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      1. Author :
        Oashi, K.; Furukawa, H.; Nishihara, H.; Ozaki, M.; Oyama, A.; Funayama, E.; Hayashi, T.; Kuge, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Invest Dermatol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        B16-F10-luc2, Melanoma, B16F10-luc2, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        In-transit metastasis (ITM) is a unique manifestation of intralymphatic tumor dissemination, characterized by the presence of melanoma cells between the primary lesion and the draining regional lymph node basin that is clinically associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we aimed to establish an experimental animal model of melanoma ITM, as research progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of suitable experimental models. We reproduced melanoma ITM in a mouse hind limb by transplanting melanoma cells into the footpad of a mouse with lymphedema (LE). The tumor cells at the ITM site were highly proliferative, and mice with ITMs were more likely than control mice to develop distant lymph node and lung metastases. Peritumoral lymphatic vessels and tumor-associated blood vessels were increased in the primary tumor site of the LE mice. Our established ITM melanoma mouse model enabled us to clarify the molecular determinants and pathophysiology of ITM. This ITM model is also comparable to the unfavorable clinical behavior of melanoma ITM in humans and, moreover, underlined the importance of lymphangiogenic factors in the tumor dissemination through the lymphatic system.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 6 September 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.274.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22951727
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10501
      1. Author :
        Liu, R.; Gilmore, D. M.; Zubris, K. A.; Xu, X.; Catalano, P. J.; Padera, R. F.; Grinstaff, M. W.; Colson, Y. L.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2013
      5. Publication :
        Biomaterials
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        34
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2Ln, D3H2Ln, Bioware, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        Although breast cancer patients with localized disease exhibit an excellent long-term prognosis, up to 40% of patients treated with local resection alone may harbor occult nodal metastatic disease leading to increased locoregional recurrence and decreased survival. Given the potential for targeted drug delivery to result in more efficacious locoregional control with less morbidity, the current study assessed the ability of drug-loaded polymeric expansile nanoparticles (eNP) to migrate from the site of tumor to regional lymph nodes, locally deliver a chemotherapeutic payload, and prevent primary tumor growth as well as lymph node metastases. Expansile nanoparticles entered tumor cells and paclitaxel-loaded eNP (Pax-eNP) exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity in vitro and significantly decreased tumor doubling time in vivo against human triple negative breast cancer in both microscopic and established murine breast cancer models. Furthermore, migration of Pax-eNP to axillary lymph nodes resulted in higher intranodal paclitaxel concentrations and a significantly lower incidence of lymph node metastases. These findings demonstrate that lymphatic migration of drug-loaded eNP provides regionally targeted delivery of chemotherapy to both decrease local tumor growth and strategically prevent the development of nodal metastases within the regional tumor-draining lymph node basin.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23228419
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 8
      15. Serial :
        10506
      1. Author :
        Yigit, M. V.; Ghosh, S. K.; Kumar, M.; Petkova, V.; Kavishwar, A.; Moore, A.; Medarova, Z.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Oncogene
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2Ln, D3H2Ln, Bioware, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        Metastases, and not the primary tumor from which they originate, are the main reason for mortality from carcinoma. Although the molecular mechanisms behind metastasis are poorly understood, it is clear that epigenetic dysregulation at the level of microRNA expression is a key characteristic of the metastatic process that can be exploited for therapy. Here, we describe an miRNA-targeted therapeutic approach for the prevention and arrest of lymph node metastasis. Therapy relies on the inhibition of the pro-metastatic microRNA-10b. It is delivered to primary and lymph node metastatic tumor cells using an imaging-capable nanodrug that is designed to specifically home to these tissues. Treatment of invasive human breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) with the nanodrug in vitro downregulates miR-10b and abolishes the invasion and migration of the tumor cells. After intravenous delivery to mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN tumors, the nanodrug accumulates in the primary tumor and lymph nodes. When treatment is initiated before metastasis to lymph nodes, metastasis is prevented. Treatment after the formation of lymph node metastases arrests the metastatic process without a concomitant effect on primary tumor growth raising the possibility of a context-dependent variation in miR-10b breast oncogenesis.Oncogene advance online publication, 14 May 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.173.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22580603
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 9
      15. Serial :
        10505
      1. Author :
        Leong, H. S.; Lizardo, M. M.; Ablack, A.; McPherson, V. A.; Wandless, T. J.; Chambers, A. F.; Lewis, J. D.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2Ln, D3H2Ln, IVIS, Breast cancer, Bioware, Animals; Birds/embryology; Breast Neoplasms/*metabolism; Cadherins/*metabolism; Cell Line, Tumor; Diagnostic Imaging; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects; Female; Humans; Microscopy, Confocal; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Morpholines/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology; Transplantation, Heterologous; Vimentin/metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        The analysis of dynamic events in the tumor microenvironment during cancer progression is limited by the complexity of current in vivo imaging models. This is coupled with an inability to rapidly modulate and visualize protein activity in real time and to understand the consequence of these perturbations in vivo. We developed an intravital imaging approach that allows the rapid induction and subsequent depletion of target protein levels within human cancer xenografts while assessing the impact on cell behavior and morphology in real time. A conditionally stabilized fluorescent E-cadherin chimera was expressed in metastatic breast cancer cells, and the impact of E-cadherin induction and depletion was visualized using real-time confocal microscopy in a xenograft avian embryo model. We demonstrate the assessment of protein localization, cell morphology and migration in cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal and mesenchymal-epithelial transitions in breast tumors. This technique allows for precise control over protein activity in vivo while permitting the temporal analysis of dynamic biophysical parameters.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22276156
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10508
      1. Author :
        Vintonenko, N.; Jais, J. P.; Kassis, N.; Abdelkarim, M.; Perret, G. Y.; Lecouvey, M.; Crepin, M.; Di Benedetto, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Mol Pharmacol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        82
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2Ln, D3H2Ln, IVIS, Breast cancer, Bioware
      12. Abstract :
        Statins and bisphosphonates are two distinct classes of isoprenoid pathway inhibitors targeting downstream enzyme to HMG-CoA reductase (upstream enzyme) and farnesyl-pyrophosphate synthase, respectively. Here, we studied fluvastatin (Fluva) and zoledronate (Zol), representative molecules of each class, respectively. In vivo metastatic potentials of both molecules were assessed. For the first time, we observed a significant reduction in progression of established metastases with Fluva treatment. Treatment with both Zol at 100 mug/kg and Fluva at 15 mg/kg inhibited 80% of the metastasis bioluminescence signal and increased survival of mice. The Zol and Fluva transcriptomic profiles of treated MDA-MB-231 cells revealed analogous patterns of affected genes, but each of them reached with different kinetics. The observable changes in gene expression started after 24 h for Fluva IC(50 72 h) and only after 48 h for Zol IC(50 72 h). To obtain early changes in gene expression of Zol-treated cells, a 3 times higher dose of Zol IC(50 72 h) had to be applied. Combining Fluva and Zol in vivo showed no synergy, but a benefit of several days in survival of mice. This study demonstrated that Zol or Fluva is of potential clinical use for the treatment of established metastasis.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22723339
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10509
      1. Author :
        Wang, M.; Gartel, A. L.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Biol Ther
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        13
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2Ln, D3H2Ln, IVIS, Breast cancer, Bioware, Adenocarcinoma/*drug therapy/pathology; Animals; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy; Protocols/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Apoptosis; Boronic Acids/administration & dosage; Breast Neoplasms/*drug therapy/pathology; Cell Line, Tumor; Drug Synergism; Female; Humans; Male; Mice; Mice, Nude; Nanocapsules/administration & dosage; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism; Pyrazines/administration & dosage; Random Allocation; Thiostrepton/administration & dosage; Tissue Distribution; Tumor Burden/drug effects; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        Bortezomib is well-known for inducing cell death in cancer cells, specifically through the mechanism of proteasome inhibition. Thiostrepton, a thiazole antibiotic, has also been described for its proteasome inhibitory action, although differing slightly to bortezomib in the proteasomal site to which it is active. Previously we had shown the synergic effect of bortezomib and thiostrepton in breast cancer cells in vitro, where sub-apoptotic concentrations of both proteasome inhibitors resulted in synergic increase in cell death when combined as a treatment. Here, we administered such a combination to MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors in vivo, and found that the effect of complementary proteasome inhibitors reduced tumor growth rates more efficiently than compared with when administered alone. Increased induction of apoptotic activity in tumors was found be associated with the growth inhibitory activity of combination treatment. Further examination additionally revealed that combination-treated tumors exhibited reduced proteasome activity, compared with non-treated and single drug-treated tumors. These data suggest that this drug combination may be useful as a therapy for solid tumors.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22353937
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10510
      1. Author :
        Akudugu, J. M.; Azzam, E. I.; Howell, R. W.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Int J Radiat Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        88
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H1, MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H1, IVIS, Bioware, Breast Cancer
      12. Abstract :
        Abstract Purpose: This study uses a three-dimensional cell culture model to investigate lethal bystander effects in human breast cancer cell cultures (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) treated with (125)I-labeled 5-iodo-2 -deoxyuridine ((125)IdU). These breast cancer cell lines respectively form metastatic xenografts in nude mice in an estrogen-dependent and independent manner. Materials and methods: In the present study, these cells were cultured in loosely-packed three-dimensional architecture in a Cytomatrix carbon scaffold. Cultures were pulse-labeled for 3 h with (125)IdU to selectively irradiate a minor fraction of cells, and simultaneously co-pulse-labeled with 0.04 mM 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to identify the radiolabeled cells using Click-iT((R)) EdU and flow cytometry. The cultures were then washed and incubated for 48 h. The cells were then harvested, serially diluted, and seeded for colony formation. Aliquots of cells were subjected to flow cytometry to determine the percentage of cells labeled with (125)IdU/EdU. Additional aliquots were used to determine the mean (125)I activity per labeled cell. The percentage of labeled cells was about 15% and 10% for MCF-7 and MDA cells, respectively. This created irradiation conditions wherein the cross-dose to unlabeled cells was small relative to the self-dose to labeled cells. The surviving fraction relative to EdU-treated controls was measured. Results: Survival curves indicated significant lethal bystander effect in MCF-7 cells, however, no significant lethal bystander effect was observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusions: These studies demonstrate the capacity of (125)IdU to induce lethal bystander effects in human breast cancer cells and suggest that the response depends on phenotype.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489958
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10514
      1. Author :
        Liang, H.; Ma, S. Y.; Mohammad, K.; Guise, T. A.; Balian, G.; Shen, F. H.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Spine (Phila Pa 1976)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        36
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H1, MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H1, IVIS, Bioware, Breast Cancer
      12. Abstract :
        STUDY DESIGN: In vivo experiments to develop a rat spine single metastasis model by using human breast cancer cells. OBJECTIVE: To study the survival and tumorigenesis of the human breast cancer cells after transplantation to vertebral body (VB) by intraosseous injection as a model for therapeutic studies of spine metastatic tumor. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VBs are the most common bones involved in the metastases of breast cancer. To develop experimental therapeutics requires an appropriate animal model. Moreover, it is also important to establish accurate and sensitive detection methods for the evaluation. METHODS: MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were injected into 3-week-old female athymic rats. The tumorigenesis was assayed with quantitative in vivo bioluminescence (IVIS), microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), quantitative CT (qCT), micro position emission tomography (micro-PET), and histologic studies. RESULTS: A spine single metastasis model of human breast cancer was successfully developed in rats. The IVIS signal intensity from the cancer cells increased after 2 weeks. Signal from the tumor in spine can be detected by micro-PET at day 1. The signal intensity decreased after 1 week and then recovered and continually increased afterwards. Bone destruction was demonstrated in the qCT and micro-CT images. However, both qCT and micro-CT found that the bone density in the cancer cell-injected VB increased before the appearance of osteolysis. The growth of tumor and the reaction of bone in the VB were observed simultaneously by histology. CONCLUSION: A spine single metastasis model was developed by injection of human breast cancer cells into the VB of athymic rats. This is the first report of quantitative evaluation with micro-PET in a spine metastasis model. In addition, the detection of osteogenesis after the introduction of MDA-MB-231 cells in vivo is a novel observation.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21422981
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10515
      1. Author :
        O'Connor, A. E.; Mc Gee, M. M.; Likar, Y.; Ponomarev, V.; Callanan, J. J.; O'Shea D, F.; Byrne, A. T.; Gallagher, W. M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Int J Cancer
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H1, MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H1, IVIS, Bioware, Breast Cancer
      12. Abstract :
        Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment modality for cancer. ADPM06 is an emerging non-porphyrin PDT agent which has been specifically designed for therapeutic application. Recently, we have demonstrated that ADPM06-PDT is well tolerated in vivo and elicits impressive complete response rates in various models of cancer when a short drug-light interval is applied. Herein, the mechanism of action of ADPM06-PDT in vitro and in vivo is outlined. Using a drug and light combination that reduces the clonogenicity of MDA-MB-231 cells by >90%, we detected a well-orchestrated apoptotic response accompanied by the activation of various caspases in vitro. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photosensitizer irradiation was found to be the key instigator in the observed apoptotic response, with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) found to be the intracellular site of initial PDT damage, as determined by induction of a rapid ER stress response post-PDT. PDT-induced apoptosis was also found to be independent of p53 tumor suppressor status. A robust therapeutic response in vivo was demonstrated, with a substantial reduction in tumor proliferation observed, as well as a rapid induction of apoptosis and initiation of ER stress, mirroring numerous aspects of the mechanism of action of ADPM06 in vitro. Finally, using a combination of (18) F-labeled 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ((18) F-FLT) nuclear and optical imaging, a considerable decrease in tumor proliferation over 24-hr in two models of human cancer was observed. Taken together, this data clearly establishes ADPM06 as an exciting novel PDT agent with significant potential for further translational development.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21413012
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10516
      1. Author :
        Ran, C.; Zhang, Z.; Hooker, J.; Moore, A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Mol Imaging Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        14
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H1, MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H1, IVIS, Bioware, Breast Cancer. Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Chromatography, Liquid; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; *Elementary Particles; Firefly Luciferin/chemistry/metabolism; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/diagnostic use; Humans; *Light; Luminescent Measurements; Mass Spectrometry; Mice; Mice, Nude; Solutions
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE: The poor tissue penetration of visible light has been a major barrier for optical imaging, photoactivatable conversions, and photodynamic therapy for in vivo targets with depths beyond 10 mm. In this report, as a proof-of-concept, we demonstrated that a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)FDG), could be used as an alternative light source for photoactivation. PROCEDURES: We utilized (18)FDG, which is a metabolic activity-based PET probe, as a source of light to photoactivate caged luciferin in a breast cancer animal model expressing luciferase. RESULTS: Bioluminescence produced from luciferin allowed for the real-time monitoring of Cherenkov radiation-promoted uncaging of the substrate. CONCLUSION: The proposed method may provide a very important option for in vivo photoactivation, in particular for activation of photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy and eventually for combining radioisotope therapy and photodynamic therapy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21538154
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10517
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