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      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2006
      5. Publication :
        Blood
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        108
      8. Issue :
        4
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Adoptive Transfer; Animals; Antigen Presentation; Autoantigens; B16-F10-luc-G5 cells; Bioware; Cancer Vaccines; dendritic cells; Endosomes; Lymphocyte Activation; Lymphoma; Mice; Mice, Knockout; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory; Vaccination
      12. Abstract :
        Lymphoma cells are malignant cells of the T- or B-cell lineage that often express many surface markers inappropriately, yet are not recognized as abnormal by the immune system. We modeled this situation by inoculating ovalbumin-expressing E.G7-OVA lymphoma cells into mice that expressed ovalbumin as a self antigen in pancreatic islets, and investigated the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in these mice. Although vaccination with DC-expressing ovalbumin induced strong cytotoxic T-cell immunity, which led to clearance of E.G7-OVA lymphoma cells in naive C57BL/6 mice, DC vaccination was ineffective in mice expressing ovalbumin as a self antigen. Antigen modification to increase its processing via the endosomal processing pathway dramatically increased CD4 T-cell activation but paradoxically, impaired the protective effect of DC vaccination even in naive mice. Depletion of CD25(+) T cells (regulatory T cells [Tregs]) prior to vaccination restored the efficacy of DC vaccination and allowed eradication of lymphoma also in mice expressing ovalbumin as a self antigen. We conclude that lymphoma cells may be eradicated using DC vaccination if activation of CD25(+) Tregs is simultaneously inhibited, and that intentionally enhanced endosomal antigen processing in DC vaccines may shift the balance from CD4 T-cell help toward stimulation of Tregs.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16621963
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9002
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Blood
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        112
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antigen Presentation; Antigens, Neoplasm; B16-F10-luc-G5 cells; Bioware; B-Lymphocytes; Cell Adhesion; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement; dendritic cells; Female; Lectins, C-Type; Lymphatic Metastasis; Lymphatic System; Macrophages; Male; Mannose-Binding Lectins; Melanoma, Experimental; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Receptors, Cell Surface; T-Lymphocytes
      12. Abstract :
        Macrophage mannose receptor (MR) participates in pathogen recognition, clearance of endogenous serum glycoproteins, and antigen presentation. MR is also present on lymphatic vessels, where its function is unknown. Here we show that migration of lymphocytes from the skin into the draining lymph nodes through the afferent lymphatics is reduced in MR-deficient mice, while the structure of lymphatic vasculature remains normal in these animals. Moreover, in a tumor model the primary tumors grow significantly bigger in MR(-/-) mice than in the wild-type (WT) controls, whereas the regional lymph node metastases are markedly smaller. Adhesion of both normal lymphocytes and tumor cells to lymphatic vessels is significantly decreased in MR-deficient mice. The ability of macrophages to present tumor antigens is indistinguishable between the 2 genotypes. Thus, MR on lymphatic endothelial cells is involved in leukocyte trafficking and contributes to the metastatic behavior of cancer cells. Blocking of MR may provide a new approach to controlling inflammation and cancer metastasis by targeting the lymphatic vasculature.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18434610
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9000
      1. Author :
        BitMansour, A.; Burns, S. M.; Traver, D.; Akashi, K.; Contag, C. H.; Weissman, I. L.; Brown, J. M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2002
      5. Publication :
        Blood
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        100
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Administration, Inhalation, Animals, Animals, Congenic, Aspergillosis/microbiology/*prevention & control, *Aspergillus fumigatus, Cell Lineage, Filgrastim/pharmacology, *Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Injections, Intraperitoneal, Luminescent Measurements, Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology/*prevention & control, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Myeloid Progenitor Cells/physiology/*transplantation, Neutropenia/complications/drug therapy, Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology/*prevention & control, Radiation Chimera, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S., Tissue Distribution IVIS, Xenogen, Xen5
      12. Abstract :
        Myelotoxic treatments for oncologic diseases are often complicated by neutropenia, which renders patients susceptible to potentially lethal infections. In these studies of murine hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), cotransplantation of lineage-restricted progenitors known as common myeloid progenitors (CMP) and granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMP) protects against death following otherwise lethal challenge with either of 2 pathogens associated with neutropenia: Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cotransplantation of CMP/GMP resulted in a significant and rapid increase in the absolute number of myeloid cells in the spleen, most of which were derived from the donor CMP/GMP. Despite persistent peripheral neutropenia, improved survival correlated with the measurable appearance of progenitor-derived myeloid cells in the spleen. A marked reduction or elimination of tissue pathogen load was confirmed by culture and correlated with survival. Localization of infection by P aeruginosa and extent of disease was also assessed by in vivo bioluminescent imaging using a strain of P aeruginosa engineered to constitutively express a bacterial luciferase. Imaging confirmed that transplantation with a graft containing hematopoietic stem cells and CMP/GMP reduced the bacterial load as early as 18 hours after infection. These results demonstrate that enhanced reconstitution of a tissue myeloid pool offers protection against lethal challenge with serious fungal and bacterial pathogens.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=12393415
      14. Call Number :
        136279
      15. Serial :
        7031
      1. Author :
        Chen, Y.; Jacamo, R.; Shi, Y. X.; Wang, R. Y.; Battula, V. L.; Konoplev, S.; Strunk, D.; Hofmann, N. A.; Reinisch, A.; Konopleva, M.; Andreeff, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Blood
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        119
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense, IVIS, Animals; Bone Marrow Cells/*cytology/metabolism/physiology; Bone Marrow Transplantation/*methods/physiology; Cells, Cultured; Cellular Microenvironment/genetics/*physiology; Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary/genetics/*physiology; Humans; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics/metabolism; Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit/genetics; Mice; Mice, Inbred NOD; Mice, SCID; Mice, Transgenic; Models, Animal; Osteogenesis/genetics/physiology; Species Specificity; *Transplantation, Heterotopic
      12. Abstract :
        The interactions between hematopoietic cells and the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment play a critical role in normal and malignant hematopoiesis and drug resistance. These interactions within the BM niche are unique and could be important for developing new therapies. Here, we describe the development of extramedullary bone and bone marrow using human mesenchymal stromal cells and endothelial colony-forming cells implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice. We demonstrate the engraftment of human normal and leukemic cells engraft into the human extramedullary bone marrow. When normal hematopoietic cells are engrafted into the model, only discrete areas of the BM are hypoxic, whereas leukemia engraftment results in widespread severe hypoxia, just as recently reported by us in human leukemias. Importantly, the hematopoietic cell engraftment could be altered by genetical manipulation of the bone marrow microenvironment: Extramedullary bone marrow in which hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha was knocked down in mesenchymal stromal cells by lentiviral transfer of short hairpin RNA showed significant reduction (50% +/- 6%; P = .0006) in human leukemic cell engraftment. These results highlight the potential of a novel in vivo model of human BM microenvironment that can be genetically modified. The model could be useful for the study of leukemia biology and for the development of novel therapeutic modalities aimed at modifying the hematopoietic microenvironment.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22490334
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10465
      1. Author :
        Figg, William D; Li, Haiqing; Sissung, Tristan; Retter, Avi; Wu, Shenhong; Gulley, James L; Arlen, Phil; Wright, John J; Parnes, Howard; Fedenko, Kathy; Latham, Lea; Steinberg, Seth M; Jones, Elizabeth; Chen, Clara; Dahut, William
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        BJU international
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        99
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Aged; Androgens; Animals; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases; Bioware; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; Estramustine; Genotype; Humans; Male; Mice; Mice, Nude; Middle Aged; PC-3M-luc; Prostatic Neoplasms; Survival Analysis; Taxoids; Thalidomide; Treatment Outcome
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVE To evaluate the combination of docetaxel plus estramustine (which prolongs survival in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer, AIPC), and thalidomide (that also adds to docetaxel activity), both pre-clinically and clinically in AIPC. PATIENTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS In the pre-clinical evaluation we injected PC3 cells subcutaneously into severely combined immunodeficient mice and started treatment after the tumour volume reached 50 mm3. We also evaluated the combination using luciferase-labelled PC3M-luc-C6 cells in nude mice. We enrolled 20 patients with metastatic progressive AIPC into a phase II clinical trial to evaluate this combination. Docetaxel (30 mg/m2) was administered every week, for 3 of 4 weeks. The dose of thalidomide was 200 mg/day and estramustine was given three times a day at 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16 and 17 days. RESULTS In the mice, thalidomide with docetaxel plus estramustine reduced tumour volume by 88% at 17 days vs the control treatment (p=0.001). The combination of docetaxel, estramustine and thalidomide nearly eradicated the signal from the luciferase-expressing PC3M cells in the metastasis model. Clinically, the progression-free time was 7.2 months with this combination; 18 of 20 patients had a decline of half or more in prostate-specific antigen level and two of 10 patients with soft-tissue lesions had a partial response on computed tomography. There were 24 grade 3 and two grade 4 complications associated with this combination. There was a statistically significant association between overall survival and the CYP1B1*3 genotype (P=0.013). CONCLUSION Docetaxel-based chemotherapy is now regarded as a standard regimen for metastatic AIPC. The combination of estramustine, docetaxel and thalidomide is an advantageous treatment in pre-clinical models of prostate cancer and is a safe, tolerable and active regimen in patients with AIPC.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17437439
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8970
      1. Author :
        Marra, M.; Salzano, G.; Leonetti, C.; Porru, M.; Franco, R.; Zappavigna, S.; Liguori, G.; Botti, G.; Chieffi, P.; Lamberti, M.; Vitale, G.; Abbruzzese, A.; La Rotonda, M. I.; De Rosa, G.; Caraglia, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Biotechnol Adv
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        PC-3M-luc2, PC3M-luc2, IVIS, Prostate Cancer, Bioware
      12. Abstract :
        Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is a drug whose potent anti-cancer activity is limited by its short plasma half-life and rapid uptake and accumulation within bone. We have recently proposed new delivery systems to avoid ZOL accumulation into the bone, thus improving extra-skeletal bioavailability. In this work, we have compared the technological and anti-cancer features of either ZOL-containing self-assembly PEGylated nanoparticles (NPs) or ZOL-encapsulating PEGylated liposomes (LIPO-ZOL). ZOL-containing NPs showed superior technological characteristics in terms of mean diameter, size distribution, and ZOL encapsulation efficiency, compared to LIPO-ZOL. Moreover, the anti-cancer activity of NPs in nude mice xenografted with prostate cancer PC3 cells was higher than that one induced by LIPO-ZOL. In addition, NPs induced the complete remission of tumour xenografts and an increase of survival time higher than that one observed with LIPO-ZOL. It has also to be considered that PC3 tumour xenografts were almost completely resistant to the anti-cancer effects induced by free ZOL. Both nanotechnological products did not induce toxic effects not affecting the mice weight nor inducing deaths. Moreover, the histological examination of some vital organs such as liver, kidney and spleen did not find any changes in terms of necrotic effects or modifications in the inflammatory infiltrate. On the other hand, NPs but not LIPO-ZOL caused a statistically significant reduction of the tumour associated macrophages (TAM) in tumour xenografts. This effect was paralleled by a significant increase of both necrotic and apoptotic indexes. The effects of the NPs were also higher in terms of neo-angiogenesis inhibition. These results suggest the future preclinical development of ZOL-encapsulating NPs in the treatment of human cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21741464
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10488
      1. Author :
        Tai, Chien-Hsuan; Hsiung, Suz-Kai; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Mei-Lin; Lee, Gwo-Bin
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Biomedical microdevices
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        9
      8. Issue :
        4
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        A549-luc-C8 cells; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Nucleus; Cell Separation; Electrophoresis; Humans; Microfluidic Analytical Techniques
      12. Abstract :
        This study reports a new biochip capable of cell separation and nucleus collection utilizing dielectrophoresis (DEP) forces in a microfluidic system comprising of micropumps and microvalves, operating in an automatic format. DEP forces operated at a low voltage (15 Vp-p) and at a specific frequency (16 MHz) can be used to separate cells in a continuous flow, which can be subsequently collected. In order to transport the cell samples continuously, a serpentine-shape (S-shape) pneumatic micropump device was constructed onto the chip device to drive the samples flow through the microchannel, which was activated by the pressurized air injection. The mixed cell samples were first injected into an inlet reservoir and driven through the DEP electrodes to separate specific samples. Finally, separated cell samples were collected individually in two outlet reservoirs controlled by microvalves. With the same operation principle, the nucleus of the specific cells can be collected after the cell lysis procedure. The pumping rate of the micropump was measured to be 39.8 microl/min at a pressure of 25 psi and a driving frequency of 28 Hz. For the cell separation process, the initial flow rate was 3 microl/min provided by the micropump. A throughput of 240 cells/min can be obtained by using the developed device. The DEP electrode array, microchannels, micropumps and microvalves are integrated on a microfluidic chip using micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technology to perform several crucial procedures including cell transportation, separation and collection. The dimensions of the integrated chip device were measured to be 6x7 cm. By integrating an S-shape pump and pneumatic microvalves, different cells are automatically transported in the microchannel, separated by the DEP forces, and finally sorted to specific chambers. Experimental data show that viable and non-viable cells (human lung cancer cell, A549-luc-C8) can be successfully separated and collected using the developed microfluidic platform. The separation accuracy, depending on the DEP operating mode used, of the viable and non-viable cells are measured to be 84 and 81%, respectively. In addition, after cell lysis, the nucleus can be also collected using a similar scheme. The developed automatic microfluidic platform is useful for extracting nuclear proteins from living cells. The extracted nuclear proteins are ready for nuclear binding assays or the study of nuclear proteins.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17508288
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9005
      1. Author :
        Ranganath, Sudhir H; Fu, Yilong; Arifin, Davis Y; Kee, Irene; Zheng, Lin; Lee, How-Sung; Chow, Pierce K-H; Wang, Chi-Hwa
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Biomaterials
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        31
      8. Issue :
        19
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Antineoplastic Agents; Bioware; Brain Neoplasms; Cell Line, Tumor; Drug Implants; Glioblastoma; Male; Metabolic Clearance Rate; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Nanostructures; Paclitaxel; Treatment Outcome; U-87 MG-luc2
      12. Abstract :
        Pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of submicron/nanoscale, intracranial implants were evaluated for treating malignant glioblastoma in mice. 9.1% (w/w) paclitaxel-loaded polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanofiber discs (F3) were fabricated and characterized for morphology and size distribution. Along with F3, three other formulations, 9.1% (w/w) paclitaxel-loaded PLGA submicron-fiber discs (F2), 16.7% (w/w) paclitaxel-loaded PLGA microspheres entrapped in hydrogel matrices (H80 and M80) were intracranially implanted in BALB/c mice and the coronal brain sections were analyzed for bio-distribution of paclitaxel on 14, 28 and 42 days post-implantation. BALB/c nude mice with intracranial human glioblastoma (U87 MG-luc2) were used in the therapeutic efficacy study. Animals were randomized to intracranial implantation of F3 and H80 with paclitaxel dose of 10mg/kg, placebo F3, placebo H80, weekly intratumoral injection of Taxol (10mg/kg) or no treatment and the treatment response was analyzed by bioluminescence imaging and histological (H&E, Ki-67) examinations. Enhanced, therapeutic paclitaxel penetration (approximately 1 microm) in the mouse brain up to 5mm from the implant site even after 42 days post-implantation from F3 and H80 was confirmed and deduced to be diffusion/elimination controlled. F3 and H80 demonstrated significant (approximately 30 fold) tumor inhibition and significantly low tumor proliferation index after 41 days of treatment in comparison to sham and placebo controls. The submicron/nanoscale implants are able to demonstrate optimal paclitaxel pharmacokinetics in the brain/tumor with significant tumor inhibition in a glioblastoma xenograft model in mice and hence could be potentially useful to treat highly recurrent GBM.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20350766
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8942
      1. Author :
        Xiao, Kai; Luo, Juntao; Fowler, Wiley L; Li, Yuanpei; Lee, Joyce S; Xing, Li; Cheng, R Holland; Wang, Li; Lam, Kit S
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Biomaterials
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        30
      8. Issue :
        30
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Albumins; Animals; Antineoplastic Agents; Biocompatible Materials; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Drug Delivery Systems; Emulsifying Agents; Female; Humans; Male; Maximum Tolerated Dose; Mice; Mice, Nude; Nanoparticles; Ovarian Neoplasms; Paclitaxel; Polyethylene Glycols; SKOV3-luc-D3 cells; Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
      12. Abstract :
        Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of a variety of cancers. However, it is associated with serious side effects caused by PTX itself and the Cremophor EL emulsifier. In the present study, we report the development of a well-defined amphiphilic linear-dendritic copolymer (named as telodendrimer) composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG), cholic acid (CA, a facial amphiphilic molecule) and lysine, which can form drug-loaded core/shell micelles when mixed with hydrophobic drug, such as PTX, under aqueous condition. We have used PEG(5k)-CA(8), a representive telodendrimer, to prepare paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles (PTX-PEG(5k)-CA(8) NPs) with high loading capacity (7.3 mg PTX/mL) and a size of 20-60 nm. This novel nanoformulation of PTX was found to exhibit similar in vitro cytotoxic activity against ovarian cancer cells as the free drug (Taxol) or paclitaxel/human serum albumin nanoaggregate (Abraxane). The maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) of PTX-PEG(5k)-CA(8) NPs after single dose and five consecutive daily doses in mice were approximately 75 and 45 mg PTX/kg, respectively, which were 2.5-fold higher than those of Taxol. In both subcutaneous and orthotopic intraperitoneal murine models of ovarian cancer, PTX-PEG(5k)-CA(8) NPs achieved superior toxicity profiles and anti-tumor effects compared to Taxol and Abraxane at equivalent PTX doses, which were attributed to their preferential tumor accumulation, and deep penetration into tumor tissue, as confirmed by near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19660809
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9013
      1. Author :
        Sjollema, Jelmer; Sharma, Prashant K; Dijkstra, Rene J B; van Dam, Gooitzen M; van der Mei, Henny C; Engelsman, Anton F; Busscher, Henk J
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Biomaterials
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        31
      8. Issue :
        8
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Anti-Infective Agents; Bacteria; Bacterial Infections; Biocompatible Materials; Biofilms; Bioware; Coated Materials, Biocompatible; Fluorescent Dyes; Humans; Image Enhancement; Light; Luminescent Measurements; Luminescent Proteins; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Prosthesis-Related Infections; Sensitivity and Specificity; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        This review presents the current state of Bioluminescence and Fluorescent Imaging technologies (BLI and FLI) as applied to Biomaterial-Associated Infections (BAI). BLI offers the opportunity to observe the in vivo course of BAI in small animals without the need to sacrifice animals at different time points after the onset of infection. BLI is highly dependent on the bacterial cell metabolism which makes BLI a strong reporter of viable bacterial presence. Fluorescent sources are generally more stable than bioluminescent ones and specifically targeted, which renders the combination of BLI and FLI a promising tool for imaging BAI. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of both imaging tools are, however, dependent on the imaging system used and the tissue characteristics, which makes the interpretation of images, in terms of the location and shape of the illuminating source, difficult. Tomographic reconstruction of the luminescent source is possible in the most modern instruments, enabling exact localization of a colonized implant material, spreading of infecting organisms in surrounding tissue and immunological tissue reactions. BLI studies on BAI have successfully distinguished between different biomaterials with respect to the development and clearance of BAI in vivo, simultaneously reducing animal use and experimental variation. It is anticipated that bio-optical imaging will become an indispensable technology for the in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial coatings.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19969345
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9038
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