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      1. Author :
        Mann, B.; Orihuela, C.; Antikainen, J.; Gao, G.; Sublett, J.; Korhonen, T. K.; Tuomanen, E.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2006
      5. Publication :
        Infection and Immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        74
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen, Xen7
      12. Abstract :
        Members of the choline binding protein (Cbp) family are noncovalently bound to phosphorylcholine residues on the surface of Streptococcus pneumoniae. It has been suggested that CbpG plays a role in adherence and increase virulence both at the mucosal surface and in the bloodstream, but the function of this protein has been unclear. A new sequence analysis indicated that CbpG is a possible member of the S1 family of multifunctional surface-associated serine proteases. Clinical isolates contained two alleles of cbpG, and one-third of the strains expressed a truncated protein lacking the C-terminal, cell wall-anchoring choline binding domain. CbpG on the surface of pneumococci (full length) or released into the supernatant (truncated) showed proteolytic activity for fibronectin and casein, as did CbpG expressed on lactobacilli or as a purified full-length or truncated recombinant protein. Recombinant CbpG (rCbpG)-coated beads adhered to eukaryotic cells, and TIGR4 mutants lacking CbpG or having a truncated CbpG protein showed decreased adherence in vitro and attenuation of disease in mouse challenge models of colonization, pneumonia, and bacteremia. Immunization with rCbpG was protective in an animal model of colonization and sepsis. We propose that CbpG is a multifunctional surface protein that in the cell-attached or secreted form cleaves host extracellular matrix and in the cell-attached form participates in bacterial adherence. This is the first example of distinct functions in virulence that are dependent on natural variation in expression of a choline binding domain.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16428724
      14. Call Number :
        140887
      15. Serial :
        6992
      1. Author :
        Orihuela, C. J.; Radin, J. N.; Sublett, J. E.; Gao, G.; Kaushal, D.; Tuomanen, E. I.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2004
      5. Publication :
        Infection and Immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        72
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen, Xen7, Xen35
      12. Abstract :
        Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of invasive bacterial disease. This is the first study to examine the expression of S. pneumoniae genes in vivo by using whole-genome microarrays available from The Institute for Genomic Research. Total RNA was collected from pneumococci isolated from infected blood, infected cerebrospinal fluid, and bacteria attached to a pharyngeal epithelial cell line in vitro. Microarray analysis of pneumococcal genes expressed in these models identified body site-specific patterns of expression for virulence factors, transporters, transcription factors, translation-associated proteins, metabolism, and genes with unknown function. Contributions to virulence predicted for several unknown genes with enhanced expression in vivo were confirmed by insertion duplication mutagenesis and challenge of mice with the mutants. Finally, we cross-referenced our results with previous studies that used signature-tagged mutagenesis and differential fluorescence induction to identify genes that are potentially required by a broad range of pneumococcal strains for invasive disease.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15385455
      14. Call Number :
        141856
      15. Serial :
        6874
      1. Author :
        Park, H. S.; Cleary, P. P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2005
      5. Publication :
        Infection and Immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        73
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen, Xen20
      12. Abstract :
        C5a peptidase, also called SCPA (surface-bound C5a peptidase), is a surface-bound protein on group A streptococci (GAS), etiologic agents for a variety of human diseases including pharyngitis, impetigo, toxic shock, and necrotizing fasciitis, as well as the postinfection sequelae rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. This protein is highly conserved among different serotypes and is also expressed in human isolates of group B, C, and G streptococci. Human tonsils are the primary reservoirs for GAS, maintaining endemic disease across the globe. We recently reported that GAS preferentially target nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in mice, a tissue functionally analogous to human tonsils. Experiments using a C5a peptidase loss-of-function mutant and an intranasal infection model showed that this protease is required for efficient colonization of NALT. An effective vaccine should prevent infection of this secondary lymphoid tissue; therefore, the potential of anti-SCPA antibodies to protect against streptococcal infection of NALT was investigated. Experiments showed that GAS colonization of NALT was significantly reduced following intranasal immunization of mice with recombinant SCPA protein administered alone or with cholera toxin, whereas a high degree of GAS colonization of NALT was observed in control mice immunized with phosphate-buffered saline only. Moreover, administration of anti-SCPA serum by the intranasal route protected mice against streptococcal infection. These results suggest that intranasal immunization with SCPA would prevent colonization and infection of human tonsils, thereby eliminating potential reservoirs that maintain endemic disease.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16299278
      14. Call Number :
        141964
      15. Serial :
        5327
      1. Author :
        Chung, HM; Cartwright, MM; Bortz, DM; Jackson, TL; Younger, JG
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Shock
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        30
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen, Xen39
      12. Abstract :
        Unlike many localized infections, the development and resolution of bacteremia involves physical and immunological interactions between many anatomic sites. In an effort to better understand these interactions, we developed a computational model of bacteremia as a dynamical system fashioned after multicompartmental pharmacodynamic models, incorporating bacterial proliferation and clearance in the blood, liver, spleen, and lungs, and the transport of pathogens between these sites. A system of four first-order homogeneous ODEs was developed. Blood and organ bacterial burdens were measured at various time points from 3 to 48 h postinoculation using an LD25 murine model of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteremia. Using these empiric data, solutions to the mathematical model were recovered. A bootstrap resampling method was used to generate 95% confidence intervals around the solved parameters. The validity of the model was examined in parallel experiments using animals acutely immunocompromised with cyclophosphamide; the model captured abnormalities in bacterial partitioning previously described with this antineoplastic agent. Lastly, the approach was used to explore possible benefits to clinically observed hyperdynamic blood flow during sepsis: in simulation, normal mice, but not those treated with cyclophosphamide, enjoyed significantly more rapid bacterial clearance from the bloodstream under hyperdynamic conditions.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18317411
      14. Call Number :
        136975
      15. Serial :
        5976
      1. Author :
        Nguyen, V. H.; Kim, H. S.; Ha, J. M.; Hong, Y.; Choy, H. E.; Min, J. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        70
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals, Blotting, Western, Xen26, Cell Line, Tumor, Diagnostic Imaging/methods, Gene Therapy/*methods, Genetic Engineering/*methods, Genetic Vectors/*therapeutic use, Humans, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Neoplasms/*therapy, Perforin/*genetics/therapeutic use, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Salmonella typhimurium/*genetics, bcl-Associated Death Protein/genetics IVIS, Xenogen
      12. Abstract :
        Tumor-targeting bacteria have been studied in terms of their ability to visualize the infection pathway (through imaging probes) or to carry therapeutic molecules to tumors. To integrate these monitoring and therapeutic functions, we engineered attenuated Salmonella typhimurium defective in guanosine 5'-diphosphate-3'-diphosphate synthesis to carry cytotoxic proteins (cytolysin A) and express reporter genes. We successfully visualized the therapeutic process with these engineered bacteria in mice and found that they often mediated complete tumor (CT-26) eradication on cytotoxic gene induction. Furthermore, treatment with the engineered bacteria markedly suppressed metastatic tumor growth.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20028866
      14. Call Number :
        141643
      15. Serial :
        6246
      1. Author :
        Curbelo, J; Moulton, K; Willard, S
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Theriogenology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        73
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Cattle; Escherichia coli; Female; Genitalia, Female; Optical Phenomena; Photons; Xen14
      12. Abstract :
        The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the photonic properties of Escherichia coli-Xen14 and (2) conduct photonic imaging of E. coli-Xen14 within bovine reproductive tract segments (RTS) ex vivo (Bos indicus). E. coli-Xen14 was grown for 24h in Luria Bertani medium (LB), with or without kanamycin (KAN). Every 24h, for an 8-d interval, inoculums were imaged and photonic emissions (PE) collected. Inoculums were subcultured and plated daily to determine the colony forming units (CFU) and ratio of photon emitters to nonemitters. In the second objective, abattoir-derived bovine reproductive tracts (n=9) were separated into posterior and anterior vagina, cervix, uterine body, and uterine horns. Two concentrations (3.2x10(8) and 3.2x10(6) CFU/200microL for relative [High] and [Low], respectively) of E. coli-Xen14 were placed in translucent tubes for detection of PE through RTS. The CFU did not differ (P=0.31) over time with or without KAN presence; they remained stable with 99.93% and 99.98% photon emitters, respectively. However, PE were lower (P<0.0001) in cultures containing KAN than in those containing no KAN (629.8+/-117.7 vs. 3012.0+/-423.5 relative lights units per second [RLU/sec], respectively). On average, the percentage of PE between RTS, for both concentrations, was higher (P<0.05) in the uterine body. In summary, E. coli-Xen14 remained stable with respect to the proportions of photon emitters with or without KAN (used to selectively culture E. coli-Xen14). However, KAN presence suppressed photonic activity. The ability to detect PE through various segments of the reproductive tract demonstrated the feasibility of monitoring the presence of E. coli-Xen14 in the bovine reproductive tract ex vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19819541
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        10004
      1. Author :
        Sharma, Prashant K; Engels, Eefje; Van Oeveren, Wim; Ploeg, Rutger J; van Henny der Mei, C; Busscher, Henk J; Van Dam, Gooitzen M; Rakhorst, Gerhard
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        147
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bacteroides fragilis; Diagnostic Imaging; Disease Progression; Escherichia coli; Luciferases, Bacterial; Luminescent Agents; Male; Peritoneal Lavage; Peritonitis; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Xen14
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND Bacterial peritonitis is a life-threatening abdominal infection associated with high morbidity and mortality. The rat is a popular animal model for studying peritonitis and its treatment, but longitudinal monitoring of the progression of peritonitis in live animals has been impossible until now and thus required a large number of animals. Our objective was to develop a noninvasive in vivo imaging technique to monitor the spatiotemporal spread of bacterial peritonitis. METHODS Peritonitis was induced in 8 immunocompetent male Wistar rats by placing fibrin clots containing 5x10(8) cells of both Bacteroides fragilis (American Type Tissue Culture [ATCC)] 25,285 and bioluminescent Escherichia coli Xen14. After 1 or 2 days, infected clots were removed and open abdomen lavage was performed. In vivo bioluminescent imaging was used to monitor the spread of peritonitis. RESULTS Bioluminescent in vivo imaging showed an increase in the area of spread, and the number of E. coli tripled into the rat's abdominal cavity on day 1 after clot insertion; however, on day 2, encapsulation of the clot confined bacterial spread. Bioluminescent E. coli respread over the peritoneal cavity after lavage; within 10 days, however, in vivo imaging showed a decrease of 3-4 orders of magnitude in bacterial load. CONCLUSION Bioluminescent in vivo imaging can be effectively used to monitor the spatiotemporal behavior of the peritonitis during 3 different stages of the disease process: initiation, treatment, and follow-up. Imaging allows researchers to repeatedly image the same animal, thereby reducing variability and providing greater confidence in determining treatment efficacies for therapeutic interventions using a small number of animals.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733882
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        10005
      1. Author :
        Brandl, K.; Plitas, G.; Schnabl, B.; DeMatteo, R. P.; Pamer, E. G.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        J Exp Med
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        204
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals, Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism/microbiology, Gene Expression Regulation, Intestines/metabolism, Kinetics, Lectins/chemistry, Listeria Infections/*metabolism/*prevention & control, Listeria monocytogenes/*metabolism, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Transgenic, Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism/*physiology, Proteins/*metabolism, Recombinant Proteins/metabolism, Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism IVIS, Xenogen, Xen32
      12. Abstract :
        Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne bacterial pathogen that causes systemic infection by traversing the intestinal mucosa. Although MyD88-mediated signals are essential for defense against systemic L. monocytogenes infection, the role of Toll-like receptor and MyD88 signaling in intestinal immunity against this pathogen has not been defined. We show that clearance of L. monocytogenes from the lumen of the distal small intestine is impaired in MyD88(-/-) mice. The distal ileum of wild-type (wt) mice expresses high levels of RegIII gamma, which is a bactericidal lectin that is secreted into the bowel lumen, whereas RegIII gamma expression in MyD88(-/-) mice is nearly undetectable. In vivo depletion of RegIII gamma from the small intestine of wt mice diminishes killing of luminal L. monocytogenes, whereas reconstitution of MyD88-deficient mice with recombinant RegIII gamma enhances intestinal bacterial clearance. Experiments with bone marrow chimeric mice reveal that MyD88-mediated signals in nonhematopoietic cells induce RegIII gamma expression in the small intestine, thereby enhancing bacterial killing. Our findings support a model of MyD88-mediated epithelial conditioning that protects the intestinal mucosa against bacterial invasion by inducing RegIII gamma.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=17635956
      14. Call Number :
        136402
      15. Serial :
        7029
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