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      1. Author :
        Qamri, Zahida; Preet, Anju; Nasser, Mohd W; Bass, Caroline E; Leone, Gustavo; Barsky, Sanford H; Ganju, Ramesh K
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Molecular cancer therapeutics
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        8
      8. Issue :
        11
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Apoptosis; Benzoxazines; Bioware; Breast Neoplasms; Cannabinoids; Cell Cycle; Cell Growth Processes; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Movement; Cyclooxygenase 2; Dinoprostone; Female; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Lung Neoplasms; Male; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental; MDA-MB-231-D3H2LN cells; Mice; Mice, Inbred C3H; Mice, SCID; Mice, Transgenic; Microscopy, Confocal; Morpholines; Naphthalenes; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neovascularization, Pathologic; Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1; Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2; RNA, Small Interfering; Signal Transduction; Transfection; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
      12. Abstract :
        Cannabinoids have been reported to possess antitumorogenic activity. Not much is known, however, about the effects and mechanism of action of synthetic nonpsychotic cannabinoids on breast cancer growth and metastasis. We have shown that the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are overexpressed in primary human breast tumors compared with normal breast tissue. We have also observed that the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB231, MDA-MB231-luc, and MDA-MB468 express CB1 and CB2 receptors. Furthermore, we have shown that the CB2 synthetic agonist JWH-133 and the CB1 and CB2 agonist WIN-55,212-2 inhibit cell proliferation and migration under in vitro conditions. These results were confirmed in vivo in various mouse model systems. Mice treated with JWH-133 or WIN-55,212-2 showed a 40% to 50% reduction in tumor growth and a 65% to 80% reduction in lung metastasis. These effects were reversed by CB1 and CB2 antagonists AM 251 and SR144528, respectively, suggesting involvement of CB1 and CB2 receptors. In addition, the CB2 agonist JWH-133 was shown to delay and reduce mammary gland tumors in the polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) transgenic mouse model system. Upon further elucidation, we observed that JWH-133 and WIN-55,212-2 mediate the breast tumor-suppressive effects via a coordinated regulation of cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2 signaling pathways and induction of apoptosis. These results indicate that CB1 and CB2 receptors could be used to develop novel therapeutic strategies against breast cancer growth and metastasis.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19887554
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        8953
      1. Author :
        Hjortnaes, J.; New, S. E.; Aikawa, E.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2013
      5. Publication :
        Trends Cardiovasc Med
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense
      12. Abstract :
        Cardiovascular calcification is currently viewed as an active disease process similar to embryonic bone formation. Cardiovascular calcification mainly affects the aortic valve and arteries and is associated with increased mortality risk. Aortic valve and arterial calcification share similar risk factors, including age, gender, diabetes, chronic renal disease, and smoking. However, the exact cellular and molecular mechanism of cardiovascular calcification is unknown. Late-stage cardiovascular calcification can be visualized with conventional imaging modalities such as echocardiography and computed tomography. However, these modalities are limited in their ability to detect the development of early calcification and the progression of calcification until advanced tissue mineralization is apparent. Due to the subsequent late diagnosis of cardiovascular calcification, treatment is usually comprised of invasive interventions such as surgery. The need to understand the process of calcification is therefore warranted and requires new imaging modalities which are able to visualize early cardiovascular calcification. This review focuses on the use of new imaging techniques to visualize novel concepts of cardiovascular calcification.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23290463
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 8
      15. Serial :
        10470
      1. Author :
        Bendaoud, M.; Vinogradov, E.; Balashova, N. V.; Kadouri, D. E.; Kachlany, S. C.; Kaplan, J. B.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Bacteriol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        193
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen29, Xen 29, Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, IVISBacterial Physiological Phenomena/drug effects; Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Biofilms/*drug effects; *Down-Regulation/drug effects; Fungi/drug effects/physiology; Kingella kingae/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism; Molecular Sequence Data; Polysaccharides, Bacterial/biosynthesis/chemistry/*pharmacology
      12. Abstract :
        Cell-free extracts prepared from Kingella kingae colony biofilms were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida albicans, and K. kingae. The extracts evidently inhibited biofilm formation by modifying the physicochemical properties of the cell surface, the biofilm matrix, and the substrate. Chemical and biochemical analyses indicated that the biofilm inhibition activity in the K. kingae extract was due to polysaccharide. Structural analyses showed that the extract contained two major polysaccharides. One was a linear polysaccharide with the structure -->6)-alpha-d-GlcNAcp-(1-->5)-beta-d-OclAp-(2-->, which was identical to a capsular polysaccharide produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. The second was a novel linear polysaccharide, designated PAM galactan, with the structure -->3)-beta-d-Galf-(1-->6)-beta-d-Galf-(1-->. Purified PAM galactan exhibited broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition activity. A cluster of three K. kingae genes encoding UDP-galactopyranose mutase (ugm) and two putative galactofuranosyl transferases was sufficient for the synthesis of PAM galactan in Escherichia coli. PAM galactan is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit antibiofilm activity. The biological roles and potential technological applications of these molecules remain unknown.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21602333
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 17
      15. Serial :
        10446
      1. Author :
        Kristof Schutters and Chris Reutelingsperger
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Apoptosis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        15
      8. Issue :
        9
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Apoptosis; Phosphatidylserine; Annexin A5; Molecular Imaging; Targeted Drug Delivery; in vivo imaging; FMT; fluorescence molecular tomography; Annexin-Vivo
      12. Abstract :
        Cells are able to execute apoptosis by activating series of specific biochemical reactions. One of the most prominent characteristics of cell death is the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS), which in healthy cells resides predominantly in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. These features have made PS-externalization a well-explored phenomenon to image cell death for diagnostic purposes. In addition, it was demonstrated that under certain conditions viable cells express PS at their surface such as endothelial cells of tumor blood vessels, stressed tumor cells and hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Hence, PS has become a potential target for therapeutic strategies aiming at Targeted Drug Delivery. In this review we highlight the biomarker PS and various PS-binding compounds that have been employed to target PS for diagnostic purposes. We emphasize the 35 kD human protein annexin A5, that has been developed as a Molecular Imaging agent to measure cell death in vitro, and non-invasively in vivo in animal models and in patients with cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Recently focus has shifted from diagnostic towards therapeutic applications employing annexin A5 in strategies to deliver drugs to cells that express PS at their surface.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2929432/?tool=pubmed
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4562
      1. Author :
        Lee, H. L.; Chen, C. C.; Baasov, T.; Ron, Y.; Dougherty, J. P.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        Mol Ther
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        19
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        RediJect Coelenterazine h, XenoLight
      12. Abstract :
        Cells have developed a mechanism to discriminate between premature termination codons (PTCs) and normal stop codons during translation, sparking vigorous research to develop drugs promoting readthrough at PTCs to treat genetic disorders caused by PTCs. It was posed that this concept could also be applied to regulated gene therapy protocols by incorporating a PTC into a therapeutic gene, so active protein would only be made after administration of a readthrough agent. The strengths of the system are highlighted here by results demonstrating: (i) background expression levels were reduced to 0.01% to 0.0005% of wild type in unselected mass populations of cells depending upon the specific stop codon utilized and its position within the gene; (ii) expression levels responded well to multiple “On” and “Off” regulation cycles in vivo in human xenograft systems; (iii) the level of induction approached three logs using aminoglycoside activators including NB54, a newly synthesized aminoglycoside with significantly reduced toxicity; and (iv) expression levels could be appreciably altered when employing different promoters in a variety of cell types. These results strongly support the contention that this system should have important clinical applications when tight control of gene expression is required.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21587212
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10422
      1. Author :
        Zhang, X.; Bloch, S.; Akers, W.; Achilefu, S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Curr Protoc Cytom
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        Chapter 12
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry/metabolism; Humans; Mice; Molecular Probes/*diagnostic use; Nanoparticles/chemistry; Quantum Dots; Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared/*methods
      12. Abstract :
        Cellular and tissue imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths between 700 and 900 nm is advantageous for in vivo imaging because of the low absorption of biological molecules in this region. This unit presents protocols for small animal imaging using planar and fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques. Included is an overview of NIR fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using NIR organic fluorophores, nanoparticles, and multimodal imaging probes. The development, advantages, and application of NIR fluorescent probes that have been used for in vivo imaging are also summarized. The use of NIR agents in conjunction with visible dyes and considerations in selecting imaging agents are discussed. We conclude with practical considerations for the use of these dyes in cell and small animal imaging applications.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22470154
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 24
      15. Serial :
        10386
      1. Author :
        Xu, D.; Takeshita, F.; Hino, Y.; Fukunaga, S.; Kudo, Y.; Tamaki, A.; Matsunaga, J.; Takahashi, R. U.; Takata, T.; Shimamoto, A.; Ochiya, T.; Tahara, H.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Cell Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        193
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        MDA-MB-231-D3H2Ln, IVIS, Bioluminescence
      12. Abstract :
        Cellular senescence acts as a barrier to cancer progression, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are thought to be potential senescence regulators. However, whether senescence-associated miRNAs (SA-miRNAs) contribute to tumor suppression remains unknown. Here, we report that miR-22, a novel SA-miRNA, has an impact on tumorigenesis. miR-22 is up-regulated in human senescent fibroblasts and epithelial cells but down-regulated in various cancer cell lines. miR-22 overexpression induces growth suppression and acquisition of a senescent phenotype in human normal and cancer cells. miR-22 knockdown in presenescent fibroblasts decreased cell size, and cells became more compact. miR-22-induced senescence also decreases cell motility and inhibits cell invasion in vitro. Synthetic miR-22 delivery suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in vivo by inducing cellular senescence in a mouse model of breast carcinoma. We confirmed that CDK6, SIRT1, and Sp1, genes involved in the senescence program, are direct targets of miR-22. Our study provides the first evidence that miR-22 restores the cellular senescence program in cancer cells and acts as a tumor suppressor.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21502362
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 3
      15. Serial :
        10417
      1. Author :
        Sabbagh, Y.; Graciolli, F. G.; O'Brien, S.; Tang, W.; dos Reis, L. M.; Ryan, S.; Phillips, L.; Boulanger, J.; Song, W.; Bracken, C.; Liu, S.; Ledbetter, S.; Dechow, P.; Canziani, M. E.; Carvalho, A. B.; Jorgetti, V.; Moyses, R. M.; Schiavi, S. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        J Bone Miner Res
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        27
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        OsteoSense, Animals; Biopsy; Bone Remodeling; Bone and Bones/metabolism/pathology; Calcification, Physiologic; Cardiovascular Abnormalities/blood/complications/pathology/physiopathology; *Disease Progression; Female; Gene Expression Profiling; Gene Expression Regulation; Glycoproteins/metabolism; Humans; Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood/complications/pathology/physiopathology; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Middle Aged; Mutation/genetics; Osteoclasts/metabolism/pathology; Osteocytes/*metabolism/*pathology; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics; Renal Osteodystrophy/blood/*metabolism/*pathology/physiopathology; Vascular Calcification; *Wnt Signaling Pathway/genetics
      12. Abstract :
        Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is defined by abnormalities in mineral and hormone metabolism, bone histomorphometric changes, and/or the presence of soft-tissue calcification. Emerging evidence suggests that features of CKD-MBD may occur early in disease progression and are associated with changes in osteocyte function. To identify early changes in bone, we utilized the jck mouse, a genetic model of polycystic kidney disease that exhibits progressive renal disease. At 6 weeks of age, jck mice have normal renal function and no evidence of bone disease but exhibit continual decline in renal function and death by 20 weeks of age, when approximately 40% to 60% of them have vascular calcification. Temporal changes in serum parameters were identified in jck relative to wild-type mice from 6 through 18 weeks of age and were subsequently shown to largely mirror serum changes commonly associated with clinical CKD-MBD. Bone histomorphometry revealed progressive changes associated with increased osteoclast activity and elevated bone formation relative to wild-type mice. To capture the early molecular and cellular events in the progression of CKD-MBD we examined cell-specific pathways associated with bone remodeling at the protein and/or gene expression level. Importantly, a steady increase in the number of cells expressing phosphor-Ser33/37-beta-catenin was observed both in mouse and human bones. Overall repression of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling within osteocytes occurred in conjunction with increased expression of Wnt antagonists (SOST and sFRP4) and genes associated with osteoclast activity, including receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). The resulting increase in the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio correlated with increased osteoclast activity. In late-stage disease, an apparent repression of genes associated with osteoblast function was observed. These data confirm that jck mice develop progressive biochemical changes in CKD-MBD and suggest that repression of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22492547
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10475
      1. Author :
        Xu, Xiulan; Miller, Sally A; Baysal-Gurel, Fulya; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf; Rajashekara, Gireesh
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Applied and environmental microbiology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        76
      8. Issue :
        12
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Actinomycetales; Bioware; Genes, Reporter; Genetic Engineering; Luminescent Proteins; Lycopersicon esculentum; Mirabilis; Plant Diseases; pXen-13; Recombinant Proteins; Seeds; Staining and Labeling
      12. Abstract :
        Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes wilting and cankers, leading to severe economic losses in commercial tomato production worldwide. The disease is transmitted from infected seeds to seedlings and mechanically from plant to plant during seedling production, grafting, pruning, and harvesting. Because of the lack of tools for genetic manipulation, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of seed and seedling infection and movement of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in grafted plants, two focal points for application of bacterial canker control measures in tomato. To facilitate studies on the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis movement in tomato seed and grafted plants, we isolated a bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain using the modified Tn1409 containing a promoterless lux reporter. A total of 19 bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis mutants were obtained. All mutants tested induced a hypersensitive response in Mirabilis jalapa and caused wilting of tomato plants. Real-time colonization studies of germinating seeds using a virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent strain, BL-Cmm17, showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis aggregated on hypocotyls and cotyledons at an early stage of germination. In grafted seedlings in which either the rootstock or scion was exposed to BL-Cmm17 via a contaminated grafting knife, bacteria were translocated in both directions from the graft union at higher inoculum doses. These results emphasize the use of bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to help better elucidate the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-tomato plant interactions. Further, we demonstrated the broader applicability of this tool by successful transformation of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis with Tn1409::lux. Thus, our approach would be highly useful to understand the pathogenesis of diseases caused by other subspecies of the agriculturally important C. michiganensis.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20400561
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9028
      1. Author :
        Sottnik, J. L.; U, L. W.'Ren; Thamm, D. H.; Withrow, S. J.; Dow, S. W.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Cancer Immunol Immunother
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        59
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals, Chronic Disease, Disease Models, Animal, Immunity, Innate, Killer Cells, Natural/immunology, Macrophages/immunology, Mice, Mice, Inbred C3H, Mice, Inbred Strains, Monocytes/immunology, Neoplasms, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Osteomyelitis/*complications, Osteosarcoma/*complications/*immunology/pathology, Staphylococcal Infections/*complications IVIS, Xenogen, Xen36
      12. Abstract :
        Clinical studies over the past several years have reported that metastasis-free survival times in humans and dogs with osteosarcoma are significantly increased in patients that develop chronic bacterial osteomyelitis at their surgical site. However, the immunological mechanism by which osteomyelitis may suppress tumor growth has not been investigated. Therefore, we used a mouse model of osteomyelitis to assess the effects of bone infection on innate immunity and tumor growth. A chronic Staphylococcal osteomyelitis model was established in C3H mice and the effects of infection on tumor growth of syngeneic DLM8 osteosarcoma were assessed. The effects of infection on tumor angiogenesis and innate immunity, including NK cell and monocyte responses, were assessed. We found that osteomyelitis significantly inhibited the growth of tumors in mice, and that the effect was independent of the infecting bacterial type, tumor type, or mouse strain. Depletion of NK cells or monocytes reversed the antitumor activity elicited by infection. Moreover, infected mice had a significant increase in circulating monocytes and numbers of tumor associated macrophages. Infection suppressed tumor angiogenesis but did not affect the numbers of circulating endothelial cells. Therefore, we concluded that chronic localized bacterial infection could elicit significant systemic antitumor activity dependent on NK cells and macrophages.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19701748
      14. Call Number :
        143227
      15. Serial :
        5718
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