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      1. Author :
        Palmer, Kelli L; Aye, Lindsay M; Whiteley, Marvin
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Journal of bacteriology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        189
      8. Issue :
        22
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Adult; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bacterial Proteins; Bacteriological Techniques; Bioware; Culture Media; Cystic Fibrosis; Gene Expression Profiling; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Humans; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Sputum; Staphylococcus aureus; Xen36
      12. Abstract :
        The sputum (mucus) layer of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is a complex substrate that provides Pseudomonas aeruginosa with carbon and energy to support high-density growth during chronic colonization. Unfortunately, the CF lung sputum layer has been difficult to mimic in animal models of CF disease, and mechanistic studies of P. aeruginosa physiology during growth in CF sputum are hampered by its complexity. In this study, we performed chromatographic and enzymatic analyses of CF sputum to develop a defined, synthetic CF sputum medium (SCFM) that mimics the nutritional composition of CF sputum. Importantly, P. aeruginosa displays similar phenotypes during growth in CF sputum and in SCFM, including similar growth rates, gene expression profiles, carbon substrate preferences, and cell-cell signaling profiles. Using SCFM, we provide evidence that aromatic amino acids serve as nutritional cues that influence cell-cell signaling and antimicrobial activity of P. aeruginosa during growth in CF sputum.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17873029
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9985
      1. Author :
        Pan, Y.; Zhong, L. J.; Zhou, H.; Wang, X.; Chen, K.; Yang, H. P.; Xiaokaiti, Y.; Maimaiti, A.; Jiang, L.; Li, X. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Acta Pharmacol Sin
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        33
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, B16-F10-luc-G5, B16F10-luc-G5, B16-F10-luc, B16F10-luc, 14-3-3 Proteins/*genetics; Animals; Anticoagulants/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Apoptosis/drug effects; Cadherins/genetics; Cell Cycle/drug effects; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation/*drug effects; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects; Heparin/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Humans; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Nude; Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy/genetics; Neoplasms/*drug therapy/genetics; Prostate/drug effects/metabolism; Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics; Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics; Vimentin/*genetics
      12. Abstract :
        AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effects of heparin on PC-3M cells proliferation in vitro and B16-F10-luc-G5 cells metastasis in Balb/c nude mice and identify the protein expression patterns to elucidate the action mechanism of heparin. METHODS: Human prostate cancer PC-3M cells were incubated with heparin 0.5 to 125 mug/mL for 24 h. The proliferation of PC-3M cells was assessed by MTS assay. BrdU incoporation and Ki67 expression were detected using a high content screening (HCS) assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of PC-3M cells were tested by flow cytometry. B16-F10-luc-G5 cardinoma cells were injected into the lateral tail vein of 6-week old male Balb/c nude mice and heparin 30 mg/kg was administered iv 30 min before and 24 h after injection. The metasis of B16-F10-luc-G5 cells was detected by bioluminescence assay. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and hemorheological parameters were measured on d 14 after injection of B16-F10-luc-G5 carcinoma cells in Balb/c mice. The global protein changes in PC-3M cells and frozen lung tissues from mice burdened with B16-F10-luc-G5 cells were determined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and image analysis. The protein expression of vimentin and 14-3-3 zeta/delta was measured by Western blot. The mRNA transcription of vimentin, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, E-cadherin, and alpha(v)-integrin was measured by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Heparin 25 and 125 mug/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation, arrested the cells in G(1) phase, and suppressed BrdU incorporation and Ki67 expression in PC-3M cells compared with the model group. But it had no significant effect on apoptosis of PC-3M cells. Heparin 30 mg/kg markedly inhibits the metastasis of B16-F10-luc-G5 cells on day 8. Additionally, heparin administration maintained relatively normal red blood hematocrit but had no influence on APTT in nude mice burdened with B16-F10-luc-G5 cells. Thirty of down-regulated protein spots were identified after heparin treatment, many of which are related to tumor development, extracellular signaling, energy metabolism, and cellular proliferation. Vimentin and 14-3-3 zeta/delta were identified in common in PC-3M cells and the lungs of mice bearing B16-F10-luc-G5 carcinoma cells. Heparin 25 and 125 mug/mL decreased the protein expression of vimentin and 14-3-3 zeta/delta and the mRNA expression of alpha(v)-integrin. Heparin 125 mug/mL decreased vimentin and E-cadherin mRNA transcription while increased TGF-beta mRNA transcription in the PC-3M cells, but the differences were not significant. Transfection of vimentin-targeted siRNA for 48 h significantly decreased the BrdU incoporation and Ki67 expression in PC-3M cells. CONCLUSION: Heparin inhibited PC-3M cell proliferation in vitro and B16-F10-luc-G5 cells metastasis in nude mice by inhibition of vimentin, 14-3-3 zeta/delta, and alpha(v)-integrin expression.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22669117
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 13
      15. Serial :
        10534
      1. Author :
        Panizzi, P.; Nahrendorf, M.; Figueiredo, J. L.; Panizzi, J.; Marinelli, B.; Iwamoto, Y.; Keliher, E.; Maddur, A. A.; Waterman, P.; Kroh, H. K.; Leuschner, F.; Aikawa, E.; Swirski, F. K.; Pittet, M. J.; Hackeng, T. M.; Fuentes-Prior, P.; Schneewind, O.; Bock, P. E.; Weissleder, R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Nat Med
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        17
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xen29, Xen 29, Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, Animals; Coagulase/metabolism; Endocarditis, Bacterial/*diagnosis; Mice; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Positron-Emission Tomography; Protein Engineering; Prothrombin/*diagnostic use/*metabolism; Quorum Sensing/physiology; Staphylococcus aureus/*metabolism/pathogenicity
      12. Abstract :
        Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the major causal pathogen of acute endocarditis, a rapidly progressing, destructive infection of the heart valves. Bacterial colonization occurs at sites of endothelial damage, where, together with fibrin and platelets, the bacteria initiate the formation of abnormal growths known as vegetations. Here we report that an engineered analog of prothrombin could be used to detect S. aureus in endocarditic vegetations via noninvasive fluorescence or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. These prothrombin derivatives bound staphylocoagulase and intercalated into growing bacterial vegetations. We also present evidence for bacterial quorum sensing in the regulation of staphylocoagulase expression by S. aureus. Staphylocoagulase expression was limited to the growing edge of mature vegetations, where it was exposed to the host and co-localized with the imaging probe. When endocarditis was induced with an S. aureus strain with genetic deletion of coagulases, survival of mice improved, highlighting the role of staphylocoagulase as a virulence factor.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21857652
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 16
      15. Serial :
        10454
      1. Author :
        Park, H. S.; Cleary, P. P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2005
      5. Publication :
        Infection and Immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        73
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen, Xen20
      12. Abstract :
        C5a peptidase, also called SCPA (surface-bound C5a peptidase), is a surface-bound protein on group A streptococci (GAS), etiologic agents for a variety of human diseases including pharyngitis, impetigo, toxic shock, and necrotizing fasciitis, as well as the postinfection sequelae rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. This protein is highly conserved among different serotypes and is also expressed in human isolates of group B, C, and G streptococci. Human tonsils are the primary reservoirs for GAS, maintaining endemic disease across the globe. We recently reported that GAS preferentially target nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in mice, a tissue functionally analogous to human tonsils. Experiments using a C5a peptidase loss-of-function mutant and an intranasal infection model showed that this protease is required for efficient colonization of NALT. An effective vaccine should prevent infection of this secondary lymphoid tissue; therefore, the potential of anti-SCPA antibodies to protect against streptococcal infection of NALT was investigated. Experiments showed that GAS colonization of NALT was significantly reduced following intranasal immunization of mice with recombinant SCPA protein administered alone or with cholera toxin, whereas a high degree of GAS colonization of NALT was observed in control mice immunized with phosphate-buffered saline only. Moreover, administration of anti-SCPA serum by the intranasal route protected mice against streptococcal infection. These results suggest that intranasal immunization with SCPA would prevent colonization and infection of human tonsils, thereby eliminating potential reservoirs that maintain endemic disease.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16299278
      14. Call Number :
        141964
      15. Serial :
        5327
      1. Author :
        Park, Hae-Sun; Francis, Kevin P; Yu, Jun; Cleary, P Patrick
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2003
      5. Publication :
        Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        171
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Administration, Intranasal; Animals; Bioware; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Intracellular Fluid; Lymphoid Tissue; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Nasal Mucosa; Nasopharynx; Palatine Tonsil; pXen-5; Streptococcal Infections; Streptococcus pyogenes
      12. Abstract :
        Human tonsils are suspected to be an antibiotic-impervious human reservoir for group A streptococcus. An intranasal infection model in mice and a bioluminescent-tagged strain were used to investigate this possibility. Viable streptococci were predominantly found both intra- and extracellularly in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), a human tonsil homologue. Ulex europaeus-1, a membranous (M) cell-specific lectin, identified cells harboring streptococci at the epithelial surface of NALT and blocked bacterial colonization of this tissue. These results suggest that M cells in NALT transport this Gram-positive pathogen across the epithelial layers in a manner similar to those in Peyer's patches, which permit enteric pathogens to invade deeper tissues from the gastrointestinal tract.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12928403
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9025
      1. Author :
        Pello, O. M.; Chevre, R.; Laoui, D.; De Juan, A.; Lolo, F.; Andres-Manzano, M. J.; Serrano, M.; Van Ginderachter, J. A.; Andres, V.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense
      12. Abstract :
        Although tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are involved in tumor growth and metastasis, the mechanisms controlling their pro-tumoral activities remain largely unknown. The transcription factor c-MYC has been recently shown to regulate in vitro human macrophage polarization and be expressed in macrophages infiltrating human tumors. In this study, we exploited the predominant expression of LysM in myeloid cells to generate c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice, which lack c-Myc in macrophages, to investigate the role of macrophage c-MYC expression in cancer. Under steady-state conditions, immune system parameters in c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice appeared normal, including the abundance of different subsets of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, precursors and circulating cells, macrophage density, and immune organ structure. In a model of melanoma, however, TAMs lacking c-Myc displayed a delay in maturation and showed an attenuation of pro-tumoral functions (e.g., reduced expression of VEGF, MMP9, and HIF1alpha) that was associated with impaired tissue remodeling and angiogenesis and limited tumor growth in c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice. Macrophage c-Myc deletion also diminished fibrosarcoma growth. These data identify c-Myc as a positive regulator of the pro-tumoral program of TAMs and suggest c-Myc inactivation as an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23028984
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 33
      15. Serial :
        10376
      1. Author :
        Penn-Barwell, J. G.; Murray, C. K.; Wenke, J. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Bone Joint Surg Br
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        94
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen36, Xen 36, Staphylococcus aureus Xen36, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        Most animal studies indicate that early irrigation and debridement reduce infection after an open fracture. Unfortunately, these studies often do not involve antibiotics. Clinical studies indicate that the timing of initial debridement does not affect the rate of infection but these studies are observational and fraught with confounding variables. The purpose of this study was to control these variables using an animal model incorporating systemic antibiotics and surgical treatment. We used a rat femur model with a defect which was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and treated with a three-day course of systemic cefazolin (5 mg/kg 12-hourly) and debridement and irrigation, both of which were initiated independently at two, six and 24 hour time points. After 14 days the bone and hardware were harvested for separate microbiological analysis. No animal that received antibiotics and surgery two hours after injury had detectable bacteria. When antibiotics were started at two hours, a delay in surgical treatment from two to six hours significantly increased the development of infection (p = 0.047). However, delaying surgery to 24 hours increase the rate of infection, but not significantly (p = 0.054). The timing of antibiotics had a more significant effect on the proportion of positive samples than earlier surgery. Delaying antibiotics to six or 24 hours had a profoundly detrimental effect on the infection rate regardless of the timing of surgery. These findings are consistent with the concept that bacteria progress from a vulnerable planktonic form to a treatment-resistant biofilm.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22219257
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10404
      1. Author :
        Penna, F. J.; Chow, J. S.; Minnillo, B. J.; Passerotti, C. C.; Barnewolt, C. E.; Treves, S. T.; Fahey, F. H.; Dunning, P. S.; Freilich, D. A.; Retik, A. B.; Nguyen, H. T.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Urol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        185
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense, Animals; Diagnostic Imaging; Disease Models, Animal; Fluorescence; *Kidney Pelvis; Mice; Ureteral Obstruction/*diagnosis
      12. Abstract :
        PURPOSE: Radiological imaging is the mainstay of diagnosing ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Current established radiological modalities can potentially differentiate the varying degrees of obstruction but they are limited in functionality, applicability and/or comprehensiveness. Of particular concern is that some tests require radiation, which has long-term consequences, especially in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the novel use of Genhance 680 dynamic fluorescence imaging to assess ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 20 mice that underwent partial or complete unilateral ureteral obstruction. Ultrasound, mercaptoacetyltriglycine renography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence imaging were performed. RESULTS: Our model of partial and complete obstruction could be distinguished by ultrasound, mercaptoacetyltriglycine renography and magnetic resonance imaging, and was confirmed by histological analysis. Using fluorescence imaging distinct vascular and urinary parameters were identified in the partial and complete obstruction groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Fluorescence imaging is a feasible alternative radiological imaging modality to diagnose ureteropelvic junction obstruction. It provides continuous, detailed imaging without the risk of radiation exposure.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21511294
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 14
      15. Serial :
        10473
      1. Author :
        Penna, F. J.; Freilich, D. A.; Alvarenga, C.; Nguyen, H. T.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Urology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        78
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense, Animals; Fluorescence; Fluorescent Dyes/*diagnostic use; Guinea Pigs; Lymph Node Excision/*methods; Male; Models, Animal; *Molecular Imaging; Retroperitoneal Space
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVES: To propose that fluorescent molecular imaging has utility in specifically identifying the lymph nodes, thereby enabling more definitive lymph node visualization and dissection. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is an invasive procedure with significant morbidity. A minimally invasive approach would be of great clinical benefit but has been limited by the extensive perivascular dissection required to remove all lymphatic tissue. Directed lymph node visualization would allow a limited dissection, making a laparoscopic approach more feasible. METHODS: Ten male Hartley guinea pigs underwent nonsurvival RPLND, 5 with the protease activatable in vivo fluorescent molecular imaging agent, ProSense and 5 without image guidance (control). ProSense was administered 24 hours before surgery and detected 24 hours later using a photodynamic detector. In group 1, RPLND was first performed without molecular imaging followed by image-guided lymph node dissection for residual nodes. In group 2, the near infrared detector was used initially for lymph node excision followed by traditionally unassisted extraction of the residual lymph nodes. The lymph nodes were extracted, counted, and sent for histopathologic analysis. RESULTS: With the assistance of molecular imaging, no additional lymph nodes were identified after complete dissection, and all tissue identified by ProSense was confirmed by histopathologic analysis to be lymph nodes. Without molecular imaging, all lymph nodes were not identified, and in 2 instances, the tissue was incorrectly thought to be lymphatic tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular image-guided RPLND is a promising technique to improve in vivo, live visualization and dissection of lymph nodes and has the potential for application in improving the diagnosis and treatment of other urologic malignancies.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21601249
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 13
      15. Serial :
        10474
      1. Author :
        Pesnel, S.; Pillon, A.; Creancier, L.; Lerondel, S.; Le Pape, A.; Recher, C.; Demur, C.; Guilbaud, N.; Kruczynski, A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        e30690
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        HCT-116-luc2, HCT116-luc2, IVIS, Animals; Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage/*immunology; Antigens, CD45/metabolism; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology; Disease Models, Animal; Flow Cytometry; Fluorescent Dyes/*metabolism; Humans; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/*methods; Injections, Intravenous; Leukemia/*diagnosis/*pathology; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology; Longevity; Luminescent Measurements; Mice; Mice, SCID; Reproducibility of Results; Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared/*methods
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: The assessment of anticancer agents to treat leukemia needs to have animal models closer to the human pathology such as implantation in immunodeficient mice of leukemic cells from patient samples. A sensitive and early detection of tumor cells in these orthotopic models is a prerequisite for monitoring engraftment of leukemic cells and their dissemination in mice. Therefore, we developed a fluorescent antibody based strategy to detect leukemic foci in mice bearing patient-derived leukemic cells using fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) to determine when to start treatments with novel antitumor agents. METHODS: Two mAbs against the CD44 human myeloid marker or the CD45 human leukocyte marker were labeled with Alexa Fluor 750 and administered to leukemia-bearing mice after having verified the immunoreactivity in vitro. Bioluminescent leukemic cells (HL60-Luc) were used to compare the colocalization of the fluorescent mAb with these cells. The impact of the labeled antibodies on disease progression was further determined. Finally, the fluorescent hCD45 mAb was tested in mice engrafted with human leukemic cells. RESULTS: The probe labeling did not modify the immunoreactivity of the mAbs. There was a satisfactory correlation between bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and FRI and low doses of mAb were sufficient to detect leukemic foci. However, anti-hCD44 mAb had a strong impact on the tumor proliferation contrary to anti-hCD45 mAb. The use of anti-hCD45 mAb allowed the detection of leukemic patient cells engrafted onto NOD/SCID mice. CONCLUSIONS: A mAb labeled with a near infrared fluorochrome is useful to detect leukemic foci in disseminated models provided that its potential impact on tumor proliferation has been thoroughly documented.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22303450
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 4
      15. Serial :
        10503
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