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      1. Author :
        Razavi, Reza; Harrison, Lawrence E
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Annals of surgical oncology
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        17
      8. Issue :
        1
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Bioware; Carcinoma; Cell Proliferation; Colonic Neoplasms; DNA Damage; Drug Therapy, Combination; Female; HT-29-luc-D6 cells; Humans; Hydrogen peroxide; Hyperthermia, Induced; Injections, Intraperitoneal; Mice; Mice, Nude; Oxidants; Oxidative Stress; Survival Rate; tert-Butylhydroperoxide; Treatment Outcome; Tumor Cells, Cultured
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to extend our in vitro observations that induced oxidative stress under hyperthermic conditions decreases tumor cell growth into a preclinical murine model of hyperthermic perfusion. METHODS A nude mouse model of colon cancer carcinomatosis with HT-29-Luc-D6 colon cancer cells was established, and tumor growth was measured by serial bioluminescent imaging. RESULTS By means of a survival model of hyperthermic perfusion, we demonstrated that perfusion with normothermic saline decreased tumor growth compared with no perfusion controls, and tumor growth was further decreased with hyperthermic perfusion alone. The induction of oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide in the perfusate at concentrations as high as 600 microM was well tolerated in this model of hyperthermic perfusion. Importantly, induced oxidative stress using hydrogen peroxide under hyperthermic conditions significantly decreased in vivo tumor cell growth compared with all other controls. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of our observations, thermal sensitization through modulation of cellular oxidative stress may represent a novel approach to increase the efficacy of hyperthermia as an anticancer modality.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19711132
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9008
      1. Author :
        Ghali, Shadi; Bhatt, Kirit A; Dempsey, Marlese P; Jones, Deidre M; Singh, Sunil; Aarabi, Shahram; Arabi, Shahram; Butler, Peter E; Gallo, Robert L; Gurtner, Geoffrey C
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Plastic and reconstructive surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        123
      8. Issue :
        4
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; Bioware; Cathelicidins; Chronic Disease; Drug Carriers; Genetic Engineering; Male; Rats; Rats, Inbred F344; Surgical Flaps; Wound Infection; Xen29
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND The success of antimicrobial therapy has been impaired by the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. Antimicrobial peptides are ubiquitous proteins that are part of the innate immune system and are successful against such antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. The authors have previously demonstrated the feasibility of protein delivery via microvascular free flap gene therapy and here they examine this approach for recalcitrant infections. METHODS The authors investigated the production of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide-LL37, delivered by ex vivo transduction of the rodent superficial inferior epigastric free flap with Ad/CMV-LL37. The vascular permeabilizing agent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was co-administered during ex vivo transduction with adenoviral vectors in an attempt to augment transduction efficiency. A rodent model of chronic wound/foreign body infection seeded with bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus was used to assess the biological efficacy of delivering therapeutic antimicrobial genes using this technology. RESULTS The authors were successful in demonstrating significant LL37 expression, which persisted for 14 days after ex vivo transduction with Ad/CMV-LL37. Transduction efficiency was significantly improved with the co-administration of 5 micrograms of VEGF during transduction without significantly increasing systemic dissemination of adenovirus or systemic toxicity. They were able to demonstrate in the rodent model of chronic wound/foreign body infections a significant reduction in bacterial loads from infected catheters following transduction with Ad/CMV-LL37 and increased bacterial clearance. CONCLUSION This study demonstrates for the first time that microbicidal gene therapy via microvascular free flaps is able to clear chronic infections such as occurs with osteomyelitis resulting from trauma or an infected foreign body [corrected]
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19337084
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9040
      1. Author :
        Harms, Jerome S; Durward, Marina A; Magnani, Diogo M; Splitter, Gary A
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Journal of immune based therapies and vaccines
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Bioware; pXen-13
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND There is no safe, effective human vaccine against brucellosis. Live attenuated Brucella strains are widely used to vaccinate animals. However these live Brucella vaccines can cause disease and are unsafe for humans. Killed Brucella or subunit vaccines are not effective in eliciting long term protection. In this study, we evaluate an approach using a live, non-pathogenic bacteria (E. coli) genetically engineered to mimic the brucellae pathway of infection and present antigens for an appropriate cytolitic T cell response. METHODS E. coli was modified to express invasin of Yersinia and listerialysin O (LLO) of Listeria to impart the necessary infectivity and antigen releasing traits of the intracellular pathogen, Brucella. This modified E. coli was considered our vaccine delivery system and was engineered to express Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) or Brucella antigens for in vitro and in vivo immunological studies including cytokine profiling and cytotoxicity assays. RESULTS The E. coli vaccine vector was able to infect all cells tested and efficiently deliver therapeutics to the host cell. Using GFP as antigen, we demonstrate that the E. coli vaccine vector elicits a Th1 cytokine profile in both primary and secondary immune responses. Additionally, using this vector to deliver a Brucella antigen, we demonstrate the ability of the E. coli vaccine vector to induce specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs). CONCLUSION Protection against most intracellular bacterial pathogens can be obtained mostly through cell mediated immunity. Data presented here suggest modified E. coli can be used as a vaccine vector for delivery of antigens and therapeutics mimicking the infection of the pathogen and inducing cell mediated immunity to that pathogen.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19126207
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ catherine.lautenschlager @
      15. Serial :
        9029
      1. Author :
        Fink, D.; Romanowski, K.; Valuckaite, V.; Babrowski, T.; Kim, M.; Matthews, J. B.; Liu, D.; Zaborina, O.; Alverdy, J. C.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2011
      5. Publication :
        J Trauma
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        71
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        1575-82
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen41, Xen 41, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen41, IVIS
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: : Experimental models of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR) injury are invariably performed in mice harboring their normal commensal flora, even though multiple IIR events occur in humans during prolonged intensive care confinement when they are colonized by a highly pathogenic hospital flora. The aims of this study were to determine whether the presence of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the distal intestine potentiates the lethality of mice exposed to IIR and to determine what role any in vivo virulence activation plays in the observed mortality. METHODS: : Seven- to 9-week-old C57/BL6 mice were exposed to 15 minutes of superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) followed by direct intestinal inoculation of 1.0 x 10 colony-forming unit of P. aeruginosa PAO1 into the ileum and observed for mortality. Reiterative studies were performed in separate groups of mice to evaluate both the migration/dissemination pattern and in vivo virulence activation of intestinally inoculated strains using live photon camera imaging of both a constitutive bioluminescent P. aeruginosa PAO1 derivative XEN41 and an inducible reporter derivative of PAO1, the PAO1/lecA:luxCDABE that conditionally expresses the quorum sensing-dependent epithelial disrupting virulence protein PA 1 Lectin (PA-IL). RESULTS: : Mice exposed to 15 minutes of SMAO and reperfusion with intestinal inoculation of P. aeruginosa had a significantly increased mortality rate (p < 0.001) of 100% compared with <10% for sham-operated mice intestinally inoculated with P. aeruginosa without SMAO and IIR alone (<50%). Migration/dissemination patterns of P. aeruginosa in mice subjected to IIR demonstrated proximal migration of distally injected strains and translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney. A key role for in vivo virulence expression of the barrier disrupting adhesin PA-IL during IIR was established since its expression was enhanced during IR and mutant strains lacking PA-IL displayed attenuated mortality. CONCLUSIONS: : The presence of intestinal P. aeruginosa potentiates the lethal effect of IIR in mice in part due to in vivo virulence activation of its epithelial barrier disrupting protein PA-IL.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22002612
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 1
      15. Serial :
        10423
      1. Author :
        Sharma, P. K.; Engels, E.; Van Oeveren, W.; Ploeg, R. J.; van Henny der Mei, C.; Busscher, H. J.; Van Dam, G. M.; Rakhorst, G.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        Surgery
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        147
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        Xen14, Xen 14, E. coli Xen14, IVIS, Animals; Bacteroides fragilis/*isolation & purification; Diagnostic Imaging/methods; Disease Progression; Escherichia coli/*isolation & purification; Luciferases, Bacterial/*diagnostic use; Luminescent Agents/*diagnostic use; Male; Peritoneal Lavage; Peritonitis/*microbiology/pathology/therapy; Rats; Rats, Wistar
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Bacterial peritonitis is a life-threatening abdominal infection associated with high morbidity and mortality. The rat is a popular animal model for studying peritonitis and its treatment, but longitudinal monitoring of the progression of peritonitis in live animals has been impossible until now and thus required a large number of animals. Our objective was to develop a noninvasive in vivo imaging technique to monitor the spatiotemporal spread of bacterial peritonitis. METHODS: Peritonitis was induced in 8 immunocompetent male Wistar rats by placing fibrin clots containing 5x10(8) cells of both Bacteroides fragilis (American Type Tissue Culture [ATCC)] 25,285 and bioluminescent Escherichia coli Xen14. After 1 or 2 days, infected clots were removed and open abdomen lavage was performed. In vivo bioluminescent imaging was used to monitor the spread of peritonitis. RESULTS: Bioluminescent in vivo imaging showed an increase in the area of spread, and the number of E. coli tripled into the rat's abdominal cavity on day 1 after clot insertion; however, on day 2, encapsulation of the clot confined bacterial spread. Bioluminescent E. coli respread over the peritoneal cavity after lavage; within 10 days, however, in vivo imaging showed a decrease of 3-4 orders of magnitude in bacterial load. CONCLUSION: Bioluminescent in vivo imaging can be effectively used to monitor the spatiotemporal behavior of the peritonitis during 3 different stages of the disease process: initiation, treatment, and follow-up. Imaging allows researchers to repeatedly image the same animal, thereby reducing variability and providing greater confidence in determining treatment efficacies for therapeutic interventions using a small number of animals.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733882
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 7
      15. Serial :
        10396
      1. Author :
        Tsurumi, C.; Esser, N.; Firat, E.; Gaedicke, S.; Follo, M.; Behe, M.; Elsasser-Beile, U.; Grosu, A. L.; Graeser, R.; Niedermann, G.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2010
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        5
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        IntegriSense, Animals; Antigens, CD/*biosynthesis/*metabolism; Flow Cytometry/methods; Glioma/metabolism; Glycoproteins/*biosynthesis/*metabolism; Humans; Hybridomas/metabolism; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Models, Biological; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasm Transplantation; Neoplasms/*metabolism; Neoplastic Stem Cells; Peptides/*metabolism; Recurrence
      12. Abstract :
        BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells are thought to play a pivotal role in tumor maintenance, metastasis, tumor therapy resistance and relapse. Hence, the development of methods for non-invasive in vivo detection of cancer stem cells is of great importance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe successful in vivo detection of CD133/prominin, a cancer stem cell surface marker for a variety of tumor entities. The CD133-specific monoclonal antibody AC133.1 was used for quantitative fluorescence-based optical imaging of mouse xenograft models based on isogenic pairs of CD133 positive and negative cell lines. A first set consisted of wild-type U251 glioblastoma cells, which do not express CD133, and lentivirally transduced CD133-overexpressing U251 cells. A second set made use of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells, which uniformly express CD133 at levels comparable to primary glioblastoma stem cells, and a CD133-negative HCT116 derivative. Not surprisingly, visualization and quantification of CD133 in overexpressing U251 xenografts was successful; more importantly, however, significant differences were also found in matched HCT116 xenograft pairs, despite the lower CD133 expression levels. The binding of i.v.-injected AC133.1 antibodies to CD133 positive, but not negative, tumor cells isolated from xenografts was confirmed by flow cytometry. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results show that non-invasive antibody-based in vivo imaging of tumor-associated CD133 is feasible and that CD133 antibody-based tumor targeting is efficient. This should facilitate developing clinically applicable cancer stem cell imaging methods and CD133 antibody-based therapeutics.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21187924
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 15
      15. Serial :
        10382
      1. Author :
        Thomas Christen, Matthias Nahrendorf, Moritz Wildgruber, Filip K. Swirski, Elena Aikawa, Peter Waterman, Koichi Shimizu, Ralph Weissleder and Peter Libby
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2009
      5. Publication :
        Circulation
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        119
      8. Issue :
        14
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        Cardiovascular Research
      11. Keywords :
        In vivo imaging; inflammation; leukocytes; rejection; transplantation; fluorescence molecular tomography; FMT; Prosense
      12. Abstract :
        Background: Clinical detection of transplant rejection by repeated endomyocardial biopsy requires catheterization and entails risks. Recently developed molecular and cellular imaging techniques that visualize macrophage host responses could provide a noninvasive alternative. Yet, which macrophage functions may provide useful markers for detecting parenchymal rejection remains uncertain.

        Methods and Results: We transplanted isografts from B6 mice and allografts from Balb/c mice heterotopically into B6 recipients. In this allograft across major histocompatability barriers, the transplanted heart undergoes predictable progressive rejection, leading to graft failure after 1 week. During rejection, crucial macrophage functions, including phagocytosis and release of proteases, render these abundant innate immune cells attractive imaging targets. Two or 6 days after transplantation, we injected either a fluorescent protease sensor or a magnetofluorescent phagocytosis marker. Histological and flow cytometric analyses established that macrophages function as the major cellular signal source. In vivo, we obtained a 3-dimensional functional map of macrophages showing higher phagocytic uptake of magnetofluorescent nanoparticles during rejection using magnetic resonance imaging and higher protease activity in allografts than in isografts using tomographic fluorescence. We further assessed the sensitivity of imaging to detect the degree of rejection. In vivo imaging of macrophage response correlated closely with gradually increasing allograft rejection and attenuated rejection in recipients with a genetically impaired immune response resulting from a deficiency in recombinase-1 (RAG-1-/-).

        Conclusions: Molecular imaging reporters of either phagocytosis or protease activity can detect cardiac allograft rejection noninvasively, promise to enhance the search for novel tolerance-inducing strategies, and have translational potential.
      13. URL :
        http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/circulationaha;119/14/1925
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ sarah.piper @
      15. Serial :
        4640