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      1. Author :
        N/A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Journal of orthopaedic research: official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        27
      8. Issue :
        8
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Acinetobacter baumannii; Acinetobacter Infections; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bioware; Colistin; Disease Models, Animal; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial; Female; Fractures, Bone; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Osteomyelitis; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        Osteomyelitis (OM) from multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter has emerged in >30% of combat-related injuries in Iraq and Afghanistan. While most of these strains are sensitive to colistin, the drug is not available in bone void fillers for local high-dose delivery. To address this, we developed a mouse model with MDR strains isolated from wounded military personnel. In contrast to S. aureus OM, which is osteolytic and characterized by biofilm in necrotic bone, A. baumannii OM results in blastic lesions that do not contain apparent biofilm. We also found that mice mount a specific IgG response against three proteins (40, 47, and 56 kDa) regardless of the strain used, suggesting that these may be immuno-dominant antigens. PCR for the A. baumannii-specific parC gene confirmed a 100% infection rate with 75% of the MDR strains, and in vitro testing confirmed that all strains were sensitive to colistin. We also developed a real-time quantitative PCR (RTQ-PCR) assay that could detect as few as 10 copies of parC in a sample. To demonstrate the efficacy of colistin prophylaxis in this model, mice were treated with either parenteral colistin (0.2 mg colistinmethate i.m. for 7 days), local colistin (PMMA bead impregnated with 1.0 mg colistin sulfate), or an unloaded PMMA bead control. While the parenteral colistin failed to demonstrate any significant effects versus the placebo, the colistin PMMA bead significantly reduced the infection rate such that only 29.2% of the mice had detectable levels of parC at 19 days (p < 0.05 vs. i.m. colistin and placebo).
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19173261
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9043
      1. Author :
        Cronin, M.; Akin, A. R.; Collins, S. A.; Meganck, J.; Kim, J. B.; Baban, C. K.; Joyce, S. A.; van Dam, G. M.; Zhang, N.; van Sinderen, D.; O'Sullivan, G. C.; Kasahara, N.; Gahan, C. G.; Francis, K. P.; Tangney, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        HCT-116-luc2, IVIS, Bioware, HCT116-luc2, Administration, Oral; Animals; Bacteria/*genetics; Cell Line, Tumor; Female; Genes, Reporter/genetics; Genetic Engineering; Glioblastoma/*microbiology/pathology/radiography; Humans; Imaging, Three-Dimensional; Luminescent Measurements/*methods; Lung Neoplasms/*microbiology/pathology/radiography; Mice; Molecular Imaging/*methods; X-Ray Microtomography
      12. Abstract :
        The ability to track microbes in real time in vivo is of enormous value for preclinical investigations in infectious disease or gene therapy research. Bacteria present an attractive class of vector for cancer therapy, possessing a natural ability to grow preferentially within tumours following systemic administration. Bioluminescent Imaging (BLI) represents a powerful tool for use with bacteria engineered to express reporter genes such as lux. BLI is traditionally used as a 2D modality resulting in images that are limited in their ability to anatomically locate cell populations. Use of 3D diffuse optical tomography can localize the signals but still need to be combined with an anatomical imaging modality like micro-Computed Tomography (muCT) for interpretation.In this study, the non-pathogenic commensal bacteria E. coli K-12 MG1655 and Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003, or Salmonella Typhimurium SL7207 each expressing the luxABCDE operon were intravenously (i.v.) administered to mice bearing subcutaneous (s.c) FLuc-expressing xenograft tumours. Bacterial lux signal was detected specifically in tumours of mice post i.v.-administration and bioluminescence correlated with the numbers of bacteria recovered from tissue. Through whole body imaging for both lux and FLuc, bacteria and tumour cells were co-localised. 3D BLI and muCT image analysis revealed a pattern of multiple clusters of bacteria within tumours. Investigation of spatial resolution of 3D optical imaging was supported by ex vivo histological analyses. In vivo imaging of orally-administered commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was also achieved using 3D BLI. This study demonstrates for the first time the potential to simultaneously image multiple BLI reporter genes three dimensionally in vivo using approaches that provide unique information on spatial locations.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22295120
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10496
      1. Author :
        Curbelo, J.; Moulton, K.; Willard, S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Theriogenology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        73
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Animals; Cattle; Escherichia coli/*cytology/isolation & purification/physiology; Female; Genitalia, Female/*microbiology; Optical Phenomena; *Photons
      12. Abstract :
        The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the photonic properties of Escherichia coli-Xen14 and (2) conduct photonic imaging of E. coli-Xen14 within bovine reproductive tract segments (RTS) ex vivo (Bos indicus). E. coli-Xen14 was grown for 24h in Luria Bertani medium (LB), with or without kanamycin (KAN). Every 24h, for an 8-d interval, inoculums were imaged and photonic emissions (PE) collected. Inoculums were subcultured and plated daily to determine the colony forming units (CFU) and ratio of photon emitters to nonemitters. In the second objective, abattoir-derived bovine reproductive tracts (n=9) were separated into posterior and anterior vagina, cervix, uterine body, and uterine horns. Two concentrations (3.2x10(8) and 3.2x10(6) CFU/200microL for relative [High] and [Low], respectively) of E. coli-Xen14 were placed in translucent tubes for detection of PE through RTS. The CFU did not differ (P=0.31) over time with or without KAN presence; they remained stable with 99.93% and 99.98% photon emitters, respectively. However, PE were lower (P<0.0001) in cultures containing KAN than in those containing no KAN (629.8+/-117.7 vs. 3012.0+/-423.5 relative lights units per second [RLU/sec], respectively). On average, the percentage of PE between RTS, for both concentrations, was higher (P<0.05) in the uterine body. In summary, E. coli-Xen14 remained stable with respect to the proportions of photon emitters with or without KAN (used to selectively culture E. coli-Xen14). However, KAN presence suppressed photonic activity. The ability to detect PE through various segments of the reproductive tract demonstrated the feasibility of monitoring the presence of E. coli-Xen14 in the bovine reproductive tract ex vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19819541
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10391
      1. Author :
        Curbelo, J; Moulton, K; Willard, S
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Theriogenology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        73
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Cattle; Escherichia coli; Female; Genitalia, Female; Optical Phenomena; Photons; Xen14
      12. Abstract :
        The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the photonic properties of Escherichia coli-Xen14 and (2) conduct photonic imaging of E. coli-Xen14 within bovine reproductive tract segments (RTS) ex vivo (Bos indicus). E. coli-Xen14 was grown for 24h in Luria Bertani medium (LB), with or without kanamycin (KAN). Every 24h, for an 8-d interval, inoculums were imaged and photonic emissions (PE) collected. Inoculums were subcultured and plated daily to determine the colony forming units (CFU) and ratio of photon emitters to nonemitters. In the second objective, abattoir-derived bovine reproductive tracts (n=9) were separated into posterior and anterior vagina, cervix, uterine body, and uterine horns. Two concentrations (3.2x10(8) and 3.2x10(6) CFU/200microL for relative [High] and [Low], respectively) of E. coli-Xen14 were placed in translucent tubes for detection of PE through RTS. The CFU did not differ (P=0.31) over time with or without KAN presence; they remained stable with 99.93% and 99.98% photon emitters, respectively. However, PE were lower (P<0.0001) in cultures containing KAN than in those containing no KAN (629.8+/-117.7 vs. 3012.0+/-423.5 relative lights units per second [RLU/sec], respectively). On average, the percentage of PE between RTS, for both concentrations, was higher (P<0.05) in the uterine body. In summary, E. coli-Xen14 remained stable with respect to the proportions of photon emitters with or without KAN (used to selectively culture E. coli-Xen14). However, KAN presence suppressed photonic activity. The ability to detect PE through various segments of the reproductive tract demonstrated the feasibility of monitoring the presence of E. coli-Xen14 in the bovine reproductive tract ex vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19819541
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        10004
      1. Author :
        Dai, T.; Tegos, G. P.; Burkatovskaya, M.; Castano, A. P.; Hamblin, M. R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        53
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IVIS, Xenogen, Xen5, Xen44
      12. Abstract :
        An engineered chitosan acetate bandage preparation (HemCon) is used as a hemostatic dressing, and its chemical structure suggests that it should also be antimicrobial. We previously showed that when a chitosan acetate bandage was applied to full-thickness excisional wounds in mice that had been infected with pathogenic bioluminescent bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus), it was able to rapidly kill the bacteria and save the mice from developing fatal infections. Wound healing was also stimulated. In the present study, we asked whether a chitosan acetate bandage could act as a topical antimicrobial dressing when it was applied to third-degree burns in mice contaminated with two of these bacterial species (P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis). Preliminary experiments established the length of burn time and the number of bacteria needed to produce fatal infections in untreated mice and established that the chitosan acetate bandage could adhere to the infected burn for up to 21 days. In the case of P. aeruginosa infections, the survival rate of mice treated with the chitosan acetate bandage was 73.3% (whereas the survival rate of mice treated with a nanocrystalline silver dressing was 27.3% [P = 0.0055] and that of untreated mice was 13.3% [P < 0.0002]). For P. mirabilis infections, the comparable survival rates were 66.7%, 62.5%, and 23.1% respectively. Quantitative bioluminescent signals showed that the chitosan acetate bandage effectively controlled the growth of bacteria in the burn and prevented the development of systemic sepsis, as shown by blood culture. These data suggest that chitosan acetate bandage is efficacious in preventing fatal burn infections.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19015341
      14. Call Number :
        137209
      15. Serial :
        5713
      1. Author :
        Dai, T.; Tegos, G. P.; Zhiyentayev, T.; Mylonakis, E.; Hamblin, M. R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Lasers Surg Med
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        42
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen31, Xen 31, MRSA, S. aureus, IVIS, Bioluminescence, Administration, Cutaneous; Animals; Disease Models, Animal; Female; *Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Photobleaching; *Photochemotherapy; Polyethyleneimine/administration & dosage; Porphyrins/*administration & dosage; Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/*administration & dosage; Staphylococcal Skin Infections/etiology/pathology/*therapy; Wound Infection/microbiology/pathology/*therapy
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infections are now known to be a common and important problem in the Unites States. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of MRSA infection in skin abrasion wounds using a mouse model. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mouse model of skin abrasion wound infected with MRSA was developed. Bioluminescent strain of MRSA, a derivative of ATCC 33591, was used to allow the real-time monitoring of the extent of infection in mouse wounds. PDT was performed with the combination of a polyethylenimine (PEI)-ce6 photosensitizer (PS) and non-coherent red light. In vivo fluorescence imaging was carried out to evaluate the effect of photobleaching of PS during PDT. RESULTS: In vivo fluorescence imaging of conjugate PEI-ce6 applied in mice indicated the photobleaching effect of the PS during PDT. PDT induced on average 2.7 log(10) of inactivation of MRSA as judged by loss of bioluminescence in mouse skin abrasion wounds and accelerated the wound healing on average by 8.6 days in comparison to the untreated infected wounds. Photobleaching of PS in the wound was overcome by adding the PS solution in aliquots. CONCLUSION: PDT may represent an alternative approach for the treatment of MRSA skin infections.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20077489
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10553
      1. Author :
        Danussi, C.; Petrucco, A.; Wassermann, B.; Modica, T. M.; Pivetta, E.; Del Bel Belluz, L.; Colombatti, A.; Spessotto, P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        5
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        B16-F10-luc2, B16F10-luc2, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        The evidence that EMILIN1 (Elastic Microfibril Interface Located proteIN) deficiency in Emilin1(-/-) mice caused dermal and epidermal hyperproliferation and an abnormal lymphatic phenotype prompted us to hypothesize the involvement of this extracellular matrix component in tumor development and in lymphatic metastasis. Using the 12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (DMBA/TPA) two-stage model of skin carcinogenesis, we found that Emilin1(-/-) mice presented an accelerated formation, a higher incidence, and the development of a larger number of tumors compared with their wild-type littermates. EMILIN1-negative tumors showed more Ki67-positive proliferating cells and higher levels of pErk1/2. In these tumors, PTEN expression was lower. Emilin1(-/-) mice displayed enhanced lymphangiogenesis both in the tumor and in the sentinel lymph nodes. Accordingly, tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of transplanted syngenic tumors were also increased in Emilin1(-/-) mice. In vitro transmigration assays through lymphatic endothelial cells showed that EMILIN1 deficiency greatly facilitated tumor cell trafficking. Overall, these data established that EMILIN1 exerts a protective role in tumor growth, in tumor lymphatic vessel formation, as well as in metastatic spread to lymph nodes and reinforced the importance of its presence in the microenvironment to determine the tumor phenotype.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22827975
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 9
      15. Serial :
        10483
      1. Author :
        Daugimont, L.; Vandermeulen, G.; Defresne, F.; Bouzin, C.; Mir, L. M.; Bouquet, C.; Feron, O.; Preat, V.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Eur J Pharm Biopharm
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        78
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        B16-F10-luc-G5, B16F10-luc-G5, B16-F10-luc, B16F10-luc, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Despite the discovery of novel inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis, protein-based antiangiogenic cancer therapy suffers some limitations that antiangiogenic gene therapy could overcome. We investigated whether intra-tumoral electrotransfer of three angiogenic plasmids could inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. METHODS: Plasmids encoding recombinant disintegrin domain of ADAM-15 (RDD), thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1), and the soluble isoform of the VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt-1) were injected into B16F10 melanoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice followed by electroporation. Tumor volume was measured daily using a digital caliper. Metastasis was monitored by in vivo bioluminescence after surgical removal of the primary luciferase-encoding B16F10 tumor 5 days after intra-tumoral electrotransfer. Markers of vascularization and cell proliferation were quantified by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Intra-tumoral electrotransfer of the antiangiogenic plasmids induced a significant inhibition of tumor growth, doubling of mean survival time and long-term survivors ( approximately 40% vs 0% in control). When the tumor was removed by surgery after intra-tumoral plasmid electrotransfer, a significant decrease in tumor metastasis was observed leading to long-term tumor-free survival especially after treatment with pRDD plasmid (84% vs 0% in control). Unlike pTSP-1 and psFlt-1, pRDD significantly decreased cell proliferation in B16F10 primary tumors which express alphavbeta3 and alpha5beta1 integrins. No effect of antiangiogenic plasmid electrotransfer on normal skin blood flow was detected. CONCLUSION: The intra-tumoral electrotransfer of the three antiangiogenic plasmids is a promising method for the treatment of melanoma. The plasmid encoding RDD seems to be particularly effective due to its direct antitumoral activity combined with angiogenesis suppression, and its marked inhibition of metastasis.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21316447
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 12
      15. Serial :
        10353
      1. Author :
        David E Sosnovik, Matthias Nahrendorf and Ralph Weissleder
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2008
      5. Publication :
        Nature Reviews Cardiology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        5
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cardiovascular Research
      11. Keywords :
        in vivo imaging; fluorescence imaging, molecular imaging, MRI, myocardium, SPECT; MMPSense
      12. Abstract :
        Molecular imaging agents can be targeted to a specific receptor or protein on the cardiomyocyte surface, or to enzymes released into the interstitial space, such as cathepsins, matrix metalloproteinases and myeloperoxidase. Molecular imaging of the myocardium, however, requires the imaging agent to be small, sensitive (nanomolar levels or better), and able to gain access to the interstitial space. Several novel agents that fulfill these criteria have been used for targeted molecular imaging applications in the myocardium. Magnetic resonance, fluorescence, and single-photon emission CT have been used to image the molecular signals generated by these agents. The use of targeted imaging agents in the myocardium has the potential to provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of myocardial injury and to facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2597275/?tool=pubmed
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4650
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