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      1. Author :
        Kim DE, Kim JY, Schellingerhout D, Shon SM, Jeong SW, Kim EJ and Kim WK
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Molecular Imaging
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        8
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cardiovascular Research
      11. Keywords :
        ProSense; in vivo imaging
      12. Abstract :
        Inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques causes plaque vulnerability and rupture, leading to thromboembolic complications. Cathepsin B (CatB) proteases secreted by macrophages play a major role in plaque inflammation. We used a CatB-activatable near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging agent to demonstrate the inflammatory component in mice atheromata and the atherosclerosis- modulating effects of atorvastatin or glucosamine treatments. Apolipoprotein E knockout mice (n = 35) were fed normal chow, a Western diet, a Western diet + atorvastatin, a Western diet + glucosamine, or a Western diet + atorvastatin + glucosamine for 14 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the intravenous injection of a CatB-activatable probe, ex vivo NIRF imaging of the aortas and brains was performed, followed by histology. The CatB-related signal, observed in the aortas but not in the cerebral arteries, correlated very well with protease activity and the presence of macrophages on histology. Animals on Western diets could be distinguished from animals on a normal diet. The antiatherosclerotic effects of atorvastatin and glucosamine could be demonstrated, with reduced CatB-related signal compared with untreated animals. Plaque populations were heterogeneous within individuals, with some plaques showing a high and others a lower CatB-related signal. These differences in signal intensity could not be predicted by visual inspection of the plaques but did correlate with histologic evidence of inflammation in every case. This suggests that vulnerable inflamed plaques can be identified by optical molecular imaging.
      13. URL :
        http://www.bcdecker.com/pubMedLinkOut.aspx?pub=MIO&vol=8&iss=5&page=291
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4558
      1. Author :
        Zhang, H-Y; Man, J-H; Liang, B; Zhou, T; Wang, C-H; Li, T; Li, H-Y; Li, W-H; Jin, B-F; Zhang, P-J; Zhao, J; Pan, X; He, K; Gong, W-L; Zhang, X-M; Li, A-L
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Cancer gene therapy
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        17
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Apoptosis; B16-F10-luc-G5 cells; Bioware; Blotting, Western; Cell Line, Tumor; Escherichia coli; Female; Flow Cytometry; Gene Therapy; Genetic Vectors; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Nude; NCI-H460-luc2; Neoplasms; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Survival Rate; TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
      12. Abstract :
        The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent inducer of tumor cell apoptosis, but concerns of considerable liver toxicity limit its uses in human cancer therapy. Here, we show that i.v. injected Escherichia coli DH5alpha (E. coli DH5alpha) specifically replicates in solid tumors and metastases in live animals. E. coli DH5alpha does not enter tumor cells and suits for being the vector for soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL), which induces apoptosis by activating cell-surface death receptors. With the high 'tumor-targeting' nature, we demonstrate that intratumoral (i.t.) and intravenous injection of sTRAIL-expressing E. coli DH5alpha results in the tumor-targeted release of biologically active molecules, which leads to a dramatic reduction in the tumor growth rate and the prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice. TRAIL delivery by E. coli DH5alpha did not cause any detectable toxicity to any organs, suggesting that E. coli DH5alpha-delivered sTRAIL protein therapy may provide a feasible and effective form of treatment for solid tumors.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20075981
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8944
      1. Author :
        Figg, William D; Li, Haiqing; Sissung, Tristan; Retter, Avi; Wu, Shenhong; Gulley, James L; Arlen, Phil; Wright, John J; Parnes, Howard; Fedenko, Kathy; Latham, Lea; Steinberg, Seth M; Jones, Elizabeth; Chen, Clara; Dahut, William
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        BJU international
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        99
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Aged; Androgens; Animals; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases; Bioware; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; Estramustine; Genotype; Humans; Male; Mice; Mice, Nude; Middle Aged; PC-3M-luc; Prostatic Neoplasms; Survival Analysis; Taxoids; Thalidomide; Treatment Outcome
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVE To evaluate the combination of docetaxel plus estramustine (which prolongs survival in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer, AIPC), and thalidomide (that also adds to docetaxel activity), both pre-clinically and clinically in AIPC. PATIENTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS In the pre-clinical evaluation we injected PC3 cells subcutaneously into severely combined immunodeficient mice and started treatment after the tumour volume reached 50 mm3. We also evaluated the combination using luciferase-labelled PC3M-luc-C6 cells in nude mice. We enrolled 20 patients with metastatic progressive AIPC into a phase II clinical trial to evaluate this combination. Docetaxel (30 mg/m2) was administered every week, for 3 of 4 weeks. The dose of thalidomide was 200 mg/day and estramustine was given three times a day at 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16 and 17 days. RESULTS In the mice, thalidomide with docetaxel plus estramustine reduced tumour volume by 88% at 17 days vs the control treatment (p=0.001). The combination of docetaxel, estramustine and thalidomide nearly eradicated the signal from the luciferase-expressing PC3M cells in the metastasis model. Clinically, the progression-free time was 7.2 months with this combination; 18 of 20 patients had a decline of half or more in prostate-specific antigen level and two of 10 patients with soft-tissue lesions had a partial response on computed tomography. There were 24 grade 3 and two grade 4 complications associated with this combination. There was a statistically significant association between overall survival and the CYP1B1*3 genotype (P=0.013). CONCLUSION Docetaxel-based chemotherapy is now regarded as a standard regimen for metastatic AIPC. The combination of estramustine, docetaxel and thalidomide is an advantageous treatment in pre-clinical models of prostate cancer and is a safe, tolerable and active regimen in patients with AIPC.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17437439
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8970
      1. Author :
        Francis, K P; Yu, J; Bellinger-Kawahara, C; Joh, D; Hawkinson, M J; Xiao, G; Purchio, T F; Caparon, M G; Lipsitch, M; Contag, P R
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2001
      5. Publication :
        Infection and immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        69
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Amoxicillin; Animals; Bioware; DNA Transposable Elements; Female; Luminescent Measurements; Lung; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Nasopharynx; Operon; Promoter Regions, Genetic; pXen-5; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Transformation, Bacterial, Xen10, Xen7
      12. Abstract :
        Animal studies with Streptococcus pneumoniae have provided valuable models for drug development. In order to monitor long-term pneumococcal infections noninvasively in living mice, a novel gram-positive lux transposon cassette, Tn4001 luxABCDE Km(r), that allows random integration of lux genes onto the bacterial chromosome was constructed. The cassette was designed so that the luxABCDE and kanamycin resistance genes were linked to form a single promoterless operon. Bioluminescence and kanamycin resistance only occur in a bacterial cell if this operon has transposed downstream of a promoter on the bacterium's chromosome. S. pneumoniae D39 was transformed with plasmid pAUL-A Tn4001 luxABCDE Km(r), and a number of highly bioluminescent colonies were recovered. Genomic DNA from the brightest D39 strain was used to transform a number of clinical S. pneumoniae isolates, and several of these strains were tested in animal models, including a pneumococcal lung infection model. Strong bioluminescent signals were seen in the lungs of the animals containing these pneumococci, allowing the course and antibiotic treatment of the infections to be readily monitored in real time in the living animals. Recovery of the bacteria from the animals showed that the bioluminescent signal corresponded to the number of CFU and that the lux construct was highly stable even after several days in vivo. We believe that this lux transposon will greatly expand the ability to evaluate drug efficacy against gram-positive bacteria in living animals using bioluminescence.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11292758
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9027
      1. Author :
        Park, Hae-Sun; Francis, Kevin P; Yu, Jun; Cleary, P Patrick
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2003
      5. Publication :
        Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        171
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Administration, Intranasal; Animals; Bioware; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Intracellular Fluid; Lymphoid Tissue; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Nasal Mucosa; Nasopharynx; Palatine Tonsil; pXen-5; Streptococcal Infections; Streptococcus pyogenes
      12. Abstract :
        Human tonsils are suspected to be an antibiotic-impervious human reservoir for group A streptococcus. An intranasal infection model in mice and a bioluminescent-tagged strain were used to investigate this possibility. Viable streptococci were predominantly found both intra- and extracellularly in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), a human tonsil homologue. Ulex europaeus-1, a membranous (M) cell-specific lectin, identified cells harboring streptococci at the epithelial surface of NALT and blocked bacterial colonization of this tissue. These results suggest that M cells in NALT transport this Gram-positive pathogen across the epithelial layers in a manner similar to those in Peyer's patches, which permit enteric pathogens to invade deeper tissues from the gastrointestinal tract.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12928403
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9025
      1. Author :
        Hart, Emily; Azzopardi, Kristy; Taing, Heng; Graichen, Florian; Jeffery, Justine; Mayadunne, Roshan; Wickramaratna, Malsha; O'Shea, Mike; Nijagal, Brunda; Watkinson, Rebecca; O'Leary, Stephen; Finnin, Barrie; Tait, Russell; Robins-Browne, Roy
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        65
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bioware; Colony Count, Microbial; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Foreign Bodies; Humans; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Ofloxacin; Polymers; Prosthesis-Related Infections; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVES To assess support discs, comprising polyethylene terephthalate (PET), coated with different polymer/levofloxacin combinations for antimicrobial activity in an animal model of infection, in order to explore the use of specific polymer coatings incorporating levofloxacin as a means of reducing device-related infections. METHODS Aliphatic polyester-polyurethanes containing different ratios of poly(lactic acid) diol and poly(caprolactone) diol were prepared, blended with levofloxacin and then used to coat support discs. The in vitro levofloxacin release profiles from these discs were measured in aqueous solution. Mice were surgically implanted with the coated discs placed subcutaneously and infection was initiated by injection of 10(6) cfu of Staphylococcus aureus into the subcutaneous pocket containing the implant. After 5, 10, 20 and 30 days, the discs were removed, and the number of bacteria adhering to the implant and the residual antimicrobial activity of the discs were determined. RESULTS In vitro, the release of levofloxacin from the coated discs occurred at a constant rate and then reached a plateau at different timepoints, depending on the polymer preparation used. In vivo, none of the discs coated with polymer blends containing levofloxacin was colonized by S. aureus, whereas 94% of the discs coated with polymer alone were infected. All discs coated with levofloxacin-blended polymers displayed residual antimicrobial activity for at least 20 days post-implantation. CONCLUSIONS Bioerodable polyester-polyurethane polymer coatings containing levofloxacin can prevent bacterial colonization of implants in an intra-operative model of device-related infections.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20233779
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9035
      1. Author :
        Mortin, Lawrence I; Li, Tongchuan; Van Praagh, Andrew D G; Zhang, Shuxin; Zhang, Xi-Xian; Alder, Jeff D
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        51
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Acetamides; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bioware; Colony Count, Microbial; Daptomycin; Female; Luminescent Measurements; Methicillin Resistance; Mice; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Neutropenia; Oxazolidinones; Peritonitis; Staphylococcus aureus; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        The rising rates of antibiotic resistance accentuate the critical need for new antibiotics. Daptomycin is a new antibiotic with a unique mode of action and a rapid in vitro bactericidal effect against gram-positive organisms. This study examined the kinetics of daptomycin's bactericidal action against peritonitis caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in healthy and neutropenic mice and compared this activity with those of other commonly used antibiotics. CD-1 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with lethal doses of MSSA (Xen-29) or MRSA (Xen-1), laboratory strains transformed with a plasmid containing the lux operon, which confers bioluminescence. One hour later, the animals were given a single dose of daptomycin at 50 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneously (s.c.), nafcillin at 100 mg/kg s.c., vancomycin at 100 mg/kg s.c., linezolid at 100 mg/kg via gavage (orally), or saline (10 ml/kg s.c.). The mice were anesthetized hourly, and photon emissions from living bioluminescent bacteria were imaged and quantified. The luminescence in saline-treated control mice either increased (neutropenic mice) or remained relatively unchanged (healthy mice). In contrast, by 2 to 3 h postdosing, daptomycin effected a 90% reduction of luminescence of MSSA or MRSA in both healthy and neutropenic mice. The activity of daptomycin against both MSSA and MRSA strains was superior to those of nafcillin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Against MSSA peritonitis, daptomycin showed greater and more rapid bactericidal activity than nafcillin or linezolid. Against MRSA peritonitis, daptomycin showed greater and more rapid bactericidal activity than vancomycin or linezolid. The rapid decrease in the luminescent signal in the daptomycin-treated neutropenic mice underscores the potency of this antibiotic against S. aureus in the immune-suppressed host.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17307984
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9050
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        184
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; Bacterial Infections; Bioware; Cell Line; Cells, Cultured; Chemokine CCL2; Chemokine CCL7; Chemokine CXCL1; Chemokines; Female; Humans; Interleukin-8; Leukocytes; Leukocytes, Mononuclear; Macrophages; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Molecular Sequence Data; NF-kappa B; p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; Phosphorylation; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Xen29, Xen14
      12. Abstract :
        With the rapid rise in the incidence of multidrug resistant infections, there is substantial interest in host defense peptides as templates for production of new antimicrobial therapeutics. Natural peptides are multifunctional mediators of the innate immune response, with some direct antimicrobial activity and diverse immunomodulatory properties. We have previously developed an innate defense regulator (IDR) 1, with protective activity against bacterial infection mediated entirely through its effects on the immunity of the host, as a novel approach to anti-infective therapy. In this study, an immunomodulatory peptide IDR-1002 was selected from a library of bactenecin derivatives based on its substantially more potent ability to induce chemokines in human PBMCs. The enhanced chemokine induction activity of the peptide in vitro correlated with stronger protective activity in vivo in the Staphylococcus aureus-invasive infection model, with a >5-fold reduction in the protective dose in direct comparison with IDR-1. IDR-1002 also afforded protection against the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli. Chemokine induction by IDR-1002 was found to be mediated through a Gi-coupled receptor and the PI3K, NF-kappaB, and MAPK signaling pathways. The protective activity of the peptide was associated with in vivo augmentation of chemokine production and recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the site of infection. These results highlight the importance of the chemokine induction activity of host defense peptides and demonstrate that the optimization of the ex vivo chemokine-induction properties of peptides is a promising method for the rational development of immunomodulatory IDR peptides with enhanced anti-infective activity.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20107187
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9033
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