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      1. Author :
        Yan, J.; Meng, X.; Wancket, L. M.; Lintner, K.; Nelin, L. D.; Chen, B.; Francis, K. P.; Smith, C. V.; Rogers, L. K.; Liu, Y.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Immunol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        188
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Escherichia coli/immunology; Escherichia coli Infections/enzymology/immunology/*prevention & control; Extracellular Space/genetics/*immunology/metabolism; Glutathione Reductase/deficiency/genetics/*physiology; Humans; Mice; Mice, Inbred C3H; Mice, Knockout; Neutrophils/*immunology/*metabolism/microbiology; Oxidative Stress/genetics/*immunology; Phagocytosis/genetics/*immunology; Staphylococcal Infections/enzymology/immunology/*prevention & control; Staphylococcus aureus/immunology
      12. Abstract :
        Glutathione reductase (Gsr) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide to glutathione, which plays an important role in the bactericidal function of phagocytes. Because Gsr has been implicated in the oxidative burst in human neutrophils and is abundantly expressed in the lymphoid system, we hypothesized that Gsr-deficient mice would exhibit marked defects during the immune response against bacterial challenge. We report in this study that Gsr-null mice exhibited enhanced susceptibility to Escherichia coli challenge, indicated by dramatically increased bacterial burden, cytokine storm, striking histological abnormalities, and substantially elevated mortality. Additionally, Gsr-null mice exhibited elevated sensitivity to Staphylococcus aureus. Examination of the bactericidal functions of the neutrophils from Gsr-deficient mice in vitro revealed impaired phagocytosis and defective bacterial killing activities. Although Gsr catalyzes the regeneration of glutathione, a major cellular antioxidant, Gsr-deficient neutrophils paradoxically produced far less reactive oxygen species upon activation both ex vivo and in vivo. Unlike wild-type neutrophils that exhibited a sustained oxidative burst upon stimulation with phorbol ester and fMLP, Gsr-deficient neutrophils displayed a very transient oxidative burst that abruptly ceased shortly after stimulation. Likewise, Gsr-deficient neutrophils also exhibited an attenuated oxidative burst upon encountering E. coli. Biochemical analysis revealed that the hexose monophosphate shunt was compromised in Gsr-deficient neutrophils. Moreover, Gsr-deficient neutrophils displayed a marked impairment in the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, a bactericidal mechanism that operates after neutrophil death. Thus, Gsr-mediated redox regulation is crucial for bacterial clearance during host defense against massive bacterial challenge.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22279102
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10398
      1. Author :
        Yang, Li; Johansson, Jan; Ridsdale, Ross; Willander, Hanna; Fitzen, Michael; Akinbi, Henry T; Weaver, Timothy E
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        184
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Immunity, Innate; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Macrophages, Alveolar; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Protein Precursors; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Proteolipids; Saposins; Staphylococcus aureus; Tissue Distribution; Xen5
      12. Abstract :
        Surfactant protein B (SP-B) proprotein contains three saposin-like protein (SAPLIP) domains: a SAPLIP domain corresponding to the mature SP-B peptide is essential for lung function and postnatal survival; the function of SAPLIP domains in the N-terminal (SP-BN) and C-terminal regions of the proprotein is not known. In the current study, SP-BN was detected in the supernatant of mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in nonciliated bronchiolar cells, alveolar type II epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophages. rSP-BN indirectly promoted the uptake of bacteria by macrophage cell lines and directly killed bacteria at acidic pH, consistent with a lysosomal, antimicrobial function. Native SP-BN isolated from BALF also killed bacteria but only at acidic pH; the bactericidal activity of BALF at acidic pH was completely blocked by SP-BN Ab. Transgenic mice overexpressing SP-BN and mature SP-B peptide had significantly decreased bacterial burden and increased survival following intranasal inoculation with bacteria. These findings support the hypothesis that SP-BN contributes to innate host defense of the lung by supplementing the nonoxidant antimicrobial defenses of alveolar macrophages.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20007532
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9995
      1. Author :
        Yigit, M. V.; Ghosh, S. K.; Kumar, M.; Petkova, V.; Kavishwar, A.; Moore, A.; Medarova, Z.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Oncogene
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2Ln, D3H2Ln, Bioware, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        Metastases, and not the primary tumor from which they originate, are the main reason for mortality from carcinoma. Although the molecular mechanisms behind metastasis are poorly understood, it is clear that epigenetic dysregulation at the level of microRNA expression is a key characteristic of the metastatic process that can be exploited for therapy. Here, we describe an miRNA-targeted therapeutic approach for the prevention and arrest of lymph node metastasis. Therapy relies on the inhibition of the pro-metastatic microRNA-10b. It is delivered to primary and lymph node metastatic tumor cells using an imaging-capable nanodrug that is designed to specifically home to these tissues. Treatment of invasive human breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) with the nanodrug in vitro downregulates miR-10b and abolishes the invasion and migration of the tumor cells. After intravenous delivery to mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN tumors, the nanodrug accumulates in the primary tumor and lymph nodes. When treatment is initiated before metastasis to lymph nodes, metastasis is prevented. Treatment after the formation of lymph node metastases arrests the metastatic process without a concomitant effect on primary tumor growth raising the possibility of a context-dependent variation in miR-10b breast oncogenesis.Oncogene advance online publication, 14 May 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.173.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22580603
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 9
      15. Serial :
        10505
      1. Author :
        Yipp, B. G.; Petri, B.; Salina, D.; Jenne, C. N.; Scott, B. N.; Zbytnuik, L. D.; Pittman, K.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Wu, K.; Meijndert, H. C.; Malawista, S. E.; de Boisfleury Chevance, A.; Zhang, K.; Conly, J.; Kubes, P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Nat Med
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        18
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen8.1, Xen 8.1, S. aureus, IVIS, bioluminescence imaging, Analysis of Variance; Animals; Extracellular Space/*metabolism; Genetic Vectors/genetics; Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism; Humans; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Transgenic; Microscopy, Confocal; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Movement/*physiology; Neutrophils/*immunology/metabolism/physiology; Opsonin Proteins/metabolism; Skin Diseases, Bacterial/*immunology/metabolism; Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are released as neutrophils die in vitro in a process requiring hours, leaving a temporal gap that invasive microbes may exploit. Neutrophils capable of migration and phagocytosis while undergoing NETosis have not been documented. During Gram-positive skin infections, we directly visualized live polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in vivo rapidly releasing NETs, which prevented systemic bacterial dissemination. NETosis occurred during crawling, thereby casting large areas of NETs. NET-releasing PMNs developed diffuse decondensed nuclei, ultimately becoming devoid of DNA. Cells with abnormal nuclei showed unusual crawling behavior highlighted by erratic pseudopods and hyperpolarization consistent with the nucleus being a fulcrum for crawling. A requirement for both Toll-like receptor 2 and complement-mediated opsonization tightly regulated NET release. Additionally, live human PMNs injected into mouse skin developed decondensed nuclei and formed NETS in vivo, and intact anuclear neutrophils were abundant in Gram-positive human abscesses. Therefore early in infection NETosis involves neutrophils that do not undergo lysis and retain the ability to multitask.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22922410
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10565
      1. Author :
        Yu, Jun; Wu, Jenny; Francis, Kevin P; Purchio, Tony F; Kadurugamuwa, Jagath L
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2005
      5. Publication :
        The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        55
      8. Issue :
        4
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Biofilms; Bioware; Drug Resistance, Bacterial; Mice; Mutation; Rifampin; Staphylococcus aureus; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        OBJECTIVES To investigate in vivo fitness of rifampicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus mutants in a mouse biofilm model using bioluminescence imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS S. aureus was engineered with a luciferase operon to emit bioluminescence that can be detected in vivo using an IVIS imaging system. Two rifampicin-resistant strains of S. aureus that were previously isolated from animals undergoing rifampicin treatment, S464P (resistant to low concentrations of rifampicin) and H481Y (resistant to high concentrations of rifampicin), were characterized and then compared with their parental strain for in vivo fitness to form biofilm infections in the absence of rifampicin. RESULTS The mutant S464P showed better adaptation to in vivo growth than either the parental strain or H481Y without selective pressure. Six days after implanting pre-colonized catheters, bioluminescent signals were seen from 100% of the catheters coated by the mutant S464P. In comparison, only 83% and 61% of the catheters coated by the parental strain and H481Y, respectively, maintained a signal in vivo. Rifampicin treatment of S464P biofilms in vivo resulted in a slight decline, but earlier rebound in bioluminescence from these catheters compared with the parental signal, whereas rifampicin had no affect on bioluminescence in mice infected with mutant H481Y. CONCLUSIONS The mutant with low-level rifampicin resistance appears to be better adapted to in vivo growth than the mutant that has high-level rifampicin resistance. Moreover, the former mutant may actually have a slight competitive advantage over the rifampicin-susceptible strain (parental), raising awareness for the occurrence of such strains in clinical environments.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15743898
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9055
      1. Author :
        Yun, M.; Pan, S.; Jiang, S. N.; Nguyen, V. H.; Park, S. H.; Jung, C. H.; Kim, H. S.; Min, J. J.; Choy, H. E.; Hong, Y.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Microbiol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        50
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen26, Xen 26, Salmonella typhumurium, Animals; Biological Therapy/*methods; Colonic Neoplasms/chemistry/*therapy; Disease Models, Animal; Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional; Male; Mass Spectrometry; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Proteome/analysis; Salmonella typhimurium/*growth & development/*pathogenicity
      12. Abstract :
        The use of bacteria has contributed to recent advances in targeted cancer therapy especially for its tumor-specific accumulation and proliferation. In this study, we investigated the molecular events following bacterial therapy using an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium defective in ppGpp synthesis (DeltappGpp), by analyzing those proteins differentially expressed in tumor tissues from treated and untreated mice. CT26 murine colon cancer cells were implanted in BALB/c mice and allowed to form tumors. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with the attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium. Tumor tissues were analyzed by 2D-PAGE. Fourteen differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The analysis revealed that cytoskeletal components, including vimentin, drebrin-like protein, and tropomyosin-alpha 3, were decreased while serum proteins related to heme or iron metabolism, including transferrin, hemopexin, and haptoglobin were increased. Subsequent studies revealed that the decrease in cytoskeletal components occurred at the transcriptional level and that the increase in heme and iron metabolism proteins occurred in liver. Most interestingly, the same pattern of increased expression of transferrin, hemopexin, and haptoglobin was observed following radiotherapy at the dosage of 14 Gy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752915
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10561
      1. Author :
        Zeng, Q.; Yang, Z.; Gao, Y. J.; Yuan, H.; Cui, K.; Shi, Y.; Wang, H.; Huang, X.; Wong, S. T.; Wang, Y.; Kesari, S.; Ji, R. R.; Xu, X.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Eur J Cancer
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        46
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence, Animals; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/*therapeutic use; Cell Hypoxia/physiology; Cell Line, Tumor; Cyclophosphamide/*therapeutic use; Female; Immunohistochemistry; Lung Neoplasms/prevention & control/secondary; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/*drug therapy/genetics/pathology; Mice; Mice, Nude; Sirolimus/*therapeutic use; Tumor Burden; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit the growth of oestrogen positive breast cancer. However, triple-negative (TN) breast cancer is resistant to rapamycin treatment in vitro. We set to test a combination treatment of rapamycin with DNA-damage agent, cyclophosphamide, in a TN breast cancer model. By binding to and disrupting cellular DNA, cyclophosphamide kills cells via interfering with their normal functions. We assessed the responses of nude mice bearing tumour xenografts of TN MDA-MB-231 cells to the combination of rapamycin and cyclophosphamide in both orthotopic mammary and lung-metastasis models. We tracked tumour growth and metastasis by bioluminescent imaging and examined the expression of Ki67, CD34 and HIF-1alpha in tumour tissues by immunohistochemistry and apoptosis index with TUNEL assay, and found that MDA-MB-231 cells are sensitive to rapamycin therapy in orthotopic mammary, but not in lung with metastasis. Rapamycin when combined with cyclophosphamide is found to have a more significant effect in reducing tumour volume and metastasis with a much improved survival rate. Our data also show that the sensitivity of TN tumours to rapamycin is associated with the microenvironment of the tumour cells. The data indicate that in a relatively hypoxic environment HIF-1alpha may play a role in mediating the anti-cancer effect of rapamycin and cyclophosphamide may prevent the feedback activation of Akt by rapamycin. Overall our results show that rapamycin plus cyclophosphamide can achieve an improved efficacy in suppressing tumour growth and metastasis, suggesting that the combination therapy can be a promising treatment option for TN cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20156674
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 2
      15. Serial :
        10414
      1. Author :
        Zhang, H-Y; Man, J-H; Liang, B; Zhou, T; Wang, C-H; Li, T; Li, H-Y; Li, W-H; Jin, B-F; Zhang, P-J; Zhao, J; Pan, X; He, K; Gong, W-L; Zhang, X-M; Li, A-L
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Cancer gene therapy
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        17
      8. Issue :
        5
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Apoptosis; B16-F10-luc-G5 cells; Bioware; Blotting, Western; Cell Line, Tumor; Escherichia coli; Female; Flow Cytometry; Gene Therapy; Genetic Vectors; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Nude; NCI-H460-luc2; Neoplasms; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Survival Rate; TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
      12. Abstract :
        The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent inducer of tumor cell apoptosis, but concerns of considerable liver toxicity limit its uses in human cancer therapy. Here, we show that i.v. injected Escherichia coli DH5alpha (E. coli DH5alpha) specifically replicates in solid tumors and metastases in live animals. E. coli DH5alpha does not enter tumor cells and suits for being the vector for soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL), which induces apoptosis by activating cell-surface death receptors. With the high 'tumor-targeting' nature, we demonstrate that intratumoral (i.t.) and intravenous injection of sTRAIL-expressing E. coli DH5alpha results in the tumor-targeted release of biologically active molecules, which leads to a dramatic reduction in the tumor growth rate and the prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice. TRAIL delivery by E. coli DH5alpha did not cause any detectable toxicity to any organs, suggesting that E. coli DH5alpha-delivered sTRAIL protein therapy may provide a feasible and effective form of treatment for solid tumors.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20075981
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8944
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