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      1. Author :
        Engelsman, Anton F; Krom, Bastiaan P; Busscher, Henk J; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Ploeg, Rutger J; van der Mei, Henny C
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Acta biomaterialia
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        5
      8. Issue :
        6
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bioware; Connective Tissue; Diffusion; Drug Implants; Female; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Nitric Oxide; Polyvinyls; Prostheses and Implants; pXen-5; Staphylococcal Infections; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        Infection of surgical meshes used in abdominal wall reconstructions often leads to removal of the implant and increases patient morbidity due to repetitive operations and hospital administrations. Treatment with antibiotics is ineffective due to the biofilm mode of growth of the infecting bacteria and bears the risk of inducing antibiotic resistance. Hence there is a need for alternative methods to prevent and treat mesh infection. Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing coatings have been demonstrated to possess bactericidal properties in vitro. It is the aim of this study to assess possible benefits of a low concentration NO-releasing carbon-based coating on monofilament polypropylene meshes with respect to infection control in vitro and in vivo. When applied on surgical meshes, NO-releasing coatings showed significant bactericidal effect on in vitro biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and CNS. However, using bioluminescent in vivo imaging, no beneficial effects of this NO-releasing coating on subcutaneously implanted surgical meshes in mice could be observed.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19251498
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9019
      1. Author :
        Min, Jung-Joon; Nguyen, Vu H.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        44
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        15-24
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Cancer; Cardiology; Gene delivery vector; Gene Therapy; Imaging / Radiology; Molecular Imaging; Nuclear Medicine; Oncology; Orthopedics; Xen26
      12. Abstract :
        Cancer persists as one of the most devastating diseases in the world. Problems including metastasis and tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy have seriously limited the therapeutic effects of present clinical treatments. To overcome these limitations, cancer gene therapy has been developed over the last two decades for a broad spectrum of applications, from gene replacement and knockdown to vaccination, each with different requirements for gene delivery. So far, a number of genes and delivery vectors have been investigated, and significant progress has been made with several gene therapy modalities in clinical trials. Viral vectors and synthetic liposomes have emerged as the vehicles of choice for many applications. However, both have limitations and risks that restrict gene therapy applications, including the complexity of production, limited packaging capacity, and unfavorable immunological features. While continuing to improve these vectors, it is important to investigate other options, particularly nonviral biological agents such as bacteria, bacteriophages, and bacteria-like particles. Recently, many molecular imaging techniques for safe, repeated, and high-resolution in vivo imaging of gene expression have been employed to assess vector-mediated gene expression in living subjects. In this review, molecular imaging techniques for monitoring biological gene delivery vehicles are described, and the specific use of these methods at different steps is illustrated. Linking molecular imaging to gene therapy will eventually help to develop novel gene delivery vehicles for preclinical study and support the development of future human applications.
      13. URL :
        http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13139-009-0006-3
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        10003
      1. Author :
        Ketonis, Constantinos; Barr, Stephanie; Adams, Christopher S; Hickok, Noreen J; Parvizi, Javad
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Clinical orthopaedics and related research
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        468
      8. Issue :
        8
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Anti-Bacterial Agents; Biofilms; Bioware; Bone Substitutes; Bone Transplantation; Prostheses and Implants; Prosthesis-Related Infections; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Transplantation, Homologous; Vancomycin; Xen36
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND Bone grafts are frequently used to supplement bone stock and to establish structural stability. However, graft-associated infection represents a challenging complication leading to increased patient morbidity and healthcare costs. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES We therefore designed this study to (1) determine if increasing initial S. aureus inoculation of bone allograft results in a proportionate increase in colonization; (2) assess if antibiotics decrease colonization and if antibiotic tethering to allograft alters its ability to prevent bacterial colonization; and (3) determine if covalent modification alters the allograft topography or its biological properties. METHODS Allograft bone and vancomycin-modified bone (VAN-bone) was challenged with different doses of S. aureus for times out to 24 hours in the presence or absence of solution vancomycin. Bacterial colonization was assessed by fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by direct colony counting. Cell density and distribution of osteoblast-like cells on control and modified allograft were then compared. RESULTS Bacterial attachment was apparent within 6 hours with colonization and biofilm formation increasing with time and dose. Solution vancomycin failed to prevent bacterial attachment whereas VAN-bone successfully resisted colonization. The allograft modification did not affect the attachment and distribution of osteoblast-like cells. CONCLUSIONS Allograft bone was readily colonized by S. aureus and covered by a biofilm with especially florid growth in natural topographic niches. Using a novel covalent modification, allograft bone was able to resist colonization by organisms while retaining the ability to allow adhesion of osteoblastic cells. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Generation of allograft bone that can resist infection in vivo would be important in addressing one of the most challenging problems associated with the use of allograft, namely infection.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20361282
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9981
      1. Author :
        Stelter, L.; Tseng, J. C.; Torosjan, A.; Levin, B.; Longo, V. A.; Pillarsetty, N.; Zanzonico, P.; Meruelo, D.; Larson, S. M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Mol Imaging Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, FMT, IVIS, Biolumninescence
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE: Sindbis virus (SINV) infect tumor cells specifically and systemically throughout the body. Sindbis vectors are capable of expressing high levels of transduced suicide genes and thus efficiently produce enzymes for prodrug conversion in infected tumor cells. The ability to monitor suicide gene expression levels and viral load in patients, after administration of the vectors, would significantly enhance this tumor-specific therapeutic option. PROCEDURES: The tumor specificity of SINV is mediated by the 67-kDa laminin receptor (LR). We probed different cancer cell lines for their LR expression and, to determine the specific role of LR-expression in the infection cycle, used different molecular imaging strategies, such as bioluminescence, fluorescence molecular tomography, and positron emission tomography, to evaluate SINV-mediated infection in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: All cancer cell lines showed a marked expression of LR. The infection rates of the SINV particles, however, differed significantly among the cell lines. CONCLUSION: We used novel molecular imaging techniques to visualize vector delivery to different neoplatic cells. SINV infection rates proofed to be not solely dependent on cellular LR expression. Further studies need to evaluate the herein discussed ways of cellular infection and viral replication.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22847302
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10440
      1. Author :
        Ran, C.; Zhang, Z.; Hooker, J.; Moore, A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Mol Imaging Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        14
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H1, MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H1, IVIS, Bioware, Breast Cancer. Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Chromatography, Liquid; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; *Elementary Particles; Firefly Luciferin/chemistry/metabolism; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/diagnostic use; Humans; *Light; Luminescent Measurements; Mass Spectrometry; Mice; Mice, Nude; Solutions
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE: The poor tissue penetration of visible light has been a major barrier for optical imaging, photoactivatable conversions, and photodynamic therapy for in vivo targets with depths beyond 10 mm. In this report, as a proof-of-concept, we demonstrated that a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)FDG), could be used as an alternative light source for photoactivation. PROCEDURES: We utilized (18)FDG, which is a metabolic activity-based PET probe, as a source of light to photoactivate caged luciferin in a breast cancer animal model expressing luciferase. RESULTS: Bioluminescence produced from luciferin allowed for the real-time monitoring of Cherenkov radiation-promoted uncaging of the substrate. CONCLUSION: The proposed method may provide a very important option for in vivo photoactivation, in particular for activation of photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy and eventually for combining radioisotope therapy and photodynamic therapy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21538154
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10517
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Molecular Imaging and Biology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cancer
      11. Keywords :
        Optical imaging, Image-guided surgery, Molecular imaging, Near-infrared fluorescence
      12. Abstract :
        In cancer surgery, intra-operative assessment of the tumor-free margin, which is critical for the prognosis of the patient, relies on the visual appearance and palpation of the tumor. Optical imaging techniques provide real-time visualization of the tumor, warranting intra-operative image-guided surgery. Within this field, imaging in the near-infrared light spectrum offers two essential advantages: increased tissue penetration of light and an increased signal-tobackground-ratio of contrast agents. In this article, we review the various techniques, contrast agents, and camera systems that are currently used for image-guided surgery. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the wide range of molecular contrast agents targeting specific hallmarks of cancer and we describe perspectives on its future use in cancer surgery.
      13. URL :
        http://www.springerlink.com/content/78233815221t6563/
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4486
      1. Author :
        Carlisle, R.; Seymour, L. W.; Coussios, C. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Pharm Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, B16-F10-luc-G5, B16F10-luc-G5, B16-F10-luc, B16F10-luc
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE: To improve the delivery of liposomes to tumors using P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL1) mediated binding to selectin molecules, which are upregulated on tumorassociated endothelium. METHODS: PSGL1 was orientated and presented on the surface of liposomes to achieve optimal selectin binding using a novel streptavidin-protein G linker molecule. Loading of PSGL1 liposomes with luciferin allowed their binding to e-selectin and activated HUVEC to be quantified in vitro and their stability, pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation to be tested in vivo using murine models. RESULTS: PSGL1 liposomes showed 5-fold (p < 0.05) greater selectin binding than identically formulated control liposomes modified with ligand that did not contain the selectin binding domain. When added to HUVEC, PSGL1 liposomes showed >7-fold (p < 0.001) greater attachment than control liposomes. In in vivo studies PSGL1 liposomes showed similar stability and circulation to control liposomes but demonstrated a >3-fold enhancement in the level of delivery to tumors (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The technologies and strategies described here may contribute to clinical improvements in the selectivity and efficacy of liposomal drug delivery agents.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22992830
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 19
      15. Serial :
        10529
      1. Author :
        Blagbrough, Ian S; Zara, Chiara
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Pharmaceutical research
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        26
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Cats; Cattle; Disease Models, Animal; Dna; Dogs; Drug Delivery Systems; Female; Fishes; Gene Therapy; Horses; Humans; Mice; PC-3M-luc; Pregnancy; Primates; Rats; RNA, Small Interfering; Sheep; Swine
      12. Abstract :
        Nanoparticles, including lipopolyamines leading to lipoplexes, liposomes, and polyplexes are targeted drug carrier systems in the current search for a successful delivery system for polynucleic acids. This review is focused on the impact of gene and siRNA delivery for studies of efficacy, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics within the setting of the wide variety of in vivo animal models now used. This critical appraisal of the recent literature sets out the different models that are currently being investigated to bridge from studies in cell lines through towards clinical reality. Whilst many scientists will be familiar with rodent (murine, fecine, cricetine, and musteline) models, few probably think of fish as a clinically relevant animal model, but zebrafish, madake, and rainbow trout are all being used. Larger animal models include rabbit, cat, dog, and cow. Pig is used both for the prevention of foot-and-mouth disease and human diseases, sheep is a model for corneal transplantation, and the horse naturally develops arthritis. Non-human primate models (macaque, common marmoset, owl monkey) are used for preclinical gene vector safety and efficacy trials to bridge the gap prior to clinical studies. We aim for the safe development of clinically effective delivery systems for DNA and RNAi technologies.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18841450
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8965
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