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      1. Author :
        Mieog, J. S.; Hutteman, M.; van der Vorst, J. R.; Kuppen, P. J.; Que, I.; Dijkstra, J.; Kaijzel, E. L.; Prins, F.; Lowik, C. W.; Smit, V. T.; van de Velde, C. J.; Vahrmeijer, A. L.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Breast Cancer Res Treat
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        128
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        ProSense, IVIS, Animals; Breast Neoplasms/pathology/*surgery; Cell Line, Tumor; Disease Models, Animal; Female; *Microscopy, Fluorescence; Rats; *Surgery, Computer-Assisted; Transplantation, Isogeneic; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        Tumor involvement of resection margins is found in a large proportion of patients who undergo breast-conserving surgery. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is an experimental technique to visualize cancer cells during surgery. To determine the accuracy of real-time NIR fluorescence imaging in obtaining tumor-free resection margins, a protease-activatable NIR fluorescence probe and an intraoperative camera system were used in the EMR86 orthotopic syngeneic breast cancer rat model. Influence of concentration, timing and number of tumor cells were tested in the MCR86 rat breast cancer cell line. These variables were significantly associated with NIR fluorescence probe activation. Dosing and tumor size were also significantly associated with fluorescence intensity in the EMR86 rat model, whereas time of imaging was not. Real-time NIR fluorescence guidance of tumor resection resulted in a complete resection of 17 out of 17 tumors with minimal excision of normal healthy tissue (mean minimum and a mean maximum tumor-free margin of 0.2 +/- 0.2 mm and 1.3 +/- 0.6 mm, respectively). Moreover, the technique enabled identification of remnant tumor tissue in the surgical cavity. Histological analysis revealed that the NIR fluorescence signal was highest at the invasive tumor border and in the stromal compartment of the tumor. In conclusion, NIR fluorescence detection of breast tumor margins was successful in a rat model. This study suggests that clinical introduction of intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging has the potential to increase the number of complete tumor resections in breast cancer patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20821347
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 4
      15. Serial :
        10429
      1. Author :
        Min, Jung-Joon; Nguyen, Vu H.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        44
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        15-24
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Cancer; Cardiology; Gene delivery vector; Gene Therapy; Imaging / Radiology; Molecular Imaging; Nuclear Medicine; Oncology; Orthopedics; Xen26
      12. Abstract :
        Cancer persists as one of the most devastating diseases in the world. Problems including metastasis and tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy have seriously limited the therapeutic effects of present clinical treatments. To overcome these limitations, cancer gene therapy has been developed over the last two decades for a broad spectrum of applications, from gene replacement and knockdown to vaccination, each with different requirements for gene delivery. So far, a number of genes and delivery vectors have been investigated, and significant progress has been made with several gene therapy modalities in clinical trials. Viral vectors and synthetic liposomes have emerged as the vehicles of choice for many applications. However, both have limitations and risks that restrict gene therapy applications, including the complexity of production, limited packaging capacity, and unfavorable immunological features. While continuing to improve these vectors, it is important to investigate other options, particularly nonviral biological agents such as bacteria, bacteriophages, and bacteria-like particles. Recently, many molecular imaging techniques for safe, repeated, and high-resolution in vivo imaging of gene expression have been employed to assess vector-mediated gene expression in living subjects. In this review, molecular imaging techniques for monitoring biological gene delivery vehicles are described, and the specific use of these methods at different steps is illustrated. Linking molecular imaging to gene therapy will eventually help to develop novel gene delivery vehicles for preclinical study and support the development of future human applications.
      13. URL :
        http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13139-009-0006-3
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        10003
      1. Author :
        Minakuchi, Yoshiko; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Kouno, Makiko; Honma, Kimi; Nagahara, Shunji; Hanai, Koji; Sano, Akihiko; Kato, Takashi; Terada, Masaaki; Ochiya, Takahiro
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2004
      5. Publication :
        Nucleic acids research
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        32
      8. Issue :
        13
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; B16-F10-luc-G5 cells; Bioware; Cell Division; Cell Line, Tumor; Collagen; Humans; Injections; Male; Mice; Mice, Nude; RNA Interference; RNA Stability; RNA, Small Interfering; Testicular Neoplasms; Transduction, Genetic; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        Silencing gene expression by siRNAs is rapidly becoming a powerful tool for the genetic analysis of mammalian cells. However, the rapid degradation of siRNA and the limited duration of its action call for an efficient delivery technology. Accordingly, we describe here that Atelocollagen complexed with siRNA is resistant to nucleases and is efficiently transduced into cells, thereby allowing long-term gene silencing. Site-specific in vivo administration of an anti-luciferase siRNA/Atelocollagen complex reduced luciferase expression in a xenografted tumor. Furthermore, Atelocollagen-mediated transfer of siRNA in vivo showed efficient inhibition of tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model of a human non-seminomatous germ cell tumor. Thus, for clinical applications of siRNA, an Atelocollagen-based non-viral delivery method could be a reliable approach to achieve maximal function of siRNA in vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15272050
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9003
      1. Author :
        Missbach-Guentner, J.; Hunia, J.; Alves, F.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Int J Dev Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        55
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use; Animals; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; Fluorescence; Humans; Luminescence/diagnostic use; Magnetic Resonance Angiography/methods; Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods; Microscopy/methods; Neoplasms/*blood supply/therapy; *Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology/ultrasonography; Positron-Emission Tomography/methods; Tomography/methods; Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods; Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods; X-Ray Microtomography/methods
      12. Abstract :
        Significant advances have been made in understanding the role of tumor angiogenesis and its influence on tumor progression in cancer. Based on this knowledge, a series of inhibitors of angiogenesis have been developed and evaluated in preclinical and clinical trials. Since detailed information of tumor progression in response to therapy is important to assess the efficacy of anti-tumor treatment in vivo, noninvasive imaging techniques emerge more and more as important tools to monitor alterations in tumor growth and vessel recruitment, as well as metastatic spread over time. So far, remarkable efforts have been made to improve the technical capability of these imaging modalities based on better resolution, as well as to implement multimodal approaches combining molecular with anatomical information. Advanced imaging techniques not only allow the detection and monitoring of tumor development, but also facilitate a broad understanding of the cellular and molecular events that propagate tumor angiogenesis, as well as those occurring in response to therapy. This review provides an overview of different imaging techniques in preclinical settings of oncological research and discusses their potential impact on clinical translation. Imaging modalities will be presented that have been implemented to address key biological issues by exploring tumor angiogenic processes and evaluating antiangiogenic therapy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21858774
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 32
      15. Serial :
        10373
      1. Author :
        Mitchell, Dianne; Pobre, Eileen G; Mulivor, Aaron W; Grinberg, Asya V; Castonguay, Roselyne; Monnell, Travis E; Solban, Nicolas; Ucran, Jeffrey A; Pearsall, R Scott; Underwood, Kathryn W; Seehra, Jasbir; Kumar, Ravindra
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Molecular cancer therapeutics
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        9
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Activin Receptors, Type II; Animals; Bioware; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; CHO Cells; Cricetinae; Cricetulus; Endothelial Cells; Endothelium, Vascular; Growth Differentiation Factor 2; Humans; MCF-7-luc-F5 cells; Mice; Neoplasms; Neovascularization, Pathologic; Surface Plasmon Resonance; Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic
      12. Abstract :
        Activin receptor-like kinase-1 (ALK1) is a type I, endothelial cell-specific member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of receptors known to play an essential role in modulating angiogenesis and vessel maintenance. In the present study, we sought to examine the angiogenic and tumorigenic effects mediated upon the inhibition of ALK1 signaling using a soluble chimeric protein (ALK1-Fc). Of 29 transforming growth factor-beta-related ligands screened by surface plasmon resonance, only bone morphogenetic protein (BMP9) and BMP10 displayed high-affinity binding to ALK1-Fc. In cell-based assays, ALK1-Fc inhibited BMP9-mediated Id-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and inhibited cord formation by these cells on a Matrigel substrate. In a chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, ALK1-Fc reduced vascular endothelial growth factor-, fibroblast growth factor-, and BMP10-mediated vessel formation. The growth of B16 melanoma explants was also inhibited significantly by ALK1-Fc in this assay. Finally, ALK1-Fc treatment reduced tumor burden in mice receiving orthotopic grafts of MCF7 mammary adenocarcinoma cells. These data show the efficacy of chimeric ALK1-Fc proteins in mitigating vessel formation and support the view that ALK1-Fc is a powerful antiangiogenic agent capable of blocking vascularization.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124460
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9010
      1. Author :
        Mortin, Lawrence I; Li, Tongchuan; Van Praagh, Andrew D G; Zhang, Shuxin; Zhang, Xi-Xian; Alder, Jeff D
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        51
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Acetamides; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bioware; Colony Count, Microbial; Daptomycin; Female; Luminescent Measurements; Methicillin Resistance; Mice; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Neutropenia; Oxazolidinones; Peritonitis; Staphylococcus aureus; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        The rising rates of antibiotic resistance accentuate the critical need for new antibiotics. Daptomycin is a new antibiotic with a unique mode of action and a rapid in vitro bactericidal effect against gram-positive organisms. This study examined the kinetics of daptomycin's bactericidal action against peritonitis caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in healthy and neutropenic mice and compared this activity with those of other commonly used antibiotics. CD-1 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with lethal doses of MSSA (Xen-29) or MRSA (Xen-1), laboratory strains transformed with a plasmid containing the lux operon, which confers bioluminescence. One hour later, the animals were given a single dose of daptomycin at 50 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneously (s.c.), nafcillin at 100 mg/kg s.c., vancomycin at 100 mg/kg s.c., linezolid at 100 mg/kg via gavage (orally), or saline (10 ml/kg s.c.). The mice were anesthetized hourly, and photon emissions from living bioluminescent bacteria were imaged and quantified. The luminescence in saline-treated control mice either increased (neutropenic mice) or remained relatively unchanged (healthy mice). In contrast, by 2 to 3 h postdosing, daptomycin effected a 90% reduction of luminescence of MSSA or MRSA in both healthy and neutropenic mice. The activity of daptomycin against both MSSA and MRSA strains was superior to those of nafcillin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Against MSSA peritonitis, daptomycin showed greater and more rapid bactericidal activity than nafcillin or linezolid. Against MRSA peritonitis, daptomycin showed greater and more rapid bactericidal activity than vancomycin or linezolid. The rapid decrease in the luminescent signal in the daptomycin-treated neutropenic mice underscores the potency of this antibiotic against S. aureus in the immune-suppressed host.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17307984
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9050
      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2007
      5. Publication :
        American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        175
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Cattle; Cells, Cultured; Cystic Fibrosis; Flavoproteins; Humans; Hydrogen peroxide; Immunity, Innate; Immunity, Mucosal; Lactoperoxidase; Lung Diseases; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Rats; Reactive Oxygen Species; Respiratory Mucosa; RNA, Small Interfering; Staphylococcus aureus; Thiocyanates; Trachea; Xen8.1
      12. Abstract :
        RATIONALE The respiratory tract is constantly exposed to airborne microorganisms. Nevertheless, normal airways remain sterile without recruiting phagocytes. This innate immune activity has been attributed to mucociliary clearance and antimicrobial polypeptides of airway surface liquid. Defective airway immunity characterizes cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator, a chloride channel. The pathophysiology of defective immunity in CF remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE We investigated the ability of non-CF and CF airway epithelia to kill bacteria through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). METHODS ROS production and ROS-mediated bactericidal activity were determined on the apical surfaces of human and rat airway epithelia and on cow tracheal explants. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Dual oxidase enzyme of airway epithelial cells generated sufficient H(2)O(2) to support production of bactericidal hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-)) in the presence of airway surface liquid components lactoperoxidase and thiocyanate (SCN(-)). This OSCN(-) formation eliminated Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on airway mucosal surfaces, whereas it was nontoxic to the host. In contrast to normal epithelia, CF epithelia failed to secrete SCN(-), thereby rendering the oxidative antimicrobial system inactive. CONCLUSIONS These data indicate a novel innate defense mechanism of airways that kills bacteria via ROS and suggest a new cellular and molecular basis for defective airway immunity in CF.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17082494
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9988
      1. Author :
        Motohara, T.; Masuko, S.; Ishimoto, T.; Yae, T.; Onishi, N.; Muraguchi, T.; Hirao, A.; Matsuzaki, Y.; Tashiro, H.; Katabuchi, H.; Saya, H.; Nagano, O.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Carcinogenesis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        32
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics/metabolism; Apoptosis; Blotting, Western; Cell Adhesion; Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics/metabolism; Cell Differentiation; Cell Movement; Cell Proliferation; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/metabolism/*pathology; Female; Flow Cytometry; Immunoenzyme Techniques; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Neoplastic Stem Cells/metabolism/*pathology; Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism/*pathology; Ovary/metabolism/*pathology; Peritoneal Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism/*secondary; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/genetics/metabolism; Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics/metabolism; RNA, Messenger/genetics; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        Although the existence of tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) in several types of human cancer has been documented, the contribution of somatic stem cells to the development of T-ICs has remained unclear. Here, we show that normal mouse ovary contains epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-expressing stem-like cells that possess the ability to differentiate into cytokeratin 8 (CK8)-expressing epithelial progeny cells. Furthermore, RNA interference-mediated transient depletion of the tumor suppressor p53 followed by retrovirus-mediated transfer of c-Myc and K-Ras oncogenes in EpCAM-expressing ovarian stem-like cells resulted in the generation of ovarian T-ICs. The established ovarian T-ICs gave rise to hierarchically organized lethal tumors in vivo and were able to undergo peritoneal metastasis. Finally, subsequent RNA interference-mediated knockdown of p53 in tumor cells triggered the expansion of EpCAM-expressing stem-like tumor cells and induced further tumor growth. These data reveal a role for p53 in the development and expansion of ovarian stem-like tumor cells and subsequent malignant progression.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21828057
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 16
      15. Serial :
        10374
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