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      1. Author :
        Beckers, Annelies; Organe, Sophie; Timmermans, Leen; Vanderhoydonc, Frank; Deboel, Ludo; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Brusselmans, Koen; Verhoeven, Guido; Swinnen, Johannes V
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2006
      5. Publication :
        Molecular cancer therapeutics
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        5
      8. Issue :
        9
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Adenosine Triphosphate; Aminoimidazole Carboxamide; AMP-Activated Protein Kinases; Bioware; Breast Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Cell Line, Tumor; DNA, Neoplasm; Drug Synergism; Enzyme Activation; Humans; Lipids; Methotrexate; Multienzyme Complexes; Nucleotide Deaminases; PC-3M-luc; Phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide Formyltransferase; Phosphoribosylglycinamide Formyltransferase; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; Purines; Ribonucleosides; Ribonucleotides; RNA Interference
      12. Abstract :
        Because of its ability to mimic a low energy status of the cell, the cell-permeable nucleoside 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) riboside was proposed as an antineoplastic agent switching off major energy-consuming processes associated with the malignant phenotype (lipid production, DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell migration, etc.). Key to the antineoplastic action of AICA riboside is its conversion to ZMP, an AMP mimetic that at high concentrations activates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Here, in an attempt to increase the efficacy of AICA riboside, we pretreated cancer cells with methotrexate, an antimetabolite blocking the metabolism of ZMP. Methotrexate enhanced the AICA riboside-induced accumulation of ZMP and led to a decrease in the levels of ATP, which functions as an intrasteric inhibitor of AMPK. Consequently, methotrexate markedly sensitized AMPK for activation by AICA riboside and potentiated the inhibitory effects of AICA riboside on tumor-associated processes. As cotreatment elicited antiproliferative effects already at concentrations of compounds that were only marginally effective when used alone, our findings on the cooperation between methotrexate and AICA riboside provide new opportunities both for the application of classic antimetabolic chemotherapeutics, such as methotrexate, and for the exploitation of the energy-sensing machinery as a target for cancer intervention.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16985054
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8978
      1. Author :
        Blagbrough, Ian S; Zara, Chiara
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Pharmaceutical research
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        26
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Cats; Cattle; Disease Models, Animal; Dna; Dogs; Drug Delivery Systems; Female; Fishes; Gene Therapy; Horses; Humans; Mice; PC-3M-luc; Pregnancy; Primates; Rats; RNA, Small Interfering; Sheep; Swine
      12. Abstract :
        Nanoparticles, including lipopolyamines leading to lipoplexes, liposomes, and polyplexes are targeted drug carrier systems in the current search for a successful delivery system for polynucleic acids. This review is focused on the impact of gene and siRNA delivery for studies of efficacy, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics within the setting of the wide variety of in vivo animal models now used. This critical appraisal of the recent literature sets out the different models that are currently being investigated to bridge from studies in cell lines through towards clinical reality. Whilst many scientists will be familiar with rodent (murine, fecine, cricetine, and musteline) models, few probably think of fish as a clinically relevant animal model, but zebrafish, madake, and rainbow trout are all being used. Larger animal models include rabbit, cat, dog, and cow. Pig is used both for the prevention of foot-and-mouth disease and human diseases, sheep is a model for corneal transplantation, and the horse naturally develops arthritis. Non-human primate models (macaque, common marmoset, owl monkey) are used for preclinical gene vector safety and efficacy trials to bridge the gap prior to clinical studies. We aim for the safe development of clinically effective delivery systems for DNA and RNAi technologies.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18841450
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8965
      1. Author :
        Casarez, Eli V; Dunlap-Brown, Marya E; Conaway, Mark R; Amorino, George P
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Cancer research
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        67
      8. Issue :
        17
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Carcinoma; Estradiol; Humans; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Nude; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; PC-3M-luc; Phosphorylation; Prostatic Neoplasms; Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; Subcutaneous Tissue; Transplantation, Heterotopic; Tumor Cells, Cultured; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) is an endogenous estradiol metabolite that inhibits microtubule polymerization, tumor growth, and angiogenesis. Because prostate cancer is often treated with radiotherapy, and 2ME2 has shown efficacy as a single agent against human prostate carcinoma, we evaluated 2ME2 as a potential radiosensitizer in prostate cancer models. A dose-dependent decrease in mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was observed in human PC3 prostate cancer cells treated with 2ME2 for 18 h. This decrease correlated with in vitro radiosensitization measured by clonogenic assays, and these effects were blocked by the expression of constitutively active MEK. Male nude mice with subcutaneous PC3 xenografts in the hind leg were treated with 2ME2 (75 mg/kg) p.o. for 5 days, and 2 Gy radiation fractions were delivered each day at 4 h after drug treatment. A statistically significant super-additive effect between radiation and 2ME2 was observed in this subcutaneous model, using analysis of within-animal slopes. A PC-3M orthotopic model was also used, with bioluminescence imaging as an end point. PC-3M cells stably expressing the luciferase gene were surgically implanted into the prostates of male nude mice. Mice were given oral doses of 2ME2 (75 mg/kg), with radiation fractions (3 Gy) delivered 4 h later. Mice were then imaged weekly for 4 to 5 weeks with a Xenogen system. A significant super-additive effect was also observed in the orthotopic model. These data show that 2ME2 is an effective radiosensitizing agent against human prostate cancer xenografts, and that the mechanism may involve a decrease in mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation by 2ME2.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17804747
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8972
      1. Author :
        Cheung, Alison M.; Brown, Allison S.; Shaked, Yuval; Franco, Marcela; Kerbel, Robert S.; Foster, F. S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2006
      5. Publication :
        AACR Meeting Abstracts
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        2006
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Bioware; PC-3M-luc; hVEGF-luc-PC3M
      12. Abstract :
        Background: Preclinical cancer studies increasingly utilize non-invasive imaging modalities. In the current study we have monitored tumor growth and vascular changes using two in vivo imaging tools: surface bioluminescence (BLI) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). BLI permits visualization of tumor location in the context of the whole body, including metastases localization. UBM imaging then permits high resolution 3D volumetric tumor measurements as well as blood flow estimates down to 200 microns/s. Measurements obtained from these complementary modalities were analyzed and compared to conventional, biochemical markers. Methods: Human prostate cancer cells expressing Firefly Luciferase constitutively (PC-3M-luc-C6) or under the control of hVEGF promoter (hVEGF-luc/PC3M) were implanted into male nude mice via an intradermal or subcutaneous injection. Tumor-bearing mice were subsequently imaged every week for nine weeks starting at week 2, by UBM to measure tumor burden using 3D volumetric analysis, or to estimate blood flow using speckle-variance flow processing. Surface bioluminescence was also acquired 10 minutes post i.p. injection of D-luciferin. In a longitudinal drug intervention study anti-hVEGF antibody (Bevacizumab, 200 ug) was injected i.p. into nude mice with subcutaneous xenografts of PC-3M-luc-C6 or hVEGF-luc/PC-3M twice per week for three weeks, starting at 14 days post-xenograft. UBM and surface BLI imaging were conducted every week. In order to study the correlation between VEGF expression in hVEGF-luc/PC3M xenografts (estimated by BLI) to tumor hypoxia level, mice were injected with pimonidazole hydrochloride (60 mg/kg i.v.) after three weeks of treatment and tumors were harvested for immunostaining analysis. Results: Surface BLI outputs (photons/s) from subcutaneous PC-3M-luc-C6 xenografts were highly correlated to tumor volumes measured using 3D UBM for small tumors (<100 mm3, r=0.92, n=8), yet poorly correlated to tumors of large size (>100 mm3, r=0.079, n=8). BLI signals in subcutaneous hVEGF-luc/PC3M xenografts showed an inverse trend to tumor blood flow. PC-3M-luc-C6 tumors treated with Bevacizumab showed growth inhibition by day 28 as demonstrated by 3D UBM (control vs treated = 67.27 vs 48.54 mm3). Moreover, control xenografts showed increased average BLI output over time, whereas treated tumors showed variation in BLI output. Necrosis, hypoxia and blood flow estimates were also investigated. Conclusions: Surface bioluminescence imaging demonstrated high correlations to accurate 3D UBM volumetric measurements of small tumor volumes, suggesting its usefulness in tracking early tumor growth quantitatively in drug intervention studies. A complementary imaging modality, like ultrasound biomicroscopy, is recommended to monitor tumor burden in advanced stages.
      13. URL :
        http://www.aacrmeetingabstracts.org/cgi/content/abstract/2006/1/646-a
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8977
      1. Author :
        Contag, C H; Jenkins, D; Contag, P R; Negrin, R S
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2000
      5. Publication :
        Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        2
      8. Issue :
        1-2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Diagnostic Imaging; Genes, Reporter; Green Fluorescent Proteins; Humans; Luciferases; Luminescent Proteins; Neoplasms; PC-3M-luc; Time Factors; Tumor Cells, Cultured
      12. Abstract :
        Revealing the cellular and molecular changes associated with cancer, as they occur in intact living animal models of human neoplastic disease, holds tremendous potential for understanding disease mechanisms and elucidating effective therapies. Since light is transmitted through mammalian tissues, at a low level, optical signatures conferred on tumor cells by expression of reporter genes encoding bioluminescent and fluorescent proteins can be detected externally using sensitive photon detection systems. Expression of reporter genes, such as the bioluminescent enzyme firefly luciferase (Luc) or variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transformed cells, can effectively be used to reveal molecular and cellular features of neoplasia in vivo. Tumor cell growth and regression in response to various therapies have been evaluated non-invasively in living experimental animals using these reporter genes. Detection of Luc-labeled cells in vivo was extremely sensitive with signals over background from as few as 1000 human tumor cells distributed throughout the peritoneal cavity of a mouse with linear relationships between cell number and signal intensity over five logs. GFP offers the strength of high-resolution ex vivo analyses following in vivo localization of the tumor. The dynamic range of Luc detection allows the full disease course to be monitored since disease progression from small numbers of cells to extensive disease can be assessed. As such, therapies that target minimal disease as well as those designed for late stage disease can be readily evaluated in animal models. Real time spatiotemporal analyses of tumor cell growth can reveal the dynamics of neoplastic disease, and facilitate rapid optimization of effective treatment regimens. Thus, these methods improve the predictability of animal models of human disease as study groups can be followed over time, and can accelerate the development of therapeutic strategies.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10933067
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8985
      1. Author :
        Edinger, M; Cao, Y-a; Hornig, Y S; Jenkins, D E; Verneris, M R; Bachmann, M H; Negrin, R S; Contag, C H
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2002
      5. Publication :
        European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        38
      8. Issue :
        16
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Diagnostic Imaging; Forecasting; Luminescent Measurements; Mice; Models, Animal; Neoplasms; PC-3M-luc; Sensitivity and Specificity
      12. Abstract :
        Malignant disease is the final manifestation of complex molecular and cellular events leading to uncontrolled cellular proliferation and eventually tissue destruction and metastases. While the in vitro examination of cultured tumour cells permits the molecular dissection of early pathways in tumorigenesis on cellular and subcellular levels, only interrogation of these processes within the complexity of organ systems of the living animal can reveal the full range of pathophysiological changes that occur in neoplastic disease. Such analyses require technologies that facilitate the study of biological processes in vivo, and several approaches have been developed over the last few years. These strategies, in the nascent field of in vivo molecular and cellular imaging, combine molecular biology with imaging modalities as a means to real-time acquisition of functional information about disease processes in living systems. In this review, we will summarise recent developments in in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and discuss the potential of this imaging strategy for the future of cancer research.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12387838
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8983
      1. Author :
        Figg, William D; Li, Haiqing; Sissung, Tristan; Retter, Avi; Wu, Shenhong; Gulley, James L; Arlen, Phil; Wright, John J; Parnes, Howard; Fedenko, Kathy; Latham, Lea; Steinberg, Seth M; Jones, Elizabeth; Chen, Clara; Dahut, William
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        BJU international
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        99
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Aged; Androgens; Animals; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases; Bioware; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; Estramustine; Genotype; Humans; Male; Mice; Mice, Nude; Middle Aged; PC-3M-luc; Prostatic Neoplasms; Survival Analysis; Taxoids; Thalidomide; Treatment Outcome
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVE To evaluate the combination of docetaxel plus estramustine (which prolongs survival in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer, AIPC), and thalidomide (that also adds to docetaxel activity), both pre-clinically and clinically in AIPC. PATIENTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS In the pre-clinical evaluation we injected PC3 cells subcutaneously into severely combined immunodeficient mice and started treatment after the tumour volume reached 50 mm3. We also evaluated the combination using luciferase-labelled PC3M-luc-C6 cells in nude mice. We enrolled 20 patients with metastatic progressive AIPC into a phase II clinical trial to evaluate this combination. Docetaxel (30 mg/m2) was administered every week, for 3 of 4 weeks. The dose of thalidomide was 200 mg/day and estramustine was given three times a day at 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16 and 17 days. RESULTS In the mice, thalidomide with docetaxel plus estramustine reduced tumour volume by 88% at 17 days vs the control treatment (p=0.001). The combination of docetaxel, estramustine and thalidomide nearly eradicated the signal from the luciferase-expressing PC3M cells in the metastasis model. Clinically, the progression-free time was 7.2 months with this combination; 18 of 20 patients had a decline of half or more in prostate-specific antigen level and two of 10 patients with soft-tissue lesions had a partial response on computed tomography. There were 24 grade 3 and two grade 4 complications associated with this combination. There was a statistically significant association between overall survival and the CYP1B1*3 genotype (P=0.013). CONCLUSION Docetaxel-based chemotherapy is now regarded as a standard regimen for metastatic AIPC. The combination of estramustine, docetaxel and thalidomide is an advantageous treatment in pre-clinical models of prostate cancer and is a safe, tolerable and active regimen in patients with AIPC.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17437439
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8970
      1. Author :
        Giubellino, Alessio; Gao, Yang; Lee, Sunmin; Lee, Min-Jung; Vasselli, James R; Medepalli, Sampath; Trepel, Jane B; Burke, Terrence R, Jr; Bottaro, Donald P
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Cancer research
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        67
      8. Issue :
        13
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement; Cell Proliferation; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic; GRB2 Adaptor Protein; Humans; Mice; Mice, SCID; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasm Transplantation; PC-3M-luc; Protein Binding; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Tetrazolium Salts; Thiazoles
      12. Abstract :
        Metastasis, the primary cause of death in most forms of cancer, is a multistep process whereby cells from the primary tumor spread systemically and colonize distant new sites. Blocking critical steps in this process could potentially inhibit tumor metastasis and dramatically improve cancer survival rates; however, our understanding of metastasis at the molecular level is still rudimentary. Growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2) is a widely expressed adapter protein with roles in epithelial cell growth and morphogenesis, as well as angiogenesis, making it a logical target for anticancer drug development. We have previously shown that a potent antagonist of Grb2 Src homology-2 domain-binding, C90, blocks growth factor-driven cell motility in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. We now report that C90 inhibits metastasis in vivo in two aggressive tumor models, without affecting primary tumor growth rate. These results support the potential efficacy of this compound in reducing the metastatic spread of primary solid tumors and establish a critical role for Grb2 Src homology-2 domain-mediated interactions in this process.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17616655
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8969
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