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      1. Author :
        Ketonis, C.; Barr, S.; Adams, C. S.; Shapiro, I. M.; Parvizi, J.; Hickok, N. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Antimicrob Agents Chemother
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        55
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS, Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry/*pharmacology; Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects; Biofilms/drug effects/growth & development; *Bone Transplantation; Bone and Bones/*chemistry/*microbiology; Cell Adhesion/drug effects; Cell Line; Colony Count, Microbial; Humans; Microscopy, Confocal; Osteoblasts/cytology; Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects/*growth & development/physiology; Vancomycin/chemistry/*pharmacology
      12. Abstract :
        Infection is an important medical problem associated with the use of bone allografts. To retard bacterial colonization, we have recently reported on the modification of bone allografts with the antibiotic vancomycin (VAN). In this report, we examine the ability of this antibiotic-modified allograft to resist bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. When antibiotic was coupled to the allograft, a uniform distribution of the antibiotic was apparent. Following challenges with Staphylococcus aureus for 6 h, the covalently bonded VAN decreased colonization as a function of inoculum, ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 log(10) CFU. Furthermore, the VAN-modified surface resisted biofilm formation, even in topographical niches that provide a protected environment for bacterial adhesion. Attachment of the antibiotic to the allograft surface was robust, and the bonded VAN was stable whether incubated in aqueous media or in air, maintaining levels of 75 to 100% of initial levels over 60 days. While the VAN-modified allograft inhibited the Gram-positive S. aureus colonization, in keeping with VAN's spectrum of activity, the VAN-modified allograft was readily colonized by the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Finally, initial toxicity measures indicated that the VAN-modified allograft did not influence osteoblast colonization or viability. Since the covalently tethered antibiotic is stable, is active, retains its specificity, and does not exhibit toxicity, it is concluded that this modified allograft holds great promise for decreasing bone graft-associated infections.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21098245
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 8
      15. Serial :
        10408
      1. Author :
        Ketonis, C.; Barr, S.; Shapiro, I. M.; Parvizi, J.; Adams, C. S.; Hickok, N. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Bone
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        48
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS, Adsorption/drug effects; Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry/*pharmacology; Biological Markers/metabolism; *Bone Transplantation; Cell Differentiation/drug effects; Cell Shape/drug effects; Cells, Cultured; Colony Count, Microbial; Drug Stability; Fetus/cytology; Fluorescence; Gene Expression Profiling; Humans; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Osteoblasts/cytology/drug effects/metabolism; Phenotype; Time Factors; Transplantation, Homologous; Vancomycin/chemistry/*pharmacology
      12. Abstract :
        Bacterial contamination of bone allograft is a significant complication of orthopedic surgery. To address this issue, we have engineered a method for covalently modifying bone allograft tissue with the antibiotic vancomycin. The goal of this investigation was to compare the biocidal properties of this new allograft material with those of vancomycin physisorbed onto graft material. The duration of antibiotic release from the vancomycin-modified allograft matrix was determined, and no elution was observed. In contrast, the adsorbed antibiotic showed a peak elution at 24h that then decreased over several days. We next used an Staphylococcus aureus disk diffusion assay to measure the activity of the eluted vancomycin. Again we found that no active antibiotic was eluted from the covalently modified allograft. Similarly, when the vancomycin-modified allograft morsel was used in the assay, no measurable elution was observed; amounts of antibiotic released from the adsorbed samples inhibited S. aureus growth for 4-7 days. Probably the most telling property of the allograft was that after 2 weeks, the tethered allograft was able to resist bacterial colonization. Unlike the elution system in which vancomycin was depleted over the course of days-weeks, the antibiotic on the allograft was stably bound even after 300 days, while its biocidal activity remained undiminished for 60 days. This finding was in stark contrast to the antibiotic impregnated allograft, which was readily colonized by bacteria. Finally we chose to evaluate three indicators of cell function: expression of a key transcription factor, expression of selected transcripts, and assessment of cell morphology. Since the tethered antibiotic appeared to have little or no effect on any of these activities, it was concluded that the stable, tethered antibiotic prevented bacterial infection while not modifying bone cell function.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21035576
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 7
      15. Serial :
        10407
      1. Author :
        Penn-Barwell, J. G.; Murray, C. K.; Wenke, J. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Bone Joint Surg Br
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        94
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        Most animal studies indicate that early irrigation and debridement reduce infection after an open fracture. Unfortunately, these studies often do not involve antibiotics. Clinical studies indicate that the timing of initial debridement does not affect the rate of infection but these studies are observational and fraught with confounding variables. The purpose of this study was to control these variables using an animal model incorporating systemic antibiotics and surgical treatment. We used a rat femur model with a defect which was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and treated with a three-day course of systemic cefazolin (5 mg/kg 12-hourly) and debridement and irrigation, both of which were initiated independently at two, six and 24 hour time points. After 14 days the bone and hardware were harvested for separate microbiological analysis. No animal that received antibiotics and surgery two hours after injury had detectable bacteria. When antibiotics were started at two hours, a delay in surgical treatment from two to six hours significantly increased the development of infection (p = 0.047). However, delaying surgery to 24 hours increase the rate of infection, but not significantly (p = 0.054). The timing of antibiotics had a more significant effect on the proportion of positive samples than earlier surgery. Delaying antibiotics to six or 24 hours had a profoundly detrimental effect on the infection rate regardless of the timing of surgery. These findings are consistent with the concept that bacteria progress from a vulnerable planktonic form to a treatment-resistant biofilm.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22219257
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10404
      1. Author :
        van Staden, A. D.; Brand, A. M.; Dicks, L. M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Appl Microbiol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        Aims: To determine if nisin F-loaded self-setting brushite cement could control the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in vivo. Methods and Results: Brushite cement was prepared by mixing equimolar concentrations of beta-tricalcium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate. Nisin F was added at 5.0%, 2.5% and 1.0% (w/w) and the cement moulded into cylinders. In vitro antibacterial activity was determined using a delayed agar diffusion assay. Release of nisin F from the cement was determined using BCA protein assays. Based on scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, nisin F did not cause significant changes in cement structure or chemistry. Cement containing 5.0% (w/w) nisin F yielded the most promising in vitro results. Nisin F-loaded cement was implanted into a subcutaneous pocket on the back of mice and then infected with S. aureus Xen 36. Infection was monitored for 7 days, using an in vivo imaging system. Nisin F prevented S. aureus infection for 7 days and no viable cells were isolated from the implants. Conclusions: Nisin F-loaded brushite cement successfully prevented in vivo growth of S. aureus. Significance and Impact of the Study: Nisin F incorporated into bone cement may be used to control S. aureus infection in vivo. (c) 2012The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology (c) 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22268790
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 11
      15. Serial :
        10402
      1. Author :
        Arima, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Hosonaga, M.; Goto, T. M.; Chiyoda, T.; Kuninaka, S.; Shibata, T.; Ohata, H.; Nakagama, H.; Taya, Y.; Saya, H.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Biol Chem
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        We previously showed that depletion of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) induces down-regulation of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin and thereby triggers the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To further characterize the effect of RB inactivation on the phenotype of cancer cells, we have now examined RB expression in human breast cancer cell lines and clinical specimens. We found that RB-inactive cells exhibit a mesenchymal-like morphology and are highly invasive. We also found that ZEB proteins, transcriptional repressors of the E-cadherin gene, are markedly up-regulated in these cells in a manner sensitive to the miR-200 family of microRNAs. Moreover, depletion of ZEB in RB-inactive cells suppressed cell invasiveness and proliferation as well as induced epithelial marker expression. These results implicate ZEB in induction of the EMT as well as in maintenance of the mesenchymal phenotype in RB-inactive cells. We also developed a screening program for inhibitors of ZEB1 expression and thereby identified several cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors that blocked both ZEB1 expression and RB phosphorylation. Together, our findings suggest that RB inactivation contributes to tumor progression not only through loss of cell cycle control but also through up-regulation of ZEB expression and induction of an invasive phenotype.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22262832
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10418
      1. Author :
        Chantry, A. D.; Heath, D.; Mulivor, A. W.; Pearsall, S.; Baud'huin, M.; Coulton, L.; Evans, H.; Abdul, N.; Werner, E. D.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Key, M. L.; Seehra, J.; Arnett, T. R.; Vanderkerken, K.; Croucher, P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        J Bone Miner Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        25
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence, Activins/*metabolism; Animals; Bone Neoplasms/*complications/pathology/physiopathology/secondary; Bone Resorption/*etiology/pathology/physiopathology/*prevention & control; Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects; Cell Line, Tumor; HEK293 Cells; Humans; Mice; Multiple Myeloma/complications/pathology/physiopathology; Neoplasm Transplantation; Organ Size/drug effects; Osteoblasts/drug effects/pathology; *Osteogenesis/drug effects; Osteolysis/blood/complications/physiopathology/prevention & control; Paraproteins/metabolism; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology; *Signal Transduction/drug effects; Survival Analysis; Tumor Burden/drug effects
      12. Abstract :
        Cancers that grow in bone, such as myeloma and breast cancer metastases, cause devastating osteolytic bone destruction. These cancers hijack bone remodeling by stimulating osteoclastic bone resorption and suppressing bone formation. Currently, treatment is targeted primarily at blocking bone resorption, but this approach has achieved only limited success. Stimulating osteoblastic bone formation to promote repair is a novel alternative approach. We show that a soluble activin receptor type IIA fusion protein (ActRIIA.muFc) stimulates osteoblastogenesis (p < .01), promotes bone formation (p < .01) and increases bone mass in vivo (p < .001). We show that the development of osteolytic bone lesions in mice bearing murine myeloma cells is caused by both increased resorption (p < .05) and suppression of bone formation (p < .01). ActRIIA.muFc treatment stimulates osteoblastogenesis (p < .01), prevents myeloma-induced suppression of bone formation (p < .05), blocks the development of osteolytic bone lesions (p < .05), and increases survival (p < .05). We also show, in a murine model of breast cancer bone metastasis, that ActRIIA.muFc again prevents bone destruction (p < .001) and inhibits bone metastases (p < .05). These findings show that stimulating osteoblastic bone formation with ActRIIA.muFc blocks the formation of osteolytic bone lesions and bone metastases in models of myeloma and breast cancer and paves the way for new approaches to treating this debilitating aspect of cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20533325
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 4
      15. Serial :
        10413
      1. Author :
        Defresne, F.; Bouzin, C.; Grandjean, M.; Dieu, M.; Raes, M.; Hatzopoulos, A. K.; Kupatt, C.; Feron, O.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        Tumor progression is associated with the release of signaling substances from the primary tumor into the bloodstream. Tumor-derived cytokines are known to promote the mobilization and the recruitment of cells from the bone marrow, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Here, we examined whether such paracrine influence could also influence the capacity of EPC to interfere with circulating metastatic cells. We therefore consecutively injected EPC pre-stimulated by tumor conditioned medium (CM-EPC) and luciferase-expressing B16 melanoma cells to mice. A net decrease in metastases spreading (vs non-stimulated EPC) led us to carry out a 2D-DIGE proteomic study to identify possible mediators of EPC-driven protection. Among 33 proteins exhibiting significant changes in expression, SPARC presented the highest induction after EPC exposure to CM. We then showed that contrary to control EPC, SPARC-silenced EPC were not able to reduce the extent of metastases when injected with B16 melanoma cells. Using adhesion tests and the hanging drop assay, we further documented that cell-cell interactions between CM-EPC and melanoma cells were promoted in a SPARC-dependent manner. This interaction led to the engulfment of melanoma cells by CM-EPC, a process prevented by SPARC silencing and mimicked by recombinant SPARC. Finally, we showed that contrary to melanoma cells, the pro-metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231-D3H2 reduced SPARC expression in human EPC and stimulated metastases spreading. Our findings unravel the influence of tumor cells on EPC phenotypes through a SPARC-driven accentuation of macrophagic capacity associated with limitations to metastatic spread.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21616936
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10415
      1. Author :
        Lim, E.; Modi, K.; Christensen, A.; Meganck, J.; Oldfield, S.; Zhang, N.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Vis Exp
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence, Animals; Bone Neoplasms/*secondary; Breast Neoplasms/*pathology; Cell Line, Tumor; Female; Humans; Luminescent Measurements/*methods; Mice; Mice, Nude; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasm Transplantation; Tomography, X-Ray Computed/*methods; Transplantation, Heterologous
      12. Abstract :
        Following intracardiac delivery of MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN cells to Nu/Nu mice, systemic metastases developed in the injected animals. Bioluminescence imaging using IVIS Spectrum was employed to monitor the distribution and development of the tumor cells following the delivery procedure including DLIT reconstruction to measure the tumor signal and its location. Development of metastatic lesions to the bone tissues triggers osteolytic activity and lesions to tibia and femur were evaluated longitudinally using micro CT. Imaging was performed using a Quantum FX micro CT system with fast imaging and low X-ray dose. The low radiation dose allows multiple imaging sessions to be performed with a cumulative X-ray dosage far below LD50. A mouse imaging shuttle device was used to sequentially image the mice with both IVIS Spectrum and Quantum FX achieving accurate animal positioning in both the bioluminescence and CT images. The optical and CT data sets were co-registered in 3-dimentions using the Living Image 4.1 software. This multi-mode approach allows close monitoring of tumor growth and development simultaneously with osteolytic activity.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21525842
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10416
      1. Author :
        Xu, D.; Takeshita, F.; Hino, Y.; Fukunaga, S.; Kudo, Y.; Tamaki, A.; Matsunaga, J.; Takahashi, R. U.; Takata, T.; Shimamoto, A.; Ochiya, T.; Tahara, H.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Cell Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        193
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        Cellular senescence acts as a barrier to cancer progression, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are thought to be potential senescence regulators. However, whether senescence-associated miRNAs (SA-miRNAs) contribute to tumor suppression remains unknown. Here, we report that miR-22, a novel SA-miRNA, has an impact on tumorigenesis. miR-22 is up-regulated in human senescent fibroblasts and epithelial cells but down-regulated in various cancer cell lines. miR-22 overexpression induces growth suppression and acquisition of a senescent phenotype in human normal and cancer cells. miR-22 knockdown in presenescent fibroblasts decreased cell size, and cells became more compact. miR-22-induced senescence also decreases cell motility and inhibits cell invasion in vitro. Synthetic miR-22 delivery suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in vivo by inducing cellular senescence in a mouse model of breast carcinoma. We confirmed that CDK6, SIRT1, and Sp1, genes involved in the senescence program, are direct targets of miR-22. Our study provides the first evidence that miR-22 restores the cellular senescence program in cancer cells and acts as a tumor suppressor.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21502362
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10417
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