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      1. Author :
        van der Horst, G.; van der Pluijm, G.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Future Oncol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        8
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Bone Neoplasms/*diagnosis/*secondary; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; Disease Models, Animal; Disease Progression; Humans; Molecular Imaging/methods; Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnosis
      12. Abstract :
        Bone metastasis is a complex process that ultimately leads to devastating metastatic bone disease. It is therefore of key interest to unravel the mechanisms underlying the multistep process of skeletal metastasis and cancer-induced bone disease, and to develop better treatment and management of patients with this devastating disease. Fortunately, novel technologies are rapidly emerging that allow real-time imaging of molecules, pathogenic processes, drug delivery and drug response in preclinical in vivo models. The outcome of these experimental studies will facilitate clinical cancer research by improving the detection of cancer cell invasion, metastasis and therapy response.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22515445
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 30
      15. Serial :
        10384
      1. Author :
        van der Horst, G.; van der Pluijm, G.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Future Oncol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        8
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense, Animals; Bone Neoplasms/*diagnosis/*secondary; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; Disease Models, Animal; Disease Progression; Humans; Molecular Imaging/methods; Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnosis
      12. Abstract :
        Bone metastasis is a complex process that ultimately leads to devastating metastatic bone disease. It is therefore of key interest to unravel the mechanisms underlying the multistep process of skeletal metastasis and cancer-induced bone disease, and to develop better treatment and management of patients with this devastating disease. Fortunately, novel technologies are rapidly emerging that allow real-time imaging of molecules, pathogenic processes, drug delivery and drug response in preclinical in vivo models. The outcome of these experimental studies will facilitate clinical cancer research by improving the detection of cancer cell invasion, metastasis and therapy response.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22515445
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 16
      15. Serial :
        10478
      1. Author :
        Earley, S.; Vinegoni, C.; Dunham, J.; Gorbatov, R.; Feruglio, P. F.; Weissleder, R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        72
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Annexin Vivo, Annexin-Vivo, Aniline Compounds/*pharmacology; Animals; Antineoplastic Agents/*pharmacology; *Apoptosis; Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy/*physiopathology; Cell Line, Tumor; Female; Green Fluorescent Proteins; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Mice; Mice, Nude; Mitochondrial Membranes/drug effects/*physiology; Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism; Molecular Imaging/*methods; Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy/*physiopathology; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/antagonists & inhibitors; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism; Single-Cell Analysis; Sulfonamides/*pharmacology; Tumor Microenvironment
      12. Abstract :
        Observing drug responses in the tumor microenvironment in vivo can be technically challenging. As a result, cellular responses to molecularly targeted cancer drugs are often studied in cell culture, which does not accurately represent the behavior of cancer cells growing in vivo. Using high-resolution microscopy and fluorescently labeled genetic reporters for apoptosis, we developed an approach to visualize drug-induced cell death at single-cell resolution in vivo. Stable expression of the mitochondrial intermembrane protein IMS-RP was established in human breast and pancreatic cancer cells. Image analysis was then used to quantify release of IMS-RP into the cytoplasm upon apoptosis and irreversible mitochondrial permeabilization. Both breast and pancreatic cancer cells showed higher basal apoptotic rates in vivo than in culture. To study drug-induced apoptosis, we exposed tumor cells to navitoclax (ABT-263), an inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-w, both in vitro and in vivo. Although the tumors responded to Bcl-2 inhibition in vivo, inducing apoptosis in around 20% of cancer cells, the observed response was much higher in cell culture. Together, our findings show an imaging technique that can be used to directly visualize cell death within the tumor microenvironment in response to drug treatment.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22505651
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 11
      15. Serial :
        10433
      1. Author :
        Sabbagh, Y.; Graciolli, F. G.; O'Brien, S.; Tang, W.; dos Reis, L. M.; Ryan, S.; Phillips, L.; Boulanger, J.; Song, W.; Bracken, C.; Liu, S.; Ledbetter, S.; Dechow, P.; Canziani, M. E.; Carvalho, A. B.; Jorgetti, V.; Moyses, R. M.; Schiavi, S. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Bone Miner Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        27
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense, Animals; Biopsy; Bone Remodeling; Bone and Bones/metabolism/pathology; Calcification, Physiologic; Cardiovascular Abnormalities/blood/complications/pathology/physiopathology; *Disease Progression; Female; Gene Expression Profiling; Gene Expression Regulation; Glycoproteins/metabolism; Humans; Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood/complications/pathology/physiopathology; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Middle Aged; Mutation/genetics; Osteoclasts/metabolism/pathology; Osteocytes/*metabolism/*pathology; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics; Renal Osteodystrophy/blood/*metabolism/*pathology/physiopathology; Vascular Calcification; *Wnt Signaling Pathway/genetics
      12. Abstract :
        Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is defined by abnormalities in mineral and hormone metabolism, bone histomorphometric changes, and/or the presence of soft-tissue calcification. Emerging evidence suggests that features of CKD-MBD may occur early in disease progression and are associated with changes in osteocyte function. To identify early changes in bone, we utilized the jck mouse, a genetic model of polycystic kidney disease that exhibits progressive renal disease. At 6 weeks of age, jck mice have normal renal function and no evidence of bone disease but exhibit continual decline in renal function and death by 20 weeks of age, when approximately 40% to 60% of them have vascular calcification. Temporal changes in serum parameters were identified in jck relative to wild-type mice from 6 through 18 weeks of age and were subsequently shown to largely mirror serum changes commonly associated with clinical CKD-MBD. Bone histomorphometry revealed progressive changes associated with increased osteoclast activity and elevated bone formation relative to wild-type mice. To capture the early molecular and cellular events in the progression of CKD-MBD we examined cell-specific pathways associated with bone remodeling at the protein and/or gene expression level. Importantly, a steady increase in the number of cells expressing phosphor-Ser33/37-beta-catenin was observed both in mouse and human bones. Overall repression of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling within osteocytes occurred in conjunction with increased expression of Wnt antagonists (SOST and sFRP4) and genes associated with osteoclast activity, including receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). The resulting increase in the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio correlated with increased osteoclast activity. In late-stage disease, an apparent repression of genes associated with osteoblast function was observed. These data confirm that jck mice develop progressive biochemical changes in CKD-MBD and suggest that repression of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22492547
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10475
      1. Author :
        Chen, Y.; Jacamo, R.; Shi, Y. X.; Wang, R. Y.; Battula, V. L.; Konoplev, S.; Strunk, D.; Hofmann, N. A.; Reinisch, A.; Konopleva, M.; Andreeff, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Blood
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        119
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense, IVIS, Animals; Bone Marrow Cells/*cytology/metabolism/physiology; Bone Marrow Transplantation/*methods/physiology; Cells, Cultured; Cellular Microenvironment/genetics/*physiology; Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary/genetics/*physiology; Humans; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics/metabolism; Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit/genetics; Mice; Mice, Inbred NOD; Mice, SCID; Mice, Transgenic; Models, Animal; Osteogenesis/genetics/physiology; Species Specificity; *Transplantation, Heterotopic
      12. Abstract :
        The interactions between hematopoietic cells and the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment play a critical role in normal and malignant hematopoiesis and drug resistance. These interactions within the BM niche are unique and could be important for developing new therapies. Here, we describe the development of extramedullary bone and bone marrow using human mesenchymal stromal cells and endothelial colony-forming cells implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice. We demonstrate the engraftment of human normal and leukemic cells engraft into the human extramedullary bone marrow. When normal hematopoietic cells are engrafted into the model, only discrete areas of the BM are hypoxic, whereas leukemia engraftment results in widespread severe hypoxia, just as recently reported by us in human leukemias. Importantly, the hematopoietic cell engraftment could be altered by genetical manipulation of the bone marrow microenvironment: Extramedullary bone marrow in which hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha was knocked down in mesenchymal stromal cells by lentiviral transfer of short hairpin RNA showed significant reduction (50% +/- 6%; P = .0006) in human leukemic cell engraftment. These results highlight the potential of a novel in vivo model of human BM microenvironment that can be genetically modified. The model could be useful for the study of leukemia biology and for the development of novel therapeutic modalities aimed at modifying the hematopoietic microenvironment.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22490334
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10465
      1. Author :
        Matsumoto, K.; Azami, T.; Otsu, A.; Takase, H.; Ishitobi, H.; Tanaka, J.; Miwa, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Ema, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Genesis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        50
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Blood Vessels/embryology/*physiology; Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial; Embryo, Mammalian; Endothelial Cells/cytology/metabolism; Endothelium, Vascular/cytology/embryology/metabolism; Female; Founder Effect; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Genes, Reporter; Mice; *Mice, Transgenic; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Morphogenesis/physiology; *Neovascularization, Pathologic; *Neovascularization, Physiologic; Retina/embryology/*physiology; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics/metabolism; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/genetics/*metabolism; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/genetics/metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        Blood vessel development and network patterning are controlled by several signaling molecules, including VEGF, FGF, TGF-ss, and Ang-1,2. Among these, the role of VEGF-A signaling in vessel morphogenesis is best understood. The biological activity of VEGF-A depends on its reaction with specific receptors Flt1 and Flk1. Roles of VEGF-A signaling in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, survival, vascular permeability, and induction of tip cell filopodia have been reported. In this study, we have generated Flt1-tdsRed BAC transgenic (Tg) mice to monitor Flt1 gene expression during vascular development. We show that tdsRed fluorescence is observed within blood vessels of adult mice and embryos, indicative of retinal angiogenesis and tumor angiogenesis. Flt1 expression recapitulated by Flt1-tdsRed BAC Tg mice overlapped well with Flk1, while Flt1 was expressed more abundantly in endothelial cells of large blood vessels such as dorsal aorta and presumptive stalk cells in retina, providing a unique model to study blood vessel development.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489010
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10437
      1. Author :
        Zollo, M.; Di Dato, V.; Spano, D.; De Martino, D.; Liguori, L.; Marino, N.; Vastolo, V.; Navas, L.; Garrone, B.; Mangano, G.; Biondi, G.; Guglielmotti, A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Clin Exp Metastasis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        29
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        PC-3M-luc2, PC3M-luc2, IVIS, Prostate Cancer, Bioware, Animals; Breast Neoplasms/*pathology; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement; Cell Proliferation; Chemokine CCL2/*biosynthesis/chemistry/metabolism; Female; Humans; Indazoles/*pharmacology; Macrophages/metabolism; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; NF-kappa B/metabolism; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasm Transplantation; Propionates/*pharmacology; Prostatic Neoplasms/*pathology; Signal Transduction
      12. Abstract :
        Prostate and breast cancer are major causes of death worldwide, mainly due to patient relapse upon disease recurrence through formation of metastases. Chemokines are small proteins with crucial roles in the immune system, and their regulation is finely tuned in early inflammatory responses. They are key molecules during inflammatory processes, and many studies are focusing on their regulatory functions in tumor growth and angiogenesis during metastatic cell seeding and spreading. Bindarit is an anti-inflammatory indazolic derivative that can inhibit the synthesis of MCP-1/CCL2, with a potential inhibitory function in tumor progression and metastasis formation. We show here that in vitro, bindarit can modulate cancer-cell proliferation and migration, mainly through negative regulation of TGF-beta and AKT signaling, and it can impair the NF-kappaB signaling pathway through enhancing the expression of the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkB-alpha. In vivo administration of bindarit results in impaired metastatic disease in prostate cancer xenograft mice (PC-3M-Luc2 cells injected intra-cardially) and impairment of local tumorigenesis in syngeneic Balb/c mice injected under the mammary gland with murine breast cancer cells (4T1-Luc cells). In addition, bindarit treatment significantly decreases the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in 4T1-Luc primary tumors. Overall, our data indicate that bindarit is a good candidate for new therapies against prostate and breast tumorigenesis, with an action through impairment of inflammatory cell responses during formation of the tumor-stroma niche microenvironment.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22484917
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10489
      1. Author :
        He, T.; Xue, Z.; Lu, K.; Valdivia y Alvarado, M.; Wong, K. K.; Xie, W.; Wong, S. T.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Comput Med Imaging Graph
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        36
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        N/A
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, with more than half of the cancers are located peripherally. Computed tomography (CT) has been utilized in the last decade to detect early peripheral lung cancer. However, due to the high false diagnosis rate of CT, further biopsy is often necessary to confirm cancerous cases. This renders intervention for peripheral lung nodules (especially for small peripheral lung cancer) difficult and time-consuming, and it is highly desirable to develop new, on-the-spot earlier lung cancer diagnosis and treatment strategies. PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to develop a minimally invasive multimodality image-guided (MIMIG) intervention system to detect lesions, confirm small peripheral lung cancer, and potentially guide on-the-spot treatment at an early stage. Accurate image guidance and real-time optical imaging of nodules are thus the key techniques to be explored in this work. METHODS: The MIMIG system uses CT images and electromagnetic (EM) tracking to help interventional radiologists target the lesion efficiently. After targeting the lesion, a fiber-optic probe coupled with optical molecular imaging contrast agents is used to confirm the existence of cancerous tissues on-site at microscopic resolution. Using the software developed, pulmonary vessels, airways, and nodules can be segmented and visualized for surgical planning; the segmented results are then transformed onto the intra-procedural CT for interventional guidance using EM tracking. Endomicroscopy through a fiber-optic probe is then performed to visualize tumor tissues. Experiments using IntegriSense 680 fluorescent contrast agent labeling alphavbeta3 integrin were carried out for rabbit lung cancer models. Confirmed cancers could then be treated on-the-spot using radio-frequency ablation (RFA). RESULTS: The prototype system is evaluated using the rabbit VX2 lung cancer model to evaluate the targeting accuracy, guidance efficiency, and performance of molecular imaging. Using this system, we achieved an average targeting accuracy of 3.04 mm, and the IntegriSense signals within the VX2 tumors were found to be at least two-fold higher than those of normal tissues. The results demonstrate great potential for applying the system in human trials in the future if an optical molecular imaging agent is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). CONCLUSIONS: The MIMIG system was developed for on-the-spot interventional diagnosis of peripheral lung tumors by combining image-guidance and molecular imaging. The system can be potentially applied to human trials on diagnosing and treating earlier stage lung cancer. For current clinical applications, where a biopsy is unavoidable, the MIMIG system without contrast agents could be used for biopsy guidance to improve the accuracy and efficiency.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22483054
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 9
      15. Serial :
        10364
      1. Author :
        Cao, L.; Kobayakawa, S.; Yoshiki, A.; Abe, K.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Abdomen; Animals; Imaging, Three-Dimensional; Liver/cytology; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Microscopy/*instrumentation/*methods; Molecular Imaging/*instrumentation/*methods; Pancreas/cytology/ultrastructure; Time-Lapse Imaging
      12. Abstract :
        Intravital imaging of brain and bone marrow cells in the skull with subcellular resolution has revolutionized neurobiology, immunology and hematology. However, the application of this powerful technology in studies of abdominal organs has long been impeded by organ motion caused by breathing and heartbeat. Here we describe for the first time a simple device designated 'microstage' that effectively reduces organ motions without causing tissue lesions. Combining this microstage device with an upright intravital laser scanning microscope equipped with a unique stick-type objective lens, the system enables subcellular-level imaging of abdominal organs in live mice. We demonstrate that this technique allows for the quantitative analysis of subcellular structures and gene expressions in cells, the tracking of intracellular processes in real-time as well as three-dimensional image construction in the pancreas and liver of the live mouse. As the aforementioned analyses based on subcellular imaging could be extended to other intraperitoneal organs, the technique should offer great potential for investigation of physiological and disease-specific events of abdominal organs. The microstage approach adds an exciting new technique to the in vivo imaging toolbox.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22479464
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10431
      1. Author :
        Zhang, X.; Bloch, S.; Akers, W.; Achilefu, S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Curr Protoc Cytom
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        Chapter 12
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry/metabolism; Humans; Mice; Molecular Probes/*diagnostic use; Nanoparticles/chemistry; Quantum Dots; Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared/*methods
      12. Abstract :
        Cellular and tissue imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths between 700 and 900 nm is advantageous for in vivo imaging because of the low absorption of biological molecules in this region. This unit presents protocols for small animal imaging using planar and fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques. Included is an overview of NIR fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using NIR organic fluorophores, nanoparticles, and multimodal imaging probes. The development, advantages, and application of NIR fluorescent probes that have been used for in vivo imaging are also summarized. The use of NIR agents in conjunction with visible dyes and considerations in selecting imaging agents are discussed. We conclude with practical considerations for the use of these dyes in cell and small animal imaging applications.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22470154
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 24
      15. Serial :
        10386
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