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      1. Author :
        Nijnik, A.; Madera, L.; Ma, S.; Waldbrook, M.; Elliott, M. R.; Easton, D. M.; Mayer, M. L.; Mullaly, S. C.; Kindrachuk, J.; Jenssen, H.; Hancock, R. E.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        J Immunol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        184
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemical synthesis/*pharmacology; Bacterial Infections/*metabolism/microbiology/prevention & control; Cell Line; Cells, Cultured; Chemokine CCL2/metabolism; Chemokine CCL7/metabolism; Chemokine CXCL1/metabolism; Chemokines/*metabolism; Female; Humans; Interleukin-8/metabolism; Leukocytes/cytology/*metabolism; Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology/drug effects/metabolism; Macrophages/cytology/drug effects/metabolism; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Molecular Sequence Data; NF-kappa B/metabolism; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism; Phosphorylation/drug effects; Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology/prevention & control; Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        With the rapid rise in the incidence of multidrug resistant infections, there is substantial interest in host defense peptides as templates for production of new antimicrobial therapeutics. Natural peptides are multifunctional mediators of the innate immune response, with some direct antimicrobial activity and diverse immunomodulatory properties. We have previously developed an innate defense regulator (IDR) 1, with protective activity against bacterial infection mediated entirely through its effects on the immunity of the host, as a novel approach to anti-infective therapy. In this study, an immunomodulatory peptide IDR-1002 was selected from a library of bactenecin derivatives based on its substantially more potent ability to induce chemokines in human PBMCs. The enhanced chemokine induction activity of the peptide in vitro correlated with stronger protective activity in vivo in the Staphylococcus aureus-invasive infection model, with a >5-fold reduction in the protective dose in direct comparison with IDR-1. IDR-1002 also afforded protection against the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli. Chemokine induction by IDR-1002 was found to be mediated through a Gi-coupled receptor and the PI3K, NF-kappaB, and MAPK signaling pathways. The protective activity of the peptide was associated with in vivo augmentation of chemokine production and recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the site of infection. These results highlight the importance of the chemokine induction activity of host defense peptides and demonstrate that the optimization of the ex vivo chemokine-induction properties of peptides is a promising method for the rational development of immunomodulatory IDR peptides with enhanced anti-infective activity.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20107187
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10393
      1. Author :
        Sjollema, J.; Sharma, P. K.; Dijkstra, R. J.; van Dam, G. M.; van der Mei, H. C.; Engelsman, A. F.; Busscher, H. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Biomaterials
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        31
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Animals; Anti-Infective Agents/*pharmacology/therapeutic use; Bacteria/*drug effects/pathogenicity; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/*etiology; Biocompatible Materials/*adverse effects/chemistry; Biofilms; Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry; Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry/metabolism; Humans; Image Enhancement/methods; Light; Luminescent Measurements/instrumentation/*methods; Luminescent Proteins/metabolism; Microscopy, Fluorescence/instrumentation/*methods; Prosthesis-Related Infections/drug therapy/microbiology; Sensitivity and Specificity
      12. Abstract :
        This review presents the current state of Bioluminescence and Fluorescent Imaging technologies (BLI and FLI) as applied to Biomaterial-Associated Infections (BAI). BLI offers the opportunity to observe the in vivo course of BAI in small animals without the need to sacrifice animals at different time points after the onset of infection. BLI is highly dependent on the bacterial cell metabolism which makes BLI a strong reporter of viable bacterial presence. Fluorescent sources are generally more stable than bioluminescent ones and specifically targeted, which renders the combination of BLI and FLI a promising tool for imaging BAI. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of both imaging tools are, however, dependent on the imaging system used and the tissue characteristics, which makes the interpretation of images, in terms of the location and shape of the illuminating source, difficult. Tomographic reconstruction of the luminescent source is possible in the most modern instruments, enabling exact localization of a colonized implant material, spreading of infecting organisms in surrounding tissue and immunological tissue reactions. BLI studies on BAI have successfully distinguished between different biomaterials with respect to the development and clearance of BAI in vivo, simultaneously reducing animal use and experimental variation. It is anticipated that bio-optical imaging will become an indispensable technology for the in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial coatings.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19969345
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 8
      15. Serial :
        10397
      1. Author :
        Sharma, P. K.; Engels, E.; Van Oeveren, W.; Ploeg, R. J.; van Henny der Mei, C.; Busscher, H. J.; Van Dam, G. M.; Rakhorst, G.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        147
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Animals; Bacteroides fragilis/*isolation & purification; Diagnostic Imaging/methods; Disease Progression; Escherichia coli/*isolation & purification; Luciferases, Bacterial/*diagnostic use; Luminescent Agents/*diagnostic use; Male; Peritoneal Lavage; Peritonitis/*microbiology/pathology/therapy; Rats; Rats, Wistar
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Bacterial peritonitis is a life-threatening abdominal infection associated with high morbidity and mortality. The rat is a popular animal model for studying peritonitis and its treatment, but longitudinal monitoring of the progression of peritonitis in live animals has been impossible until now and thus required a large number of animals. Our objective was to develop a noninvasive in vivo imaging technique to monitor the spatiotemporal spread of bacterial peritonitis. METHODS: Peritonitis was induced in 8 immunocompetent male Wistar rats by placing fibrin clots containing 5x10(8) cells of both Bacteroides fragilis (American Type Tissue Culture [ATCC)] 25,285 and bioluminescent Escherichia coli Xen14. After 1 or 2 days, infected clots were removed and open abdomen lavage was performed. In vivo bioluminescent imaging was used to monitor the spread of peritonitis. RESULTS: Bioluminescent in vivo imaging showed an increase in the area of spread, and the number of E. coli tripled into the rat's abdominal cavity on day 1 after clot insertion; however, on day 2, encapsulation of the clot confined bacterial spread. Bioluminescent E. coli respread over the peritoneal cavity after lavage; within 10 days, however, in vivo imaging showed a decrease of 3-4 orders of magnitude in bacterial load. CONCLUSION: Bioluminescent in vivo imaging can be effectively used to monitor the spatiotemporal behavior of the peritonitis during 3 different stages of the disease process: initiation, treatment, and follow-up. Imaging allows researchers to repeatedly image the same animal, thereby reducing variability and providing greater confidence in determining treatment efficacies for therapeutic interventions using a small number of animals.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733882
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 7
      15. Serial :
        10396
      1. Author :
        Curbelo, J.; Moulton, K.; Willard, S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Theriogenology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        73
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Animals; Cattle; Escherichia coli/*cytology/isolation & purification/physiology; Female; Genitalia, Female/*microbiology; Optical Phenomena; *Photons
      12. Abstract :
        The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the photonic properties of Escherichia coli-Xen14 and (2) conduct photonic imaging of E. coli-Xen14 within bovine reproductive tract segments (RTS) ex vivo (Bos indicus). E. coli-Xen14 was grown for 24h in Luria Bertani medium (LB), with or without kanamycin (KAN). Every 24h, for an 8-d interval, inoculums were imaged and photonic emissions (PE) collected. Inoculums were subcultured and plated daily to determine the colony forming units (CFU) and ratio of photon emitters to nonemitters. In the second objective, abattoir-derived bovine reproductive tracts (n=9) were separated into posterior and anterior vagina, cervix, uterine body, and uterine horns. Two concentrations (3.2x10(8) and 3.2x10(6) CFU/200microL for relative [High] and [Low], respectively) of E. coli-Xen14 were placed in translucent tubes for detection of PE through RTS. The CFU did not differ (P=0.31) over time with or without KAN presence; they remained stable with 99.93% and 99.98% photon emitters, respectively. However, PE were lower (P<0.0001) in cultures containing KAN than in those containing no KAN (629.8+/-117.7 vs. 3012.0+/-423.5 relative lights units per second [RLU/sec], respectively). On average, the percentage of PE between RTS, for both concentrations, was higher (P<0.05) in the uterine body. In summary, E. coli-Xen14 remained stable with respect to the proportions of photon emitters with or without KAN (used to selectively culture E. coli-Xen14). However, KAN presence suppressed photonic activity. The ability to detect PE through various segments of the reproductive tract demonstrated the feasibility of monitoring the presence of E. coli-Xen14 in the bovine reproductive tract ex vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19819541
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10391
      1. Author :
        Georgel, P.; Radosavljevic, M.; Macquin, C.; Bahram, S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Mol Immunol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        48
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Female; Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics/*immunology; Humans; Klebsiella Infections/*immunology/prevention & control; Klebsiella pneumoniae/*immunology; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout
      12. Abstract :
        As opposed to the well established role of MHC-linked, polymorphic, class I (MHC-I) genes in adaptive immunity, a universal role for non-conventional MHC-I is unknown, thus requiring a case-by-case study. The MHC unlinked, monomorphic, but beta(2)microglobulin (beta(2)m)-associated “MHC class I related” MR1 molecule interacts with a semi-invariant TCR. The pathophysiology of this interaction or more importantly of this peculiar MHC-I remains mostly unknown. Recently it was shown that beta(2)m deficient mice were more susceptible to infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae, a widely spread Gram-negative bacteria that causes diverse and often severe ailments in man. Here we demonstrate, using both an in vivo imaging system and survival tests, the increased susceptibility to K. pneumoniae (but not to several other Gram negative bacteria) of MR1 deficient mice. This is accompanied by a consequent change in body temperature and systemic cytokine profile. Hence MR1 controls K. pneumoniae infection in vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21190736
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 9
      15. Serial :
        10392
      1. Author :
        Ryan, P. L.; Christiansen, D. L.; Hopper, R. M.; Walters, F. K.; Moulton, K.; Curbelo, J.; Greene, J. M.; Willard, S. T.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Anim Sci
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        89
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Horse, bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        Uterine and placental infections are the leading cause of abortion, stillbirth, and preterm delivery in the mare. Whereas uterine and placental infections in women have been studied extensively, a comprehensive examination of the pathogenic processes leading to this unsatisfactory pregnancy outcome in the mare has yet to be completed. Most information in the literature relating to late-term pregnancy loss in mares is based on retrospective studies of clinical cases submitted for necropsy. Here we report the development and application of a novel approach, whereby transgenically modified bacteria transformed with lux genes of Xenorhabdus luminescens or Photorhabdus luminescens origin and biophotonic imaging are utilized to better understand pathogen-induced preterm birth in late-term pregnant mares. This technology uses highly sensitive bioluminescence imaging camera systems to localize and monitor pathogen progression during tissue invasion by measuring the bioluminescent signatures emitted by the lux-modified pathogens. This method has an important advantage in that it allows for the potential tracking of pathogens in vivo in real time and over time, which was hitherto impossible. Although the application of this technology in domestic animals is in its infancy, investigators were successful in identifying the fetal lungs, sinuses, nares, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems as primary tissues for pathogen invasion after experimental infection of pregnant mares with lux-modified Escherichia coli. It is important that pathogens were not detected in other vital organs, such as the liver, brain, and cardiac system. Such precision in localizing sites of pathogen invasion provides potential application for this novel approach in the development of more targeted therapeutic interventions for pathogen-related diseases in the equine and other domestic species.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21239661
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10395
      1. Author :
        Griffin, A. J.; Li, L. X.; Voedisch, S.; Pabst, O.; McSorley, S. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Infect Immun
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        79
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen26, Xen 26, Salmonella typhumurium, Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use; Cell Separation; Disease Models, Animal; Flow Cytometry; Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use; Intestine, Small/microbiology; Lymph Nodes/*microbiology; Mesentery/immunology/microbiology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Monocytes/immunology/*microbiology; Recurrence; Salmonella Infections, Animal/immunology/*microbiology/pathology; Salmonella typhi/immunology
      12. Abstract :
        Enteric pathogens can cause relapsing infections in a proportion of treated patients, but greater understanding of this phenomenon is hindered by the lack of appropriate animal models. We report here a robust animal model of relapsing primary typhoid that initiates after apparently successful antibiotic treatment of susceptible mice. Four days of enrofloxacin treatment were sufficient to reduce bacterial loads below detectable levels in all major organs, and mice appeared otherwise healthy. However, any interruption of further antibiotic therapy allowed renewed fecal shedding and renewed bacterial growth in systemic tissues to occur, and mice eventually succumbed to relapsing infection. In vivo imaging of luminescent Salmonella identified the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) as a major reservoir of relapsing infection. A magnetic-bead enrichment strategy isolated MLN-resident CD11b(+) Gr-1(-) monocytes associated with low numbers of persistent Salmonella. However, the removal of MLNs increased the severity of typhoid relapse, demonstrating that this organ serves as a protective filter to restrain the dissemination of bacteria during antibiotic therapy. Together, these data describe a robust animal model of typhoid relapse and identify an important intestinal phagocyte subset involved in protection against the systemic spread of enteric infection.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21263018
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10559
      1. Author :
        Yun, M.; Pan, S.; Jiang, S. N.; Nguyen, V. H.; Park, S. H.; Jung, C. H.; Kim, H. S.; Min, J. J.; Choy, H. E.; Hong, Y.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Microbiol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        50
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen26, Xen 26, Salmonella typhumurium, Animals; Biological Therapy/*methods; Colonic Neoplasms/chemistry/*therapy; Disease Models, Animal; Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional; Male; Mass Spectrometry; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Proteome/analysis; Salmonella typhimurium/*growth & development/*pathogenicity
      12. Abstract :
        The use of bacteria has contributed to recent advances in targeted cancer therapy especially for its tumor-specific accumulation and proliferation. In this study, we investigated the molecular events following bacterial therapy using an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium defective in ppGpp synthesis (DeltappGpp), by analyzing those proteins differentially expressed in tumor tissues from treated and untreated mice. CT26 murine colon cancer cells were implanted in BALB/c mice and allowed to form tumors. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with the attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium. Tumor tissues were analyzed by 2D-PAGE. Fourteen differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The analysis revealed that cytoskeletal components, including vimentin, drebrin-like protein, and tropomyosin-alpha 3, were decreased while serum proteins related to heme or iron metabolism, including transferrin, hemopexin, and haptoglobin were increased. Subsequent studies revealed that the decrease in cytoskeletal components occurred at the transcriptional level and that the increase in heme and iron metabolism proteins occurred in liver. Most interestingly, the same pattern of increased expression of transferrin, hemopexin, and haptoglobin was observed following radiotherapy at the dosage of 14 Gy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752915
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10561
      1. Author :
        Nguyen, V. H.; Kim, H. S.; Ha, J. M.; Hong, Y.; Choy, H. E.; Min, J. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        70
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen26, Xen 26, Salmonella typhumurium, Animals; Blotting, Western; Cell Line, Tumor; Diagnostic Imaging/methods; Gene Therapy/*methods; Genetic Engineering/*methods; Genetic Vectors/*therapeutic use; Humans; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Neoplasms/*therapy; Perforin/*genetics/therapeutic use; Promoter Regions, Genetic; Salmonella typhimurium/*genetics; bcl-Associated Death Protein/genetics
      12. Abstract :
        Tumor-targeting bacteria have been studied in terms of their ability to visualize the infection pathway (through imaging probes) or to carry therapeutic molecules to tumors. To integrate these monitoring and therapeutic functions, we engineered attenuated Salmonella typhimurium defective in guanosine 5'-diphosphate-3'-diphosphate synthesis to carry cytotoxic proteins (cytolysin A) and express reporter genes. We successfully visualized the therapeutic process with these engineered bacteria in mice and found that they often mediated complete tumor (CT-26) eradication on cytotoxic gene induction. Furthermore, treatment with the engineered bacteria markedly suppressed metastatic tumor growth.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20028866
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10560