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      1. Author :
        Kadurugamuwa, J. L.; Sin, L.; Albert, E.; Yu, J.; Francis, K.; DeBoer, M.; Rubin, M.; Bellinger-Kawahara, C.; Jr, T. R. Parr; Contag, P. R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2003
      5. Publication :
        Infection and Immunity
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        71
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals, Bioware, Xen29, Xen5, Biofilms/ growth & development, Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects, Chemiluminescent Measurements, Colony Count, Microbial, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Humans, Luciferases/genetics/metabolism, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Pseudomonas Infections/ microbiology, Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics/ growth & development, Staphylococcal Infections/ microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus/genetics/ growth & development IVIS, Xenogen
      12. Abstract :
        We have developed a rapid, continuous method for real-time monitoring of biofilms, both in vitro and in a mouse infection model, through noninvasive imaging of bioluminescent bacteria colonized on Teflon catheters. Two important biofilm-forming bacterial pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were made bioluminescent by insertion of a complete lux operon. These bacteria produced significant bioluminescent signals for both in vitro studies and the development of an in vivo model, allowing effective real-time assessment of the physiological state of the biofilms. In vitro viable counts and light output were parallel and highly correlated (S. aureus r = 0.98; P. aeruginosa r = 0.99) and could be maintained for 10 days or longer, provided that growth medium was replenished every 12 h. In the murine model, subcutaneous implantation of the catheters (precolonized or postimplant infected) was well tolerated. An infecting dose of 10 (3) to 10 (5) CFU/catheter for S. aureus and P. aeruginosa resulted in a reproducible, localized infection surrounding the catheter that persisted until the termination of the experiment on day 20. Recovery of the bacteria from the catheters of infected animals showed that the bioluminescent signal corresponded to the CFU and that the lux constructs were highly stable even after many days in vivo. Since the metabolic activity of viable cells could be detected directly on the support matrix, nondestructively, and noninvasively, this method is especially appealing for the study of chronic biofilm infections and drug efficacy studies in vivo.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12540570
      14. Call Number :
        139339
      15. Serial :
        5926
      1. Author :
        Korotcov, Alexandru; Shan, Liang; Meng, Huan; Wang, Tongxin; Sridhar, Rajagopalan; Zhao, Yuliang; Liang, Xing-Jie; Wang, Paul C
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        10
      8. Issue :
        11
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Contrast Media; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Mice; Nanotechnology; PC-3M-luc
      12. Abstract :
        We have developed and tested a liposomal nanocomplex system, which contains Gd-DTPA as a payload and transferrin on the surface, as a tumor specific targeting MRI contrast agent for studying prostate cancer tumors in mice. In vivo, the probe significantly enhanced the MRI signal. The image contrast between the peripheral region of the tumor and the non-involved muscle was nearly 50% higher two hours after administration of the nanocomplex. The liposomal nanocomplex increased the amount of Gd accumulated in tumors by factor 2.8 compared to that accumulated by using Magnevist alone. Moreover, the heterogeneous MRI image features correlate well with the tumor pathology. The image enhancement patterns can be used for cancer prognosis and non-invasive monitoring of the response to therapy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21137979
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8963
      1. Author :
        Zhang, Z.; Hu, Z.; Gupta, J.; Krimmel, J. D.; Gerseny, H. M.; Berg, A. F.; Robbins, J. S.; Du, H.; Prabhakar, B.; Seth, P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Gene Ther
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        19
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        4T1-luc2, IVIS, Bioluminescence, Adenoviridae/genetics/*metabolism/physiology; Administration, Intravenous; Animals; Bone Neoplasms/secondary/*therapy; Cell Line, Tumor; Female; Humans; Immunocompetence; Luminescent Measurements/methods; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology/*therapy; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Oncolytic Virotherapy/methods; Oncolytic Viruses/genetics/metabolism/physiology; Phosphorylation; Promoter Regions, Genetic; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics/*metabolism; Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics/*metabolism; Signal Transduction; Smad2 Protein/genetics/metabolism; Telomerase/genetics; Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics/metabolism; Transplantation, Isogeneic/methods; Tumor Stem Cell Assay/methods; Virus Replication
      12. Abstract :
        We have examined the effect of adenoviruses expressing soluble transforming growth factor receptorII-Fc (sTGFbetaRIIFc) in a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor bone metastasis model using syngeneic BALB/c mice. Infection of 4T1 cells with a non-replicating adenovirus, Ad(E1-).sTbetaRFc, or with two oncolytic adenoviruses, Ad.sTbetaRFc and TAd.sTbetaRFc, expressing sTGFbetaRIIFc (the human TERT promoter drives viral replication in TAd.sTbetaRFc) produced sTGFbetaRIIFc protein. Oncolytic adenoviruses produced viral replication and induced cytotoxicity in 4T1 cells. 4T1 cells were resistant to the cytotoxic effects of TGFbeta-1 (up to 10 ng ml(-1)). However, TGFbeta-1 induced the phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3, which were inhibited by co-incubation with sTGFbetaRIIFc protein. TGFbeta-1 also induced interleukin-11, a well-known osteolytic factor. Intracardiac injection of 4T1-luc2 cells produced bone metastases by day 4. Intravenous injection of Ad.sTbetaRFc (on days 5 and 7) followed by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of mice on days 7, 11 and 14 in tumor-bearing mice indicated inhibition of bone metastasis progression (P<0.05). X-ray radiography of mice on day 14 showed a significant reduction of the lesion size by Ad.sTbetaRFc (P<0.01) and TAd.sTbetaRFc (P<0.05). Replication-deficient virus Ad(E1-).sTbetaRFc expressing sTGFbetaRIIFc showed some inhibition of bone metastasis, whereas Ad(E1-).Null was not effective in inhibiting bone metastases. Thus, systemic administration of Ad.sTbetaRFc and TAd.sTbetaRFc can inhibit bone metastasis in the 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model, and can be developed as potential anti-tumor agents for breast cancer.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22744210
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 7
      15. Serial :
        10479
      1. Author :
        Tanaka, M.; Mroz, P.; Dai, T.; Huang, L.; Morimoto, Y.; Kinoshita, M.; Yoshihara, Y.; Shinomiya, N.; Seki, S.; Nemoto, K.; Hamblin, M. R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2013
      5. Publication :
        Photochem Photobiol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen31, Xen 31, MRSA, S. aureus, IVIS, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        We previously reported that photodynamic therapy (PDT) using intra-articular methylene blue (MB) could be used to treat arthritis in mice caused by bioluminescent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) either in a therapeutic or in a preventative mode. PDT accumulated neutrophils into the mouse knee via activation of chemoattractants such as inflammatory cytokines or chemokines. In the present study, we asked whether PDT combined with antibiotics used for MRSA could provide added benefit in controlling the infection. We compared MB-PDT alone, systemic administration of either linezolid (LZD) alone or vancomycin (VCM) alone or the combination of PDT with either LZD or VCM. Real-time non-invasive imaging was used to serially follow the progress of the infection. PDT alone was the most effective, while LZD alone was ineffective and VCM alone showed some benefit. Surprisingly the addition of LZD or VCM reduced the therapeutic effect of PDT alone (P<0.05). Considering that PDT in this mouse model stimulates neutrophils to be antibacterial rather than actively killing the bacteria, we propose that LZD and VCM might inhibit the activation of inflammatory cytokines without eradicating the bacteria, and thereby reduce the therapeutic effect of PDT. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology (c) 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23311407
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10558
      1. Author :
        Arima, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Hosonaga, M.; Goto, T. M.; Chiyoda, T.; Kuninaka, S.; Shibata, T.; Ohata, H.; Nakagama, H.; Taya, Y.; Saya, H.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Biol Chem
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        We previously showed that depletion of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) induces down-regulation of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin and thereby triggers the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To further characterize the effect of RB inactivation on the phenotype of cancer cells, we have now examined RB expression in human breast cancer cell lines and clinical specimens. We found that RB-inactive cells exhibit a mesenchymal-like morphology and are highly invasive. We also found that ZEB proteins, transcriptional repressors of the E-cadherin gene, are markedly up-regulated in these cells in a manner sensitive to the miR-200 family of microRNAs. Moreover, depletion of ZEB in RB-inactive cells suppressed cell invasiveness and proliferation as well as induced epithelial marker expression. These results implicate ZEB in induction of the EMT as well as in maintenance of the mesenchymal phenotype in RB-inactive cells. We also developed a screening program for inhibitors of ZEB1 expression and thereby identified several cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors that blocked both ZEB1 expression and RB phosphorylation. Together, our findings suggest that RB inactivation contributes to tumor progression not only through loss of cell cycle control but also through up-regulation of ZEB expression and induction of an invasive phenotype.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22262832
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10418
      1. Author :
        Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Kataoka, Ken; Abarzua, Fernando; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Watanabe, Masami; Murata, Hitoshi; Than, Swe Swe; Kurose, Kaoru; Kashiwakura, Yuji; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi; Huh, Nam-ho
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        The Journal of biological chemistry
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        284
      8. Issue :
        21
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Adenoviridae; Animals; Bioware; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation; Endoplasmic Reticulum; Fibroblasts; Humans; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; Interferon Regulatory Factor-1; Interleukin-7; MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 5; Mice; Neoplasms; p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; PC-3M-luc; Signal Transduction; STAT1 Transcription Factor
      12. Abstract :
        We previously showed that the tumor suppressor gene REIC/Dkk-3, when overexpressed by an adenovirus (Ad-REIC), exhibited a dramatic therapeutic effect on human cancers through a mechanism triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress. Adenovirus vectors show no target cell specificity and thus may elicit unfavorable side effects through infection of normal cells even upon intra-tumoral injection. In this study, we examined possible effects of Ad-REIC on normal cells. We found that infection of normal human fibroblasts (NHF) did not cause apoptosis but induced production of interleukin (IL)-7. The induction was triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress and mediated through IRE1alpha, ASK1, p38, and IRF-1. When Ad-REIC-infected NHF were transplanted in a mixture with untreated human prostate cancer cells, the growth of the cancer cells was significantly suppressed. Injection of an IL-7 antibody partially abrogated the suppressive effect of Ad-REIC-infected NHF. These results indicate that Ad-REIC has another arm against human cancer, an indirect host-mediated effect because of overproduction of IL-7 by mis-targeted NHF, in addition to its direct effect on cancer cells.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279003
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8948
      1. Author :
        Steve H. Thorne; Yoram Barak; Wenchuan Liang; Michael H. Bachmann; Jianghong Rao; Christopher H. Contag; A. Matin
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        8
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cancer
      11. Keywords :
        Cancer; in vivo imaging; drug discovery; chemotherapy
      12. Abstract :
        We report the discovery of a new prodrug, 6-chloro-9-nitro-5-oxo-5H-benzo(a)phenoxazine (CNOB). This prodrug is efficiently activated by ChrR6, the highly active prodrug activating bacterial enzyme we have previously developed. The CNOB/ChrR6 therapy was effective in killing several cancer cell lines in vitro. It also efficiently treated tumors in mice with up to 40% complete remission. 9-Amino-6-chloro-5H-benzo(a)phenoxazine-5-one (MCHB) was the only product of CNOB reduction by ChrR6. MCHB binds DNA; at nonlethal concentration, it causes cell accumulation in the S phase, and at lethal dose, it induces cell surface Annexin V and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities. Further, MCHB colocalizes with mitochondria and disrupts their electrochemical potential. Thus, killing by CNOB involves MCHB, which likely induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. An attractive feature of the CNOB/ChrR6 regimen is that its toxic product, MCHB, is fluorescent. This feature proved helpful in in vitro studies because simple fluorescence measurements provided information on the kinetics of CNOB activation within the cells, MCHB killing mechanism, its generally efficient bystander effect in cells and cell spheroids, and its biodistribution. The emission wavelength of MCHB also permitted its visualization in live animals, allowing noninvasive qualitative imaging of MCHB in mice and the tumor microenvironment. This feature may simplify exploration of barriers to the penetration of MCHB in tumors and their amelioration.
      13. URL :
        http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/8/2/333.abstract
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4500
      1. Author :
        Neal K. Devaraj; Edmund J. Keliher; Greg M. Thurber; Matthias Nahrendorf; Ralph Weissleder
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Bioconjugate Chemistry
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        20
      8. Issue :
        2
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cancer
      11. Keywords :
        in vivo imaging; fluorescence molecular tomography
      12. Abstract :
        We report the synthesis and in vivo characterization of an 18F modified trimodal nanoparticle (18F-CLIO). This particle consists of cross-linked dextran held together in core-shell formation by a superparamagnetic iron oxide core and functionalized with the radionuclide 18F in high yield via “click” chemistry. The particle can be detected with positron emission tomography, fluorescence molecular tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The presence of 18F dramatically lowers the detection threshold of the nanoparticles, while the facile conjugation chemistry provides a simple platform for rapid and efficient nanoparticle labeling.
      13. URL :
        http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bc8004649
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4498
      1. Author :
        Izukuri, K.; Suzuki, K.; Yajima, N.; Ozawa, S.; Ito, S.; Kubota, E.; Hata, R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Transgenic Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        19
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals, B16-F10-luc2, B16F10-luc2; Base Sequence; Carcinoma, Lewis Lung/blood supply/genetics/immunology/therapy; Cell Line, Tumor; Chemokines, CXC/*genetics/*immunology; DNA Primers/genetics; Female; Gene Expression; Humans; Kidney/immunology; Male; Melanoma, Experimental/blood supply/genetics/immunology/therapy; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Transgenic; Neoplasm Transplantation; Neoplasms, Experimental/blood supply/genetics/*immunology/*therapy; RNA, Messenger/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/genetics/immunology; Transplantation, Heterologous
      12. Abstract :
        We reported previously that the forced expression of the chemokine BRAK, also called CXCL14 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells decreased the rate of tumor formation and size of tumor xenografts compared with mock-vector treated cells in athymic nude mice or in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. This suppression occurred even though the growth rates of these cells were the same under in vitro culture conditions, suggesting that a high expression level of the gene in tumor cells is important for the suppression of tumor establishment in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether CXCL14/BRAK transgenic mice show resistance to tumor cell xenografts or not. CXCL14/BRAK cDNA was introduced into male C57BL/6 J pronuclei, and 10 founder transgenic mice (Tg) were obtained. Two lines of mice expressed over 10 times higher CXCL14/BRAK protein levels (14 and 11 ng/ml plasma, respectively) than normal blood level (0.9 ng/ml plasma), without apparent abnormality. The sizes of Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cell xenografts in Tg mice were significantly smaller than those in control wild-type mice, indicating that CXCL14/BRAK, first found as a suppressor of tumor progression of HNSCC, also suppresses the progression of a carcinoma of other tissue origin. Immunohistochemical studies showed that invasion of blood vessels into tumors was suppressed in tumor xenografts of CXCL14/BRAK Tg mice. These results indicate that CXCL14/BRAK suppressed tumor cell xenografts by functioning paracrine or endocrine fashion and that CXCL14/BRAK is a very promising molecular target for tumor suppression without side effects.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20333465
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10348
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