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      1. Author :
        Sharma, Prashant K; Engels, Eefje; Van Oeveren, Wim; Ploeg, Rutger J; van Henny der Mei, C; Busscher, Henk J; Van Dam, Gooitzen M; Rakhorst, Gerhard
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        147
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bacteroides fragilis; Diagnostic Imaging; Disease Progression; Escherichia coli; Luciferases, Bacterial; Luminescent Agents; Male; Peritoneal Lavage; Peritonitis; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Xen14
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND Bacterial peritonitis is a life-threatening abdominal infection associated with high morbidity and mortality. The rat is a popular animal model for studying peritonitis and its treatment, but longitudinal monitoring of the progression of peritonitis in live animals has been impossible until now and thus required a large number of animals. Our objective was to develop a noninvasive in vivo imaging technique to monitor the spatiotemporal spread of bacterial peritonitis. METHODS Peritonitis was induced in 8 immunocompetent male Wistar rats by placing fibrin clots containing 5x10(8) cells of both Bacteroides fragilis (American Type Tissue Culture [ATCC)] 25,285 and bioluminescent Escherichia coli Xen14. After 1 or 2 days, infected clots were removed and open abdomen lavage was performed. In vivo bioluminescent imaging was used to monitor the spread of peritonitis. RESULTS Bioluminescent in vivo imaging showed an increase in the area of spread, and the number of E. coli tripled into the rat's abdominal cavity on day 1 after clot insertion; however, on day 2, encapsulation of the clot confined bacterial spread. Bioluminescent E. coli respread over the peritoneal cavity after lavage; within 10 days, however, in vivo imaging showed a decrease of 3-4 orders of magnitude in bacterial load. CONCLUSION Bioluminescent in vivo imaging can be effectively used to monitor the spatiotemporal behavior of the peritonitis during 3 different stages of the disease process: initiation, treatment, and follow-up. Imaging allows researchers to repeatedly image the same animal, thereby reducing variability and providing greater confidence in determining treatment efficacies for therapeutic interventions using a small number of animals.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733882
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        10005
      1. Author :
        Yamaoka, Ippei; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Endo, Naoyuki; Ebisu, Goro
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2014
      5. Publication :
        BMC gastroenterology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        14
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        BALB/c CrSlc mice; enteral nutrition; Ex vivo; Gastrosense 750; Hine® E-gel; in vivo; IVIS® Spectrum; Nev11121; pectin
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Semi-solidification by gelation or increased viscosity could slow the influx of liquid enteral nutrition (EN) into the small intestine. A liquid EN formula containing pectin that gels under acidic conditions such as those found in the stomach has been developed. A new near-infrared fluorescent imaging reagent was used to non-invasively acquire real time images of gastric emptying in a murine model in vivo. We postulated that the EN formula delays gastric emptying and tested this hypothesis using imaging in vivo.
        METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were given an oral bolus injection of a liquid EN containing the fluorescence reagent GastroSense750 with or without pectin. The EN in the stomach was visualized in vivo at various intervals using a non-invasive live imaging system and fluorescent signals were monitored from the stomach, which was removed at 60 min after EN ingestion.
        RESULTS: The fluorescence intensity of signals in stomachs in vivo and in resected stomachs was lower and attenuated over time in mice given EN without, than with pectin.
        CONCLUSIONS: Adding a gelling agent such as pectin delayed the transit of liquid EN from the stomach. Fluorescence imaging can visualize the delayed gastric emptying of EN containing pectin.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25263497
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        11641
      1. Author :
        Strasky, Zbynek; Zemankova, Lenka; Nemeckova, Ivana; Rathouska, Jana; Wong, Ronald J; Muchova, Lucie; Subhanova, Iva; Vanikova, Jana; Vanova, Katerina; Vitek, Libor
      2. Title :
        Spirulina platensis and phycocyanobilin activate atheroprotective heme oxygenase-1: A possible implication for atherogenesis
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2013
      5. Publication :
        Food Funct.
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS Imaging
      12. Abstract :
        Spirulina platensis, a water blue-green alga, has been associated with potent biological effects, which might have important relevance in atheroprotection. We investigated whether S. platensis or phycocyanobilin (PCB), its tetrapyrrolic chromophore, can activate atheroprotective heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1), a key enzyme in the heme catabolic pathway responsible for generation of a potent antioxidant bilirubin, in endothelial cells and in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. In vitro experiments were performed on EA.hy926 endothelial cells exposed to extracts of S. platensis or PCB. In vivo studies were performed on ApoE-deficient mice fed a cholesterol diet and S. platensis. The effect of these treatments on Hmox1, as well as other markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, was then investigated. Both S. platensis and PCB markedly upregulated Hmox1 in vitro, and a substantial overexpression of Hmox1 was found in aortic atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice fed S. platensis. In addition, S. platensis treatment led to a significant increase in Hmox1 promoter activity in the spleens of Hmox-luc transgenic mice. Furthermore, both S. platensis and PCB were able to modulate important markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, such as eNOS, p22 NADPH oxidase subunit, and/or VCAM-1. Both S. platensis and PCB activate atheroprotective HMOX1 in endothelial cells and S. platensis increased the expression of Hmox1 in aortic atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-deficient mice, and also in Hmox-luc transgenic mice beyond the lipid lowering effect. Therefore, activation of HMOX1 and the heme catabolic pathway may represent an important mechanism of this food supplement for the reduction of atherosclerotic disease.
      13. URL :
        N/A
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @ 6049
      15. Serial :
        14630
      1. Author :
        Defresne, F.; Bouzin, C.; Grandjean, M.; Dieu, M.; Raes, M.; Hatzopoulos, A. K.; Kupatt, C.; Feron, O.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, B16-F10-luc-G5, B16F10-luc-G5, B16-F10-luc, B16F10-luc,
      12. Abstract :
        Tumor progression is associated with the release of signaling substances from the primary tumor into the bloodstream. Tumor-derived cytokines are known to promote the mobilization and the recruitment of cells from the bone marrow, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Here, we examined whether such paracrine influence could also influence the capacity of EPC to interfere with circulating metastatic cells. We therefore consecutively injected EPC pre-stimulated by tumor conditioned medium (CM-EPC) and luciferase-expressing B16 melanoma cells to mice. A net decrease in metastases spreading (vs non-stimulated EPC) led us to carry out a 2D-DIGE proteomic study to identify possible mediators of EPC-driven protection. Among 33 proteins exhibiting significant changes in expression, SPARC presented the highest induction after EPC exposure to CM. We then showed that contrary to control EPC, SPARC-silenced EPC were not able to reduce the extent of metastases when injected with B16 melanoma cells. Using adhesion tests and the hanging drop assay, we further documented that cell-cell interactions between CM-EPC and melanoma cells were promoted in a SPARC-dependent manner. This interaction led to the engulfment of melanoma cells by CM-EPC, a process prevented by SPARC silencing and mimicked by recombinant SPARC. Finally, we showed that contrary to melanoma cells, the pro-metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231-D3H2 reduced SPARC expression in human EPC and stimulated metastases spreading. Our findings unravel the influence of tumor cells on EPC phenotypes through a SPARC-driven accentuation of macrophagic capacity associated with limitations to metastatic spread.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21616936
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10354
      1. Author :
        Proulx, S. T.; Luciani, P.; Derzsi, S.; Rinderknecht, M.; Mumprecht, V.; Leroux, J. C.; Detmar, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        70
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals, B16-F10-luc2, B16F10-luc2; Coloring Agents/administration & dosage/*diagnostic use; Indocyanine Green/administration & dosage/*diagnostic use; Injections, Intradermal; Liposomes/administration & dosage; Lymphatic Metastasis; Lymphatic Vessels/metabolism/*pathology; Melanoma, Experimental/blood supply/metabolism/*pathology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C/biosynthesis
      12. Abstract :
        Lymphatic vessels play a major role in cancer progression and in postsurgical lymphedema, and several new therapeutic approaches targeting lymphatics are currently being developed. Thus, there is a critical need for quantitative imaging methods to measure lymphatic flow. Indocyanine green (ICG) has been used for optical imaging of the lymphatic system, but it is unstable in solution and may rapidly enter venous capillaries after local injection. We developed a novel liposomal formulation of ICG (LP-ICG), resulting in vastly improved stability in solution and an increased fluorescence signal with a shift toward longer wavelength absorption and emission. When injected intradermally to mice, LP-ICG was specifically taken up by lymphatic vessels and allowed improved visualization of deep lymph nodes. In a genetic mouse model of lymphatic dysfunction, injection of LP-ICG showed no enhancement of draining lymph nodes and slower clearance from the injection site. In mice bearing B16 luciferase-expressing melanomas expressing vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), sequential near-IR imaging of intradermally injected LP-ICG enabled quantification of lymphatic flow. Increased flow through draining lymph nodes was observed in mice bearing VEGF-C-expressing tumors without metastases, whereas a decreased flow pattern was seen in mice with a higher lymph node tumor burden. This new method will likely facilitate quantitative studies of lymphatic function in preclinical investigations and may also have potential for imaging of lymphedema or improved sentinel lymph detection in cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20823159
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10350
      1. Author :
        Zhou, H.; Roy, S.; Cochran, E.; Zouaoui, R.; Chu, C. L.; Duffner, J.; Zhao, G.; Smith, S.; Galcheva-Gargova, Z.; Karlgren, J.; Dussault, N.; Kwan, R. Y.; Moy, E.; Barnes, M.; Long, A.; Honan, C.; Qi, Y. W.; Shriver, Z.; Ganguly, T.; Schultes, B.; Venkataraman, G.; Kishimoto, T. K.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, 4T1-luc2
      12. Abstract :
        Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a key role in shaping the tumor microenvironment by presenting growth factors, cytokines, and other soluble factors that are critical for host cell recruitment and activation, as well as promoting tumor progression, metastasis, and survival. M402 is a rationally engineered, non-cytotoxic heparan sulfate (HS) mimetic, designed to inhibit multiple factors implicated in tumor-host cell interactions, including VEGF, FGF2, SDF-1alpha, P-selectin, and heparanase. A single s.c. dose of M402 effectively inhibited seeding of B16F10 murine melanoma cells to the lung in an experimental metastasis model. Fluorescent-labeled M402 demonstrated selective accumulation in the primary tumor. Immunohistological analyses of the primary tumor revealed a decrease in microvessel density in M402 treated animals, suggesting anti-angiogenesis to be one of the mechanisms involved in-vivo. M402 treatment also normalized circulating levels of myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice. Chronic administration of M402, alone or in combination with cisplatin or docetaxel, inhibited spontaneous metastasis and prolonged survival in an orthotopic 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model. These data demonstrate that modulating HSPG biology represents a novel approach to target multiple factors involved in tumor progression and metastasis.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21698156
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10362
      1. Author :
        Tekabe, Y.; Klose, A.; Nizami, S.; Luma, J.; Lee, F. Y.; Johnson, L.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Biophotonics
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        4
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Antigens, CD31/metabolism; Capillaries/metabolism; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; Femoral Artery/surgery; Fluorescent Dyes/*diagnostic use/metabolism; Hindlimb/*blood supply/metabolism/pathology; Integrin alphaV/metabolism; Integrin alphaVbeta3/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism; Ischemia/*pathology; Ligation; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred Strains; Microscopy, Fluorescence; *Neovascularization, Physiologic; Plant Lectins/metabolism; Sensitivity and Specificity
      12. Abstract :
        Optical agents targeting alpha(v)beta(3) are potential tools to image the angiogenic response to limb ischemia. The left (L) femoral artery was ligated in 17 mice and sham surgery performed on the contralateral right (R) hindlimb. Seven days later, IntegriSense (2 nmol) was injected into 11 mice and 6 were probe controls. Six hours later, mice underwent optical imaging. Ratios of photon flux in the L/R limbs were calculated. Tissue was stained for alpha(v) , CD31, and lectin. The signal was increased in the ischemic limbs compared to contralateral legs and ratio of photon flux in L/R limb averaged 2.37. Control probe showed no hindlimb signal. IntegriSense colocalized with CD31 by dual fluorescent staining. Ratios for L/R hindlimbs correlated with quantitative lectin staining (r = 0.88, p = 0.003). Optical imaging can identify and quantify angiogenic response to hindlimb ischemia.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22031282
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10380
      1. Author :
        Lamppa, J. W.; Ackerman, M. E.; Lai, J. I.; Scanlon, T. C.; Griswold, K. E.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen5, Xen 5, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen 5
      12. Abstract :
        Alginate lyase enzymes represent prospective biotherapeutic agents for treating bacterial infections, particularly in the cystic fibrosis airway. To effectively deimmunize one therapeutic candidate while maintaining high level catalytic proficiency, a combined genetic engineering-PEGylation strategy was implemented. Rationally designed, site-specific PEGylation variants were constructed by orthogonal maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. In contrast to random PEGylation of the enzyme by NHS-ester mediated chemistry, controlled mono-PEGylation of A1-III alginate lyase produced a conjugate that maintained wild type levels of activity towards a model substrate. Significantly, the PEGylated variant exhibited enhanced solution phase kinetics with bacterial alginate, the ultimate therapeutic target. The immunoreactivity of the PEGylated enzyme was compared to a wild type control using in vitro binding studies with both enzyme-specific antibodies, from immunized New Zealand white rabbits, and a single chain antibody library, derived from a human volunteer. In both cases, the PEGylated enzyme was found to be substantially less immunoreactive. Underscoring the enzyme's potential for practical utility, >90% of adherent, mucoid, Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were removed from abiotic surfaces following a one hour treatment with the PEGylated variant, whereas the wild type enzyme removed only 75% of biofilms in parallel studies. In aggregate, these results demonstrate that site-specific mono-PEGylation of genetically engineered A1-III alginate lyase yielded an enzyme with enhanced performance relative to therapeutically relevant metrics.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21340021
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10388
      1. Author :
        Ryan, P. L.; Christiansen, D. L.; Hopper, R. M.; Walters, F. K.; Moulton, K.; Curbelo, J.; Greene, J. M.; Willard, S. T.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Anim Sci
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        89
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Horse, bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        Uterine and placental infections are the leading cause of abortion, stillbirth, and preterm delivery in the mare. Whereas uterine and placental infections in women have been studied extensively, a comprehensive examination of the pathogenic processes leading to this unsatisfactory pregnancy outcome in the mare has yet to be completed. Most information in the literature relating to late-term pregnancy loss in mares is based on retrospective studies of clinical cases submitted for necropsy. Here we report the development and application of a novel approach, whereby transgenically modified bacteria transformed with lux genes of Xenorhabdus luminescens or Photorhabdus luminescens origin and biophotonic imaging are utilized to better understand pathogen-induced preterm birth in late-term pregnant mares. This technology uses highly sensitive bioluminescence imaging camera systems to localize and monitor pathogen progression during tissue invasion by measuring the bioluminescent signatures emitted by the lux-modified pathogens. This method has an important advantage in that it allows for the potential tracking of pathogens in vivo in real time and over time, which was hitherto impossible. Although the application of this technology in domestic animals is in its infancy, investigators were successful in identifying the fetal lungs, sinuses, nares, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems as primary tissues for pathogen invasion after experimental infection of pregnant mares with lux-modified Escherichia coli. It is important that pathogens were not detected in other vital organs, such as the liver, brain, and cardiac system. Such precision in localizing sites of pathogen invasion provides potential application for this novel approach in the development of more targeted therapeutic interventions for pathogen-related diseases in the equine and other domestic species.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21239661
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10395
      1. Author :
        Kadioglu, A.; Brewin, H.; Hartel, T.; Brittan, J. L.; Klein, M.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Jenkinson, H. F.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Mol Oral Microbiol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        25
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen10, Xen 10, Streptococcus pneumoniae Xen10, IVIS, Animals; Bacterial Adhesion; Bacterial Processes; Bacterial Proteins/*physiology; *Carrier State; Colony Count, Microbial; Female; Host-Pathogen Interactions; Lung/microbiology; Meningitis, Pneumococcal/microbiology; Mice; Models, Animal; Mutation; Nasopharynx/*microbiology; Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/complications; Sepsis/*microbiology; Streptococcus pneumoniae/*pathogenicity; Virulence Factors/physiology
      12. Abstract :
        Summary The pneumococcal cell surface protein PavA is a virulence factor associated with adherence and invasion in vitro. In this study we show in vivo that PavA is necessary for Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 colonization of the murine upper respiratory tract in a long-term carriage model, with PavA-deficient pneumococci being quickly cleared from nasopharyngeal tissue. In a pneumonia model, pavA mutants were not cleared from the lungs of infected mice and persisted to cause chronic infection, whereas wild-type pneumococci caused systemic infection. Hence, under the experimental conditions, PavA-deficient pneumococci appeared to be unable to seed from lung tissue into blood, although they survived in blood when administered intravenously. In a meningitis model of infection, levels of PavA-deficient pneumococci in blood and brain following intercisternal injection were significantly lower than wild type. Taken collectively these results suggest that PavA is involved in successful colonization of mucosal surfaces and in translocation of pneumococci across host barriers. Pneumococcal sepsis is a major cause of mortality worldwide so identification of factors such as PavA that are necessary for carriage and for translocation from tissue to blood is of clinical and therapeutic importance.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20331793
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10400
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