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      1. Author :
        Penn-Barwell, J. G.; Murray, C. K.; Wenke, J. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Bone Joint Surg Br
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        94
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        Most animal studies indicate that early irrigation and debridement reduce infection after an open fracture. Unfortunately, these studies often do not involve antibiotics. Clinical studies indicate that the timing of initial debridement does not affect the rate of infection but these studies are observational and fraught with confounding variables. The purpose of this study was to control these variables using an animal model incorporating systemic antibiotics and surgical treatment. We used a rat femur model with a defect which was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and treated with a three-day course of systemic cefazolin (5 mg/kg 12-hourly) and debridement and irrigation, both of which were initiated independently at two, six and 24 hour time points. After 14 days the bone and hardware were harvested for separate microbiological analysis. No animal that received antibiotics and surgery two hours after injury had detectable bacteria. When antibiotics were started at two hours, a delay in surgical treatment from two to six hours significantly increased the development of infection (p = 0.047). However, delaying surgery to 24 hours increase the rate of infection, but not significantly (p = 0.054). The timing of antibiotics had a more significant effect on the proportion of positive samples than earlier surgery. Delaying antibiotics to six or 24 hours had a profoundly detrimental effect on the infection rate regardless of the timing of surgery. These findings are consistent with the concept that bacteria progress from a vulnerable planktonic form to a treatment-resistant biofilm.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22219257
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10404
      1. Author :
        Matsumoto, K.; Azami, T.; Otsu, A.; Takase, H.; Ishitobi, H.; Tanaka, J.; Miwa, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Ema, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Genesis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        50
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Blood Vessels/embryology/*physiology; Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial; Embryo, Mammalian; Endothelial Cells/cytology/metabolism; Endothelium, Vascular/cytology/embryology/metabolism; Female; Founder Effect; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Genes, Reporter; Mice; *Mice, Transgenic; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Morphogenesis/physiology; *Neovascularization, Pathologic; *Neovascularization, Physiologic; Retina/embryology/*physiology; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics/metabolism; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/genetics/*metabolism; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/genetics/metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        Blood vessel development and network patterning are controlled by several signaling molecules, including VEGF, FGF, TGF-ss, and Ang-1,2. Among these, the role of VEGF-A signaling in vessel morphogenesis is best understood. The biological activity of VEGF-A depends on its reaction with specific receptors Flt1 and Flk1. Roles of VEGF-A signaling in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, survival, vascular permeability, and induction of tip cell filopodia have been reported. In this study, we have generated Flt1-tdsRed BAC transgenic (Tg) mice to monitor Flt1 gene expression during vascular development. We show that tdsRed fluorescence is observed within blood vessels of adult mice and embryos, indicative of retinal angiogenesis and tumor angiogenesis. Flt1 expression recapitulated by Flt1-tdsRed BAC Tg mice overlapped well with Flk1, while Flt1 was expressed more abundantly in endothelial cells of large blood vessels such as dorsal aorta and presumptive stalk cells in retina, providing a unique model to study blood vessel development.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489010
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10437
      1. Author :
        Sabbagh, Y.; Graciolli, F. G.; O'Brien, S.; Tang, W.; dos Reis, L. M.; Ryan, S.; Phillips, L.; Boulanger, J.; Song, W.; Bracken, C.; Liu, S.; Ledbetter, S.; Dechow, P.; Canziani, M. E.; Carvalho, A. B.; Jorgetti, V.; Moyses, R. M.; Schiavi, S. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Bone Miner Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        27
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense, Animals; Biopsy; Bone Remodeling; Bone and Bones/metabolism/pathology; Calcification, Physiologic; Cardiovascular Abnormalities/blood/complications/pathology/physiopathology; *Disease Progression; Female; Gene Expression Profiling; Gene Expression Regulation; Glycoproteins/metabolism; Humans; Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood/complications/pathology/physiopathology; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Middle Aged; Mutation/genetics; Osteoclasts/metabolism/pathology; Osteocytes/*metabolism/*pathology; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics; Renal Osteodystrophy/blood/*metabolism/*pathology/physiopathology; Vascular Calcification; *Wnt Signaling Pathway/genetics
      12. Abstract :
        Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is defined by abnormalities in mineral and hormone metabolism, bone histomorphometric changes, and/or the presence of soft-tissue calcification. Emerging evidence suggests that features of CKD-MBD may occur early in disease progression and are associated with changes in osteocyte function. To identify early changes in bone, we utilized the jck mouse, a genetic model of polycystic kidney disease that exhibits progressive renal disease. At 6 weeks of age, jck mice have normal renal function and no evidence of bone disease but exhibit continual decline in renal function and death by 20 weeks of age, when approximately 40% to 60% of them have vascular calcification. Temporal changes in serum parameters were identified in jck relative to wild-type mice from 6 through 18 weeks of age and were subsequently shown to largely mirror serum changes commonly associated with clinical CKD-MBD. Bone histomorphometry revealed progressive changes associated with increased osteoclast activity and elevated bone formation relative to wild-type mice. To capture the early molecular and cellular events in the progression of CKD-MBD we examined cell-specific pathways associated with bone remodeling at the protein and/or gene expression level. Importantly, a steady increase in the number of cells expressing phosphor-Ser33/37-beta-catenin was observed both in mouse and human bones. Overall repression of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling within osteocytes occurred in conjunction with increased expression of Wnt antagonists (SOST and sFRP4) and genes associated with osteoclast activity, including receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). The resulting increase in the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio correlated with increased osteoclast activity. In late-stage disease, an apparent repression of genes associated with osteoblast function was observed. These data confirm that jck mice develop progressive biochemical changes in CKD-MBD and suggest that repression of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22492547
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10475
      1. Author :
        Correa de Sampaio, P.; Auslaender, D.; Krubasik, D.; Failla, A. V.; Skepper, J. N.; Murphy, G.; English, W. R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-luc2, IVIS, Breast Cancer, Bioware, Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology; *Cell Communication/drug effects; Cell Proliferation/drug effects; Extracellular Matrix/drug effects/metabolism; Fibroblasts/drug effects/metabolism/pathology; Gene Silencing/drug effects; Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects/metabolism; Humans; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology; Luminescent Measurements; Matrix Metalloproteinase 14/metabolism; Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton; *Models, Biological; Neoplasms/*blood supply/enzymology/*pathology; Neovascularization, Pathologic/*pathology; Signal Transduction/drug effects; Spheroids, Cellular/drug effects/enzymology/pathology; Stromal Cells/drug effects/pathology; Tumor Cells, Cultured
      12. Abstract :
        Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is an essential process for tumour progression and is an area of significant therapeutic interest. Different in vitro systems and more complex in vivo systems have been described for the study of tumour angiogenesis. However, there are few human 3D in vitro systems described to date which mimic the cellular heterogeneity and complexity of angiogenesis within the tumour microenvironment. In this study we describe the Minitumour model--a 3 dimensional human spheroid-based system consisting of endothelial cells and fibroblasts in co-culture with the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, for the study of tumour angiogenesis in vitro. After implantation in collagen-I gels, Minitumour spheroids form quantifiable endothelial capillary-like structures. The endothelial cell pre-capillary sprouts are supported by the fibroblasts, which act as mural cells, and their growth is increased by the presence of cancer cells. Characterisation of the Minitumour model using small molecule inhibitors and inhibitory antibodies show that endothelial sprout formation is dependent on growth factors and cytokines known to be important for tumour angiogenesis. The model also shows a response to anti-angiogenic agents similar to previously described in vivo data. We demonstrate that independent manipulation of the different cell types is possible, using common molecular techniques, before incorporation into the model. This aspect of Minitumour spheroid analysis makes this model ideal for high content studies of gene function in individual cell types, allowing for the dissection of their roles in cell-cell interactions. Finally, using this technique, we were able to show the requirement of the metalloproteinase MT1-MMP in endothelial cells and fibroblasts, but not cancer cells, for sprouting angiogenesis.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22363483
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10492
      1. Author :
        Oashi, K.; Furukawa, H.; Nishihara, H.; Ozaki, M.; Oyama, A.; Funayama, E.; Hayashi, T.; Kuge, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Invest Dermatol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        B16-F10-luc2, Melanoma, B16F10-luc2, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        In-transit metastasis (ITM) is a unique manifestation of intralymphatic tumor dissemination, characterized by the presence of melanoma cells between the primary lesion and the draining regional lymph node basin that is clinically associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we aimed to establish an experimental animal model of melanoma ITM, as research progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of suitable experimental models. We reproduced melanoma ITM in a mouse hind limb by transplanting melanoma cells into the footpad of a mouse with lymphedema (LE). The tumor cells at the ITM site were highly proliferative, and mice with ITMs were more likely than control mice to develop distant lymph node and lung metastases. Peritumoral lymphatic vessels and tumor-associated blood vessels were increased in the primary tumor site of the LE mice. Our established ITM melanoma mouse model enabled us to clarify the molecular determinants and pathophysiology of ITM. This ITM model is also comparable to the unfavorable clinical behavior of melanoma ITM in humans and, moreover, underlined the importance of lymphangiogenic factors in the tumor dissemination through the lymphatic system.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 6 September 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.274.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22951727
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10501
      1. Author :
        Welti, J. C.; Powles, T.; Foo, S.; Gourlaouen, M.; Preece, N.; Foster, J.; Frentzas, S.; Bird, D.; Sharpe, K.; van Weverwijk, A.; Robertson, D.; Soffe, J.; Erler, J. T.; Pili, R.; Springer, C. J.; Mather, S. J.; Reynolds, A. R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Angiogenesis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        15
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        623-41
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        4T1-luc2, 4T1, Bioware, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        Sunitinib is a potent and clinically approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor that can suppress tumour growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. However, conflicting data exist regarding the effects of this drug on the growth of metastases in preclinical models. Here we use 4T1 and RENCA tumour cells, which both form lung metastases in Balb/c mice, to re-address the effects of sunitinib on the progression of metastatic disease in mice. We show that treatment of mice with sunitinib prior to intravenous injection of tumour cells can promote the seeding and growth of 4T1 lung metastases, but not RENCA lung metastases, showing that this effect is cell line dependent. However, increased metastasis occurred only upon administration of a very high sunitinib dose, but not when lower, clinically relevant doses were used. Mechanistically, high dose sunitinib led to a pericyte depletion effect in the lung vasculature that correlated with increased seeding of metastasis. By administering sunitinib to mice after intravenous injection of tumour cells, we demonstrate that while sunitinib does not inhibit the growth of 4T1 lung tumour nodules, it does block the growth of RENCA lung tumour nodules. This contrasting response was correlated with increased myeloid cell recruitment and persistent vascularisation in 4T1 tumours, whereas RENCA tumours recruited less myeloid cells and were more profoundly devascularised upon sunitinib treatment. Finally, we show that progression of 4T1 tumours in sunitinib treated mice results in increased hypoxia and increased glucose metabolism in these tumours and that this is associated with a poor outcome. Taken together, these data suggest that the effects of sunitinib on tumour progression are dose-dependent and tumour model-dependent. These findings have relevance for understanding how anti-angiogenic agents may influence disease progression when used in the adjuvant or metastatic setting in cancer patients.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22843200
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10504
      1. Author :
        Hanai, J.; Doro, N.; Sasaki, A. T.; Kobayashi, S.; Cantley, L. C.; Seth, P.; Sukhatme, V. P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Cell Physiol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        227
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        A549-luc-C8, A549-luc, IVIS, Bioware, ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase/*antagonists & inhibitors/genetics; Animals; Apoptosis; Cell Cycle; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation; Combined Modality Therapy; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition; Female; Gene Knockdown Techniques; Humans; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/*therapeutic use; Lung Neoplasms/*drug therapy/enzymology/pathology/*therapy; MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects; Mice; Mutation; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/antagonists & inhibitors; Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor/genetics; Signal Transduction/drug effects; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        ATP citrate lyase (ACL) catalyzes the conversion of cytosolic citrate to acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. A definitive role for ACL in tumorigenesis has emerged from ACL RNAi and chemical inhibitor studies, showing that ACL inhibition limits tumor cell proliferation and survival and induces differentiation in vitro. In vivo, it reduces tumor growth leading to a cytostatic effect and induces differentiation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood and agents that could enhance the efficacy of ACL inhibition have not been identified. Our studies focus on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lines, which show phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT activation secondary to a mutation in the K-Ras gene or the EGFR gene. Here we show that ACL knockdown promotes apoptosis and differentiation, leading to the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, in contrast to most studies, which elucidate how activation/suppression of signaling pathways can modify metabolism, we show that inhibition of a metabolic pathway “reverse signals” and attenuates PI3K/AKT signaling. Additionally, we find that statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, which act downstream of ACL in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, dramatically enhance the anti-tumor effects of ACL inhibition, even regressing established tumors. With statin treatment, both PI3K/AKT and the MAPK pathways are affected. Moreover, this combined treatment is able to reduce the growth of EGF receptor resistant tumor cell types. Given the essential role of lipid synthesis in numerous cancers, this work may impact therapy in a broad range of tumors.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21688263
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10523
      1. Author :
        Tanaka, M.; Mroz, P.; Dai, T.; Huang, L.; Morimoto, Y.; Kinoshita, M.; Yoshihara, Y.; Nemoto, K.; Shinomiya, N.; Seki, S.; Hamblin, M. R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen31, Xen 31, MRSA, S. aureus, IVIS, Bioluminescence, Animals; Arthritis, Infectious/*drug therapy/immunology/microbiology; *Immunity, Innate; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification; Methylene Blue/therapeutic use; Mice; Neutrophils/*immunology; *Photochemotherapy; Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Local microbial infections induced by multiple-drug-resistant bacteria in the orthopedic field can be intractable, therefore development of new therapeutic modalities is needed. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative modality to antibiotics for intractable microbial infections, and we recently reported that PDT has the potential to accumulate neutrophils into the infected site which leads to resolution of the infection. PDT for cancer has long been known to be able to stimulate the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, a murine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) arthritis model using bioluminescent MRSA and polystyrene microparticles was established, and both the therapeutic (Th-PDT) and preventive (Pre-PDT) effects of PDT using methylene blue as photosensitizer were examined. Although Th-PDT could not demonstrate direct bacterial killing, neutrophils were accumulated into the infectious joint space after PDT and MRSA arthritis was reduced. With the preconditioning Pre-PDT regimen, neutrophils were quickly accumulated into the joint immediately after bacterial inoculation and bacterial growth was suppressed and the establishment of infection was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration of a protective innate immune response against a bacterial pathogen produced by PDT.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22761911
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10557
      1. Author :
        Adachi, T.; Kawakami, E.; Ishimaru, N.; Ochiya, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Ohuchi, H.; Tanihara, M.; Tanaka, E.; Noji, S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Dev Growth Differ
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        52
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, B16-F10-luc-G5, B16F10-luc-G5, B16-F10-luc, B16F10-luc, Animals; Base Sequence; Cell Line, Tumor; Collagen/*chemistry; DNA Primers; *Gene Silencing; Mice; RNA, Small Interfering/*administration & dosage/*chemistry; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
      12. Abstract :
        Silencing gene expression by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) has become a powerful tool for the genetic analysis of many animals. However, the rapid degradation of siRNA and the limited duration of its action in vivo have called for an efficient delivery technology. Here, we describe that siRNA complexed with a synthetic collagen poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) (SYCOL) is resistant to nucleases and is efficiently transferred into cells in vitro and in vivo, thereby allowing long-term gene silencing in vivo. We found that the SYCOL-mediated local application of siRNA targeting myostatin, coding a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, in mouse skeletal muscles, caused a marked increase in the muscle mass within a few weeks after application. Furthermore, in vivo administration of an anti-luciferase siRNA/SYCOL complex partially reduced luciferase expression in xenografted tumors in vivo. These results indicate a SYCOL-based non-viral delivery method could be a reliable simple approach to knockdown gene expression by RNAi in vivo as well as in vitro.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20874713
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 11
      15. Serial :
        10352
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