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      1. Author :
        Tafreshi, N. K.; Huang, X.; Moberg, V. E.; Barkey, N. M.; Sondak, V. K.; Tian, H.; Morse, D. L.; Vagner, J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Bioconjug Chem
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        23
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, B16-F10-luc-G5, B16F10-luc-G5, B16-F10-luc, B16F10-luc
      12. Abstract :
        The incidence of malignant melanoma is rising more rapidly than that of any other cancer in the United States. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is overexpressed in most human melanoma metastases, thus making it a promising target for imaging and therapy of melanomas. We have previously reported the development of a peptidomimetic ligand with high specificity and affinity for MC1R. Here, we have conjugated near-infrared fluorescent dyes to the C-terminus of this ligand via lysine-mercaptopropionic acid linkers to generate MC1R specific optical probes (MC1RL-800, 0.4 nM K(i); and MC1RL-Cy5, 0.3 nM K(i)). Internalization of the imaging probe was studied in vitro by fluorescence microscopy using engineered A375/MC1R cells and B16F10 cells with endogenous MC1R expression. The in vivo tumor targeting of MC1RL-800 was evaluated by intravenous injection of probe into nude mice bearing bilateral subcutaneous A375 xenograft tumors with low MC1R expression and engineered A375/MC1R tumors with high receptor expression. Melanotic B16F10 xenografts were also studied. Fluorescence imaging showed that the agent has higher uptake values in tumors with high expression compared to low (p < 0.05), demonstrating the effect of expression levels on image contrast-to-noise. In addition, tumor uptake was significantly blocked by coinjection of excess NDP-alpha-MSH peptide (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the MC1R-specific imaging probe developed in this study displays excellent potential for the intraoperative detection of regional node involvement and for margin detection during melanoma metastasis resection.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23116461
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 18
      15. Serial :
        10535
      1. Author :
        Korotcov, A. V.; Ye, Y.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, F.; Huang, S.; Lin, S.; Sridhar, R.; Achilefu, S.; Wang, P. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Mol Imaging Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        14
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        PC-3M-luc-C6, PC-3M-luc, IVIS, Bioware, Prostate cancer, Bioluminescence, Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Endocytosis; Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry/*diagnostic use; Glucosamine/chemistry/*diagnostic use; Humans; Kinetics; Male; Mice; Mice, Nude; Molecular Imaging/*methods; Neoplasms/*diagnosis/pathology; Optical Devices; Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis/pathology; Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared; Tissue Distribution; *Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE: Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is an attractive technique for studying diseases at the molecular level in vivo. Glucose transporters are often used as targets for in vivo imaging of tumors. The efficiency of a tumor-seeking fluorescent probe can be enhanced by attaching one or more glucosamine (GlcN) moieties. This study was designed to evaluate the use of previously developed GlcN-linked NIRF probes for in vitro and in vivo optical imaging of cancer. PROCEDURES: Cellular uptake of the probes (1 muM) was investigated in monolayer cultures of luciferase-expressing PC3 (PC3-luc) cells. The prostate tumors were established as subcutaneous xenografts using PC3-luc cells in nude mice. The biodistributions and tumor-targeting specificities of cypate (cyp), cypate-D: -(+)-glucosamine (cyp-GlcN), and D: -(+)-gluosamine-cypate-D: -(+)-gluosamine (cyp-2GlcN) were studied. The tumor, muscle, and major organs were collected for ex vivo optical imaging. RESULTS: The tumor cell uptake of the probe containing two glucosamine residues, cyp-2GlcN, was significantly higher than the uptake of both the probe with one glucosamine residue, cyp-GlcN, and the probe without glucosamine, cyp only. Similarly, in in vivo experiments, cyp-2GlcN demonstrated higher maximum fluorescence intensity and longer residence lifetime in tumors than cyp-GlcN or cyp. The ex vivo biodistribution analysis revealed that tumor uptake of cyp-2GlcN and cyp-GlcN was four- and twofold higher than that of cyp at 24 h post-injection, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both cyp-GlcN and cyp-2GlcN NIRF probes exhibited good tumor-targeting properties in prostate cancer cell cultures and live mice. The cyp-2GlcN probe showed the highest uptake with good retention characteristics in vivo. The uptake of cyp-2GlcN and cyp-GlcN is likely mediated by glucosamine-recognizing transporters. The uptake mechanism is being explored further for developing cypate-glucosamine-based probes for in vivo imaging.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21971932
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10536
      1. Author :
        Kosaka, N.; Iguchi, H.; Yoshioka, Y.; Hagiwara, K.; Takeshita, F.; Ochiya, T.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Biol Chem
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        287
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        PC-3M-luc-C6, PC-3M-luc, IVIS, Bioware, Prostate cancer, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        Normal epithelial cells regulate the secretion of autocrine and paracrine factors that prevent aberrant growth of neighboring cells, leading to healthy development and normal metabolism. One reason for tumor initiation is considered to be a failure of this homeostatic cell competitive system. Here we identify tumor-suppressive microRNAs (miRNAs) secreted by normal cells as anti-proliferative signal entities. Culture supernatant of normal epithelial prostate PNT-2 cells attenuated proliferation of PC-3M-luc cells, prostate cancer cells. Global analysis of miRNA expression signature revealed that a variety of tumor-suppressive miRNAs are released from PNT-2 cells. Of these miRNAs, secretory miR-143 could induce growth inhibition exclusively in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that secretory tumor-suppressive miRNAs can act as a death signal in a cell competitive process. This study provides a novel insight into a tumor initiation mechanism.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22123823
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10537
      1. Author :
        Noberini, R.; Rubio de la Torre, E.; Pasquale, E. B.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Cell Adh Migr
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        PC-3M-luc-C6, PC-3M-luc, IVIS, Bioware, Prostate cancer, Bioluminescence, Animals; Chromatography, Liquid; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Ephrins/genetics/*metabolism; Humans; Mass Spectrometry/*methods; Mice; Receptor, EphA1/genetics/*metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        The Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family includes many members, which are often expressed together in various combinations and can promiscuously interact with multiple ephrin ligands, generating intricate networks of intracellular signals that control physiological and pathological processes. Knowing the entire repertoire of Eph receptors and ephrins expressed in a biological sample is important when studying their biological roles. Moreover, given the correlation between Eph receptor/ephrin expression and cancer pathogenesis, their expression patterns could serve important diagnostic and prognostic purposes. However, profiling Eph receptor and ephrin expression has been challenging. Here we describe a novel and straightforward approach to catalog the Eph receptors present in cultured cells and tissues. By measuring the binding of ephrin Fc fusion proteins to Eph receptors in ELISA and pull-down assays, we determined that a mixture of four ephrins is suitable for isolating both EphA and EphB receptors in a single pull-down. We then used mass spectrometry to identify the Eph receptors present in the pull-downs and estimate their relative levels. This approach was validated in cultured human cancer cell lines, human tumor xenograft tissue grown in mice, and mouse brain tissue. The new mass spectrometry approach we have developed represents a useful tool for the identification of the spectrum of Eph receptors present in a biological sample and could also be extended to profiling ephrin expression.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22568954
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 8
      15. Serial :
        10538
      1. Author :
        Shiota, M.; Zardan, A.; Takeuchi, A.; Kumano, M.; Beraldi, E.; Naito, S.; Zoubeidi, A.; Gleave, M. E.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        72
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        PC-3M-luc-C6, PC-3M-luc, IVIS, Bioware, Prostate cancer, Bioluminescence, Animals; Base Sequence; Blotting, Western; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation; Clusterin/genetics/*physiology; DNA Primers; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/*physiology; Humans; Male; Mice; *Neoplasm Metastasis; Nuclear Proteins/*physiology; Promoter Regions, Genetic; Prostatic Neoplasms/*pathology; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Transforming Growth Factor beta/*physiology; Twist Transcription Factor/*physiology
      12. Abstract :
        TGF-beta promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and induces clusterin (CLU) expression, linking these genes to cancer metastasis. CLU is a pleiotropic molecular chaperone that confers survival and proliferative advantage to cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TGF-beta regulates CLU expression and CLU affects metastasis remain unknown. In this study, we report that the transcription factor Twist1 mediates TGF-beta-induced CLU expression. By binding to E-boxes in the distal promoter region of CLU gene, Twist1 regulated basal and TGF-beta-induced CLU transcription. In addition, CLU reduction reduced TGF-beta induction of the mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin and fibronectin, thereby inhibiting the migratory and invasive properties induced by TGF-beta. Targeted inhibition of CLU also suppressed metastasis in an in vivo model. Taken together, our findings indicate that CLU is an important mediator of TGF-beta-induced EMT, and suggest that CLU suppression may represent a promising therapeutic option for suppressing prostate cancer metastatic progression.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22896337
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 7
      15. Serial :
        10540
      1. Author :
        Ru, P.; Steele, R.; Newhall, P.; Phillips, N. J.; Toth, K.; Ray, R. B.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Mol Cancer Ther
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        11
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        PC-3M-luc-C6, PC-3M-luc, IVIS, Bioware, Prostate cancer, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        Prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer deaths among American men. Early diagnosis increases survival rate in patients; however, treatments for advanced disease are limited to hormone ablation techniques and palliative care. Thus, new methods of treatment are necessary for inhibiting prostate cancer disease progression. Here, we have shown that miRNA-29b (miR-29b) expression was lower in prostate cancer cells (PC3 and LNCaP) as compared with immortalized prostate epithelial cells. Between these two prostate cancer cell lines, metastatic prostate cancer PC3 cells displayed lower expression of miR-29b. We also observed a significant downregulation of miR-29b expression in human prostate cancer tissues as compared with patient-matched nontumor tissues. PC3 cells ectopically expressing miR-29b inhibited wound healing, invasiveness, and failed to colonize in the lungs and liver of severe combined immunodeficient mice after intravenous injection, while PC3 cells expressing a control miRNA displayed metastasis. Epithelial cell marker E-cadherin expression was enhanced miR-29b transfected in prostate cancer cells as compared with cells expressing control miRNA. On the other hand, N-cadherin, Twist, and Snail expression was downregulated in PC3 cells expressing miR-29b. Together these results suggested that miR-29b acts as an antimetastatic miRNA for prostate cancer cells at multiple steps in a metastatic cascade. Therefore, miR-29b could be a potentially new attractive target for therapeutic intervention in prostate cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22402125
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 4
      15. Serial :
        10539
      1. Author :
        Wang, S.; Noberini, R.; Stebbins, J. L.; Das, S.; Zhang, Z.; Wu, B.; Mitra, S.; Billet, S.; Fernandez, A.; Bhowmick, N. A.; Kitada, S.; Pasquale, E. B.; Fisher, P. B.; Pellecchia, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2013
      5. Publication :
        Clin Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        19
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        PC-3M-luc-C6, PC-3M-luc, IVIS, Bioware, Prostate cancer, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE: YSA is an EphA2-targeting peptide that effectively delivers anticancer agents to prostate cancer tumors. Here, we report on how we increased the drug-like properties of this delivery system. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: By introducing non-natural amino acids, we have designed two new EphA2 targeting peptides: YNH, where norleucine and homoserine replace the two methionine residues of YSA, and dYNH, where a D-tyrosine replaces the L-tyrosine at the first position of the YNH peptide. We describe the details of the synthesis of YNH and dYNH paclitaxel conjugates (YNH-PTX and dYNH-PTX) and their characterization in cells and in vivo. RESULTS: dYNH-PTX showed improved stability in mouse serum and significantly reduced tumor size in a prostate cancer xenograft model and also reduced tumor vasculature in a syngeneic orthotopic allograft mouse model of renal cancer compared with vehicle or paclitaxel treatments. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that targeting EphA2 with dYNH drug conjugates could represent an effective way to deliver anticancer agents to a variety of tumor types. Clin Cancer Res; 19(1); 128-37. (c)2012 AACR.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23155185
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10541
      1. Author :
        Zuluaga, M. F.; Sekkat, N.; Gabriel, D.; van den Bergh, H.; Lange, N.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Mol Cancer Ther
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        PC-3M-luc-C6, PC-3M-luc, IVIS, Bioware, Prostate cancer, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        Frequent side effects of radical treatment modalities and the availability of novel diagnostics have raised the interest in focal therapies for localized prostate cancer. To improve the selectivity and therapeutic efficacy of such therapies, we developed a minimally invasive procedure, based on a novel polymeric photosensitizer prodrug sensitive to urokinase-like plasminogen activator (uPA). The compound is inactive in its prodrug form and accumulates passively at the tumor site by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. There, the prodrug is selectively converted to its photoactive form by uPA which is over-expressed by prostate cancer cells. Irradiation of the activated photosensitizer exerts a tumor-selective phototoxic effect. The prodrug alone (8 microM) showed no toxic effect on PC-3 cells, but upon irradiation the cell viability was reduced by 90%. In vivo, after systemic administration of the prodrug, PC-3 xenografts became selectively fluorescent. This is indicative of the prodrug accumulation in the tumor and selective local enzymatic activation. Qualitative analysis of the activated compound confirmed that the enzymatic cleavage occurred selectively in the tumor, with only trace amounts in the neighboring skin or muscle. Subsequent photodynamic therapy studies demonstrated complete tumor eradication of animals treated with light (150 J/cm2 at 665 nm) 16 hours after the injection of the prodrug (7.5 mg/kg). These promising results evidence the excellent selectivity of our prodrug with the potential to be used for both, imaging and therapy of localized prostate cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23270928
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10542
      1. Author :
        Xiao, K.; Li, Y.; Lee, J. S.; Gonik, A. M.; Dong, T.; Fung, G.; Sanchez, E.; Xing, L.; Cheng, H. R.; Luo, J.; Lam, K. S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        72
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        SKOV3-luc-D3, SKOV3-luc, IVIS, Ovarian Cancer, Animals; Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/*administration & dosage; Cell Line, Tumor; Drug Carriers/*chemical synthesis/chemistry/therapeutic use; Drug Delivery Systems/*methods; Female; Flow Cytometry; Humans; Integrin alpha Chains/metabolism; Mice; Mice, Nude; Micelles; Microscopy, Confocal; Nanoparticles/chemistry/therapeutic use; Ovarian Neoplasms/*drug therapy; Paclitaxel/*administration & dosage; Peptides/chemical synthesis/therapeutic use; Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry
      12. Abstract :
        Micellar nanoparticles based on linear polyethylene glycol (PEG) block dendritic cholic acids (CA) copolymers (telodendrimers), for the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of cancers, are reported. The micellar nanoparticles have been decorated with a high-affinity “OA02” peptide against alpha-3 integrin receptor to improve the tumor-targeting specificity which is overexpressed on the surface of ovarian cancer cells. “Click chemistry” was used to conjugate alkyne-containing OA02 peptide to the azide group at the distal terminus of the PEG chain in a representative PEG(5k)-CA(8) telodendrimer (micelle-forming unit). The conjugation of OA02 peptide had negligible influence on the physicochemical properties of PEG(5k)-CA(8) nanoparticles and as hypothesized, OA02 peptide dramatically enhanced the uptake efficiency of PEG(5k)-CA(8) nanoparticles (NP) in SKOV-3 and ES-2 ovarian cancer cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, but not in alpha-3 integrin-negative K562 leukemia cells. When loaded with paclitaxel, OA02-NPs had significantly higher in vitro cytotoxicity against both SKOV-3 and ES-2 ovarian cancer cells as compared with nontargeted nanoparticles. Furthermore, the in vivo biodistribution study showed OA02 peptide greatly facilitated tumor localization and the intracellular uptake of PEG(5k)-CA(8) nanoparticles into ovarian cancer cells as validated in SKOV3-luc tumor-bearing mice. Finally, paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded OA02-NPs exhibited superior antitumor efficacy and lower systemic toxicity profile in nude mice bearing SKOV-3 tumor xenografts, when compared with equivalent doses of nontargeted PTX-NPs as well as clinical paclitaxel formulation (Taxol). Therefore, OA02-targeted telodendrimers loaded with paclitaxel have great potential as a new therapeutic approach for patients with ovarian cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22396491
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10543
      1. Author :
        Reppert, S.; Boross, I.; Koslowski, M.; Tureci, O.; Koch, S.; Lehr, H. A.; Finotto, S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Nat Commun
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        2
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        LL/2-luc-M38, LL/2-luc, Lewis Lung Carcinoma, IVIS, Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy/genetics/*immunology/metabolism/pathology; Administration, Intranasal; Adult; Aged; Animals; Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use; Antigens, CD/immunology; Female; Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics/*immunology/metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects/*immunology; Humans; Immunologic Surveillance; Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis/immunology; Interleukin-17/immunology/metabolism; Interleukin-23/immunology/metabolism; Lung/drug effects/*immunology/metabolism/pathology; Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics/*immunology/metabolism/pathology; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Middle Aged; T-Box Domain Proteins/deficiency/*genetics/immunology; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
      12. Abstract :
        Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The cytokine interleukin-17A supports tumour vascularization and growth, however, its role in lung cancer is unknown. Here we show, in the lungs of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, an increase in interleukin-17A that is inversely correlated with the expression of T-bet and correlated with the T regulatory cell transcription factor Foxp3. Local targeting of interleukin-17A in experimental lung adenocarcinoma results in a reduction in tumour load, local expansion of interferon-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells and a reduction in lung CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. T-bet((-/-)) mice have a significantly higher tumour load compared with wild-type mice. This is associated with the local upregulation of interleukin-23 and induction of interleukin-17A/interleukin-17R-expressing T cells infiltrating the tumour. Local anti-interleukin-17A antibody treatment partially improves the survival of T-bet((-/-)) mice. These results suggest that local anti-interleukin-17A antibody therapy could be considered for the treatment of lung tumours.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22186896
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10544