatibility. Recently, advances in the high throughput synthesis of biomaterials has significantly increased the number of potential biomaterials, however current biocompatibility analysis methods are slow and require histological analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we develop rapid, non-invasive methods for in vivo quantification of the inflammatory response to implanted biomaterials. Materials were placed subcutaneously in an array format and monitored for host responses as per ISO 10993-6: 2001. Host cell activity in response to these materials was imaged kinetically, in vivo using fluorescent whole animal imaging. Data captured using whole animal imaging displayed similar temporal trends in cellular recruitment of phagocytes to the biomaterials compared to histological analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Histological analysis similarity validates this technique as a novel, rapid approach for screening biocompatibility of implanted materials. Through this technique there exists the possibility to rapidly screen large libraries of polymers in vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386609
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10427
      1. Author :
        Cao, L.; Kobayakawa, S.; Yoshiki, A.; Abe, K.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Abdomen; Animals; Imaging, Three-Dimensional; Liver/cytology; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Microscopy/*instrumentation/*methods; Molecular Imaging/*instrumentation/*methods; Pancreas/cytology/ultrastructure; Time-Lapse Imaging
      12. Abstract :
        Intravital imaging of brain and bone marrow cells in the skull with subcellular resolution has revolutionized neurobiology, immunology and hematology. However, the application of this powerful technology in studies of abdominal organs has long been impeded by organ motion caused by breathing and heartbeat. Here we describe for the first time a simple device designated 'microstage' that effectively reduces organ motions without causing tissue lesions. Combining this microstage device with an upright intravital laser scanning microscope equipped with a unique stick-type objective lens, the system enables subcellular-level imaging of abdominal organs in live mice. We demonstrate that this technique allows for the quantitative analysis of subcellular structures and gene expressions in cells, the tracking of intracellular processes in real-time as well as three-dimensional image construction in the pancreas and liver of the live mouse. As the aforementioned analyses based on subcellular imaging could be extended to other intraperitoneal organs, the technique should offer great potential for investigation of physiological and disease-specific events of abdominal organs. The microstage approach adds an exciting new technique to the in vivo imaging toolbox.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22479464
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10431
      1. Author :
        Kozlowski, C.; Weimer, R. M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Antigens, CD/metabolism; Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism; Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism; Central Nervous System/metabolism; Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics/*metabolism; Immunohistochemistry/*methods; Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Transgenic; Microfilament Proteins/metabolism; Microglia/cytology/drug effects/*metabolism; Microscopy, Confocal/*methods; Receptors, Cytokine/genetics/metabolism; Receptors, HIV/genetics/metabolism; Reproducibility of Results
      12. Abstract :
        Microglia are specialized immune cells of the brain. Upon insult, microglia initiate a cascade of cellular responses including a characteristic change in cell morphology. To study the dynamics of microglia immune response in situ, we developed an automated image analysis method that enables the quantitative assessment of microglia activation state within tissue based solely on cell morphology. Per cell morphometric analysis of fluorescently labeled microglia is achieved through local iterative threshold segmentation, which reduces errors caused by signal-to-noise variation across large volumes. We demonstrate, utilizing systemic application of lipopolysaccharide as a model of immune challenge, that several morphological parameters, including cell perimeter length, cell roundness and soma size, quantitatively distinguish resting versus activated populations of microglia within tissue comparable to traditional immunohistochemistry methods. Furthermore, we provide proof-of-concept data that monitoring soma size enables the longitudinal assessment of microglia activation in the mouse neocortex imaged via 2-photon in vivo microscopy. The ability to quantify microglia activation automatically by shape alone allows unbiased and rapid analysis of both fixed and in vivo central nervous system tissue.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22457705
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 8
      15. Serial :
        10435
      1. Author :
        Bernthal, N. M.; Stavrakis, A. I.; Billi, F.; Cho, J. S.; Kremen, T. J.; Simon, S. I.; Cheung, A. L.; Finerman, G. A.; Lieberman, J. R.; Adams, J. S.; Miller, L. S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        5
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xen29, Xen 29, Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*therapeutic use; Arthroplasty/*adverse effects; Disease Models, Animal; Humans; Joint Diseases/drug therapy/*microbiology/surgery; Joints/microbiology/surgery; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Minocycline/therapeutic use; Postoperative Complications/drug therapy/microbiology/*prevention &; control; Prostheses and Implants; Rifampin/therapeutic use; Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy/microbiology/*prevention &; control/surgery; Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects/genetics/*physiology
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Post-arthroplasty infections represent a devastating complication of total joint replacement surgery, resulting in multiple reoperations, prolonged antibiotic use, extended disability and worse clinical outcomes. As the number of arthroplasties in the U.S. will exceed 3.8 million surgeries per year by 2030, the number of post-arthroplasty infections is projected to increase to over 266,000 infections annually. The treatment of these infections will exhaust healthcare resources and dramatically increase medical costs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate novel preventative therapeutic strategies against post-arthroplasty infections, a mouse model was developed in which a bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus strain was inoculated into a knee joint containing an orthopaedic implant and advanced in vivo imaging was used to measure the bacterial burden in real-time. Mice inoculated with 5x10(3) and 5x10(4) CFUs developed increased bacterial counts with marked swelling of the affected leg, consistent with an acute joint infection. In contrast, mice inoculated with 5x10(2) CFUs developed a low-grade infection, resembling a more chronic infection. Ex vivo bacterial counts highly correlated with in vivo bioluminescence signals and EGFP-neutrophil fluorescence of LysEGFP mice was used to measure the infection-induced inflammation. Furthermore, biofilm formation on the implants was visualized at 7 and 14 postoperative days by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). Using this model, a minocycline/rifampin-impregnated bioresorbable polymer implant coating was effective in reducing the infection, decreasing inflammation and preventing biofilm formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, this mouse model may represent an alternative pre-clinical screening tool to evaluate novel in vivo therapeutic strategies before studies in larger animals and in human subjects. Furthermore, the antibiotic-polymer implant coating evaluated in this study was clinically effective, suggesting the potential for this strategy as a therapeutic intervention to combat post-arthroplasty infections.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20830204
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10447
      1. Author :
        Hasenpusch, G.; Pfeifer, C.; Aneja, M. K.; Wagner, K.; Reinhardt, D.; Gilon, M.; Ohana, P.; Hochberg, A.; Rudolph, C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xen29, Xen 29, Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, Administration, Inhalation; Aerosols; Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation/drug effects; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic; Humans; Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics/*pathology/*secondary; Mice; Oncogenes/genetics; Plasmids/*administration & dosage/chemistry/*pharmacology; Polyethyleneimine/chemistry
      12. Abstract :
        Despite numerous efforts, drug based treatments for patients suffering from lung cancer remains poor. As a promising alternative, we investigated the therapeutic potential of BC-819 for the treatment of lung cancer in mouse tumor models. BC-819 is a novel plasmid DNA which encodes for the A-fragment of Diphtheria toxin and has previously been shown to successfully inhibit tumor growth in human clinical study of bladder carcinoma. In a first set of experiments, we examined in vitro efficacy of BC-819 in human lung cancer cell-lines NCI-H460, NCI-H358 and A549, which revealed >90% reduction of cell growth. In vivo efficacy was examined in an orthotopic mouse xenograft lung cancer model and in a lung metastasis model using luminescent A549-C8-luc adenocarcinoma cells. These cells resulted in peri- and intra-bronchiolar tumors upon intrabronchial application and parenchymal tumors upon intravenous injection, respectively. Mice suffering from these lung tumors were treated with BC-819, complexed to branched polyethylenimine (PEI) and aerosolized to the mice once per week for a period of 10 weeks. Using this regimen, growth of intrabronchially induced lung tumors was significantly inhibited (p = 0.01), whereas no effect could be observed in mice suffering from lung metastasis. In summary, we suggest that aerosolized PEI/BC-819 is capable of reducing growth only in tumors arising from the luminal part of the airways and are therefore directly accessible for inhaled BC-819.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21687669
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 9
      15. Serial :
        10450
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