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      1. Author :
        Meincke, M.; Tiwari, S.; Hattermann, K.; Kalthoff, H.; Mentlein, R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Clin Exp Metastasis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        28
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Breast Neoplasms/metabolism/*pathology; Cattle; Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism; Female; Fluorescent Dyes/diagnostic use; Glioma/metabolism/*pathology; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Mice; Mice, Nude; Receptors, CXCR/*metabolism; Receptors, CXCR4/*metabolism; Serum Albumin, Bovine/metabolism; Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared; Tumor Cells, Cultured
      12. Abstract :
        The chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 play a major role in tumor invasion, proliferation and metastasis. Since both receptors are overexpressed on distinct tumor cells and on the tumor vasculature, we evaluated their potential as targets for detection of cancers by molecular imaging. We synthesized conjugates of CXCL12 and the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye IRDye((R))800CW, tested their selectivity, sensitivity and biological activity in vitro and their feasibility to visualize tumors in vivo. Purified CXCL12-conjugates detected in vitro as low as 500 A764 human glioma cells or MCF-7 breast cancer cells that express CXCR7 alone or together with CXCR4. Binding was time- and concentration-dependent, and the label could be competitively displaced by the native peptide. Control conjugates with bovine serum albumin or lactalbumin failed to label the cells. In mice, the conjugate distributed rapidly. After 1-92 h, subcutaneous tumors of human MCF-7 and A764 cells in immunodeficient mice were detected with high sensitivity. Background was observed in particular in liver within the first 24 h, but also skull and hind limbs yielded some background. Overall, fluorescent CXCL12-conjugates are sensitive and selective probes to detect solid and metastatic tumors by targeting tumor cells and tumor vasculature.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21735100
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 13
      15. Serial :
        10372
      1. Author :
        Rao, S. M.; Auger, J. L.; Gaillard, P.; Weissleder, R.; Wada, E.; Torres, R.; Kojima, M.; Benoist, C.; Mathis, D.; Binstadt, B. A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Arthritis Res Ther
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        14
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Arthritis/genetics/*immunology/metabolism; Autoantibodies/*immunology; Bone Marrow Cells/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Calcium/immunology/metabolism; Female; Male; Mast Cells/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Inbred NOD; Mice, Knockout; Mice, Transgenic; Neuropeptides/deficiency/genetics/*immunology; Protein Isoforms/deficiency/genetics/immunology; Receptors, Neurotensin/deficiency/genetics/immunology; Receptors, Neurotransmitter/deficiency/genetics/*immunology; Spleen/immunology/metabolism/pathology
      12. Abstract :
        INTRODUCTION: Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide with pro-inflammatory activity. The primary goal of this study was to determine if NMU promotes autoantibody-induced arthritis. Additional studies addressed the cellular source of NMU and sought to define the NMU receptor responsible for its pro-inflammatory effects. METHODS: Serum containing arthritogenic autoantibodies from K/BxN mice was used to induce arthritis in mice genetically lacking NMU. Parallel experiments examined whether NMU deficiency impacted the early mast-cell-dependent vascular leak response induced by these autoantibodies. Bone-marrow chimeric mice were generated to determine whether pro-inflammatory NMU is derived from hematopoietic cells or stromal cells. Mice lacking the known NMU receptors singly and in combination were used to determine susceptibility to serum-transferred arthritis and in vitro cellular responses to NMU. RESULTS: NMU-deficient mice developed less severe arthritis than control mice. Vascular leak was not affected by NMU deficiency. NMU expression by bone-marrow-derived cells mediated the pro-arthritogenic effect. Deficiency of all of the known NMU receptors, however, had no impact on arthritis severity and did not affect the ability of NMU to stimulate intracellular calcium flux. CONCLUSIONS: NMU-deficient mice are protected from developing autoantibody-induced inflammatory arthritis. NMU derived from hematopoietic cells, not neurons, promotes the development of autoantibody-induced inflammatory arthritis. This effect is mediated by a receptor other than the currently known NMU receptors.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22314006
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 13
      15. Serial :
        10438
      1. Author :
        Penna, F. J.; Freilich, D. A.; Alvarenga, C.; Nguyen, H. T.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Urology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        78
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense, Animals; Fluorescence; Fluorescent Dyes/*diagnostic use; Guinea Pigs; Lymph Node Excision/*methods; Male; Models, Animal; *Molecular Imaging; Retroperitoneal Space
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVES: To propose that fluorescent molecular imaging has utility in specifically identifying the lymph nodes, thereby enabling more definitive lymph node visualization and dissection. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is an invasive procedure with significant morbidity. A minimally invasive approach would be of great clinical benefit but has been limited by the extensive perivascular dissection required to remove all lymphatic tissue. Directed lymph node visualization would allow a limited dissection, making a laparoscopic approach more feasible. METHODS: Ten male Hartley guinea pigs underwent nonsurvival RPLND, 5 with the protease activatable in vivo fluorescent molecular imaging agent, ProSense and 5 without image guidance (control). ProSense was administered 24 hours before surgery and detected 24 hours later using a photodynamic detector. In group 1, RPLND was first performed without molecular imaging followed by image-guided lymph node dissection for residual nodes. In group 2, the near infrared detector was used initially for lymph node excision followed by traditionally unassisted extraction of the residual lymph nodes. The lymph nodes were extracted, counted, and sent for histopathologic analysis. RESULTS: With the assistance of molecular imaging, no additional lymph nodes were identified after complete dissection, and all tissue identified by ProSense was confirmed by histopathologic analysis to be lymph nodes. Without molecular imaging, all lymph nodes were not identified, and in 2 instances, the tissue was incorrectly thought to be lymphatic tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular image-guided RPLND is a promising technique to improve in vivo, live visualization and dissection of lymph nodes and has the potential for application in improving the diagnosis and treatment of other urologic malignancies.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21601249
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 13
      15. Serial :
        10474
      1. Author :
        Pan, Y.; Zhong, L. J.; Zhou, H.; Wang, X.; Chen, K.; Yang, H. P.; Xiaokaiti, Y.; Maimaiti, A.; Jiang, L.; Li, X. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Acta Pharmacol Sin
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        33
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, B16-F10-luc-G5, B16F10-luc-G5, B16-F10-luc, B16F10-luc, 14-3-3 Proteins/*genetics; Animals; Anticoagulants/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Apoptosis/drug effects; Cadherins/genetics; Cell Cycle/drug effects; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation/*drug effects; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects; Heparin/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Humans; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Nude; Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy/genetics; Neoplasms/*drug therapy/genetics; Prostate/drug effects/metabolism; Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics; Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics; Vimentin/*genetics
      12. Abstract :
        AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effects of heparin on PC-3M cells proliferation in vitro and B16-F10-luc-G5 cells metastasis in Balb/c nude mice and identify the protein expression patterns to elucidate the action mechanism of heparin. METHODS: Human prostate cancer PC-3M cells were incubated with heparin 0.5 to 125 mug/mL for 24 h. The proliferation of PC-3M cells was assessed by MTS assay. BrdU incoporation and Ki67 expression were detected using a high content screening (HCS) assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of PC-3M cells were tested by flow cytometry. B16-F10-luc-G5 cardinoma cells were injected into the lateral tail vein of 6-week old male Balb/c nude mice and heparin 30 mg/kg was administered iv 30 min before and 24 h after injection. The metasis of B16-F10-luc-G5 cells was detected by bioluminescence assay. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and hemorheological parameters were measured on d 14 after injection of B16-F10-luc-G5 carcinoma cells in Balb/c mice. The global protein changes in PC-3M cells and frozen lung tissues from mice burdened with B16-F10-luc-G5 cells were determined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and image analysis. The protein expression of vimentin and 14-3-3 zeta/delta was measured by Western blot. The mRNA transcription of vimentin, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, E-cadherin, and alpha(v)-integrin was measured by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Heparin 25 and 125 mug/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation, arrested the cells in G(1) phase, and suppressed BrdU incorporation and Ki67 expression in PC-3M cells compared with the model group. But it had no significant effect on apoptosis of PC-3M cells. Heparin 30 mg/kg markedly inhibits the metastasis of B16-F10-luc-G5 cells on day 8. Additionally, heparin administration maintained relatively normal red blood hematocrit but had no influence on APTT in nude mice burdened with B16-F10-luc-G5 cells. Thirty of down-regulated protein spots were identified after heparin treatment, many of which are related to tumor development, extracellular signaling, energy metabolism, and cellular proliferation. Vimentin and 14-3-3 zeta/delta were identified in common in PC-3M cells and the lungs of mice bearing B16-F10-luc-G5 carcinoma cells. Heparin 25 and 125 mug/mL decreased the protein expression of vimentin and 14-3-3 zeta/delta and the mRNA expression of alpha(v)-integrin. Heparin 125 mug/mL decreased vimentin and E-cadherin mRNA transcription while increased TGF-beta mRNA transcription in the PC-3M cells, but the differences were not significant. Transfection of vimentin-targeted siRNA for 48 h significantly decreased the BrdU incoporation and Ki67 expression in PC-3M cells. CONCLUSION: Heparin inhibited PC-3M cell proliferation in vitro and B16-F10-luc-G5 cells metastasis in nude mice by inhibition of vimentin, 14-3-3 zeta/delta, and alpha(v)-integrin expression.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22669117
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 13
      15. Serial :
        10534
      1. Author :
        Valdivia, Y. Alvarado M.; Wong, K.; Cheng He, T.; Xue, Z.; Wong, S. T.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Vasc Interv Radiol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        22
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Fiber Optic Technology/*methods; Fluorescent Dyes/*administration & dosage/*diagnostic use; Humans; Injections, Intralesional; Lung Neoplasms/*pathology; Microscopy, Fluorescence/*methods; Molecular Imaging/*methods; Rabbits; Surgery, Computer-Assisted/*methods; Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE: To show the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) image-guided fiberoptic confocal fluorescence molecular imaging in a rabbit lung tumor model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight lung tumor models were created by injection of a VX2 cell suspension. The fluorescent imaging agent IntegriSense 680 was given to the animals 3.5-4 hours before the procedure. CT images were obtained and transferred to the minimally invasive multimodality image-guided (MIMIG) system as a guidance map. A real-time electromagnetically tracked needle was inserted under the visual guidance of the MIMIG system. A second CT image was obtained to confirm the location of the needle tip. Next, fiberoptic fluorescence imaging was acquired along the needle track. Finally, tumor samples were obtained for histopathologic confirmation. RESULTS: All cases were performed during breath-hold. Tumor size was 12.5 mm +/- 1.6; the distance from the chest wall was 2.1 mm +/- 0.5. The needle tip reached the tumor in all cases with an accuracy of 3.3 mm +/- 1.6. Only one skin entry point was necessary, and no needle adjustments were required. No pneumothorax was observed. At least two-fold alpha(v)beta(3) integrin image contrast was detected in the tumor compared with normal lung tissue. Tumor samples were confirmed to have viable VX2 cells and contrast uptake. CONCLUSIONS: The MIMIG system enables effective in situ fluorescence molecular imaging in a needle biopsy lung procedure. In situ alpha(v)beta(3) integrin molecular imaging allows molecular characterization of lung tumors at multiple regions and can be used to guide biopsy procedures.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22019854
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 14
      15. Serial :
        10383
      1. Author :
        Cortez-Retamozo, V.; Etzrodt, M.; Newton, A.; Rauch, P. J.; Chudnovskiy, A.; Berger, C.; Ryan, R. J.; Iwamoto, Y.; Marinelli, B.; Gorbatov, R.; Forghani, R.; Novobrantseva, T. I.; Koteliansky, V.; Figueiredo, J. L.; Chen, J. W.; Anderson, D. G.; Nahrendorf, M.; Swirski, F. K.; Weissleder, R.; Pittet, M. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        109
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Humans; Macrophages/*immunology; Mice; Neoplasms/immunology/*pathology; Neutrophils/*immunology; Spleen/immunology/pathology
      12. Abstract :
        Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) can control cancer growth and exist in almost all solid neoplasms. The cells are known to descend from immature monocytic and granulocytic cells, respectively, which are produced in the bone marrow. However, the spleen is also a recently identified reservoir of monocytes, which can play a significant role in the inflammatory response that follows acute injury. Here, we evaluated the role of the splenic reservoir in a genetic mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma driven by activation of oncogenic Kras and inactivation of p53. We found that high numbers of TAM and TAN precursors physically relocated from the spleen to the tumor stroma, and that recruitment of tumor-promoting spleen-derived TAMs required signaling of the chemokine receptor CCR2. Also, removal of the spleen, either before or after tumor initiation, reduced TAM and TAN responses significantly and delayed tumor growth. The mechanism by which the spleen was able to maintain its reservoir capacity throughout tumor progression involved, in part, local accumulation in the splenic red pulp of typically rare extramedullary hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, notably granulocyte and macrophage progenitors, which produced CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytic and CD11b(+) Ly-6G(hi) granulocytic cells locally. Splenic granulocyte and macrophage progenitors and their descendants were likewise identified in clinical specimens. The present study sheds light on the origins of TAMs and TANs, and positions the spleen as an important extramedullary site, which can continuously supply growing tumors with these cells.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22308361
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 14
      15. Serial :
        10432
      1. Author :
        Penna, F. J.; Chow, J. S.; Minnillo, B. J.; Passerotti, C. C.; Barnewolt, C. E.; Treves, S. T.; Fahey, F. H.; Dunning, P. S.; Freilich, D. A.; Retik, A. B.; Nguyen, H. T.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Urol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        185
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense, Animals; Diagnostic Imaging; Disease Models, Animal; Fluorescence; *Kidney Pelvis; Mice; Ureteral Obstruction/*diagnosis
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE: Radiological imaging is the mainstay of diagnosing ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Current established radiological modalities can potentially differentiate the varying degrees of obstruction but they are limited in functionality, applicability and/or comprehensiveness. Of particular concern is that some tests require radiation, which has long-term consequences, especially in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the novel use of Genhance 680 dynamic fluorescence imaging to assess ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 20 mice that underwent partial or complete unilateral ureteral obstruction. Ultrasound, mercaptoacetyltriglycine renography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence imaging were performed. RESULTS: Our model of partial and complete obstruction could be distinguished by ultrasound, mercaptoacetyltriglycine renography and magnetic resonance imaging, and was confirmed by histological analysis. Using fluorescence imaging distinct vascular and urinary parameters were identified in the partial and complete obstruction groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Fluorescence imaging is a feasible alternative radiological imaging modality to diagnose ureteropelvic junction obstruction. It provides continuous, detailed imaging without the risk of radiation exposure.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21511294
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 14
      15. Serial :
        10473
      1. Author :
        Lemarie, F.; Chang, C. W.; Blatchford, D. R.; Amor, R.; Norris, G.; Tetley, L.; McConnell, G.; Dufes, C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Nanomedicine (Lond)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, B16-F10-luc-G5, B16F10-luc-G5, B16-F10-luc, B16F10-luc
      12. Abstract :
        Aim: The therapeutic potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol with anticancer properties, is limited by its inability to specifically reach tumors following intravenous administration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a tumor-targeted vesicular formulation of EGCG would suppress the growth of A431 epidermoid carcinoma and B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Materials & methods: Transferrin-bearing vesicles encapsulating EGCG were administered intravenously to mice bearing subcutaneous A431 and B16-F10 tumors. Results: The intravenous administration of EGCG encapsulated in transferrin-bearing vesicles resulted in tumor suppression in 40% of A431 and B16-F10 tumors. Animal survival was improved by more than 20 days compared with controls. Conclusion: Encapsulation of EGCG in transferrin-bearing vesicles is a promising therapeutic strategy. Original submitted 28 November 2011; Revised submitted 11 May 2012.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22891867
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 14
      15. Serial :
        10532
      1. Author :
        Tsurumi, C.; Esser, N.; Firat, E.; Gaedicke, S.; Follo, M.; Behe, M.; Elsasser-Beile, U.; Grosu, A. L.; Graeser, R.; Niedermann, G.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        5
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Antigens, CD/*biosynthesis/*metabolism; Flow Cytometry/methods; Glioma/metabolism; Glycoproteins/*biosynthesis/*metabolism; Humans; Hybridomas/metabolism; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Models, Biological; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasm Transplantation; Neoplasms/*metabolism; Neoplastic Stem Cells; Peptides/*metabolism; Recurrence
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells are thought to play a pivotal role in tumor maintenance, metastasis, tumor therapy resistance and relapse. Hence, the development of methods for non-invasive in vivo detection of cancer stem cells is of great importance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe successful in vivo detection of CD133/prominin, a cancer stem cell surface marker for a variety of tumor entities. The CD133-specific monoclonal antibody AC133.1 was used for quantitative fluorescence-based optical imaging of mouse xenograft models based on isogenic pairs of CD133 positive and negative cell lines. A first set consisted of wild-type U251 glioblastoma cells, which do not express CD133, and lentivirally transduced CD133-overexpressing U251 cells. A second set made use of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells, which uniformly express CD133 at levels comparable to primary glioblastoma stem cells, and a CD133-negative HCT116 derivative. Not surprisingly, visualization and quantification of CD133 in overexpressing U251 xenografts was successful; more importantly, however, significant differences were also found in matched HCT116 xenograft pairs, despite the lower CD133 expression levels. The binding of i.v.-injected AC133.1 antibodies to CD133 positive, but not negative, tumor cells isolated from xenografts was confirmed by flow cytometry. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results show that non-invasive antibody-based in vivo imaging of tumor-associated CD133 is feasible and that CD133 antibody-based tumor targeting is efficient. This should facilitate developing clinically applicable cancer stem cell imaging methods and CD133 antibody-based therapeutics.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21187924
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 15
      15. Serial :
        10382
      1. Author :
        Tremoleda, J. L.; Khalil, M.; Gompels, L. L.; Wylezinska-Arridge, M.; Vincent, T.; Gsell, W.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        EJNMMI Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        1
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense
      12. Abstract :
        Preclinical models for musculoskeletal disorders are critical for understanding the pathogenesis of bone and joint disorders in humans and the development of effective therapies. The assessment of these models primarily relies on morphological analysis which remains time consuming and costly, requiring large numbers of animals to be tested through different stages of the disease. The implementation of preclinical imaging represents a keystone in the refinement of animal models allowing longitudinal studies and enabling a powerful, non-invasive and clinically translatable way for monitoring disease progression in real time. Our aim is to highlight examples that demonstrate the advantages and limitations of different imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and optical imaging. All of which are in current use in preclinical skeletal research. MRI can provide high resolution of soft tissue structures, but imaging requires comparatively long acquisition times; hence, animals require long-term anaesthesia. CT is extensively used in bone and joint disorders providing excellent spatial resolution and good contrast for bone imaging. Despite its excellent structural assessment of mineralized structures, CT does not provide in vivo functional information of ongoing biological processes. Nuclear medicine is a very promising tool for investigating functional and molecular processes in vivo with new tracers becoming available as biomarkers. The combined use of imaging modalities also holds significant potential for the assessment of disease pathogenesis in animal models of musculoskeletal disorders, minimising the use of conventional invasive methods and animal redundancy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214535
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 15
      15. Serial :
        10477
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