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      1. Author :
        Xing, H. R.; Zhang, Q.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Methods Mol Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        872
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use; Diagnostic Imaging/*methods; Female; Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/metabolism/pathology; Mice; Mice, Nude; Neoplasm Transplantation; Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy/*pathology
      12. Abstract :
        In vivo angiogenesis assays provide more physiologically relevant information about tumor vascularization than in vitro studies because they take the complex interactions among cancer cells, endothelial cells, mural cells, and tumor stroma into consideration. Traditional microscopic assessment of vascular density conducted by immunostaining of tissue sections or by lectin angiogram visualization of tumor vessels is invasive and requires the sacrifice of tumor-bearing animals. Therefore, it prohibits longitudinal time-course observation in a single animal and requires a large number of animals at each time point to derive statistically-meaningful observations. Additionally, heterogenous behavior among different tumors will inevitably introduce individual biological variance that may obscure reliable interpretation of the results. While various artificial in vivo angiogenesis assays, such as the Matrigel implant assay, chick chorioallatoic membrane assay, and dorsal skin fold chamber assay have been developed and employed to more directly observe the progression of physiological angiogenesis, they can not appropriately assess tumor angiogenic progression or tumor vascular regression in response to therapeutic intervention. Here, we describe a noninvasive method and a detailed protocol that we have developed and optimized using the Olympus OV-100 in vivo imaging system for real-time high-resolution visualization and assessment of tumor angiogenesis and vascular response to anticancer therapies in live animals. We show that using this approach, tumor vessels can be monitored longitudinally through the whole vasculogenesis and angiogenesis process in the same mouse. Further, morphologic changes of the same vessel prior to and after drug treatments can be captured with microscopic high resolution. Moreover, the multichannel co-imaging capability of the OV-100 allows us to analyze and compare tumor vessel permeability before and after antiangiogenesis therapy by employing a near-infrared blood pool reagent, or by visualizing improved cytotoxic drug delivery upon tumor vessel normalization by using a fluorophore tagged drug. This noninvasive method can be readily applied to orthotopically transplanted breast cancer models as well as to subcutaneously-transplanted tumor models.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22700407
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 4
      15. Serial :
        10443
      1. Author :
        Swirski, F. K.; Nahrendorf, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Immunol Cell Biol
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        N/A
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense
      12. Abstract :
        Macrophages are central regulators of disease progression in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (MI). In atherosclerosis, macrophages are the dominant leukocyte population that influences lesional development. In MI, which is caused by atherosclerosis, macrophages accumulate readily and have important roles in inflammation and healing. Molecular imaging has grown considerably as a field and can reveal biological process at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Here, we explore how various imaging modalities, from intravital microscopy in mice to organ-level imaging in patients, are contributing to our understanding of macrophages and their progenitors in cardiovascular disease.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 4 December 2012; doi:10.1038/icb.2012.72.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23207281
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 12
      15. Serial :
        10441
      1. Author :
        Cao, L.; Kobayakawa, S.; Yoshiki, A.; Abe, K.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Abdomen; Animals; Imaging, Three-Dimensional; Liver/cytology; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; Microscopy/*instrumentation/*methods; Molecular Imaging/*instrumentation/*methods; Pancreas/cytology/ultrastructure; Time-Lapse Imaging
      12. Abstract :
        Intravital imaging of brain and bone marrow cells in the skull with subcellular resolution has revolutionized neurobiology, immunology and hematology. However, the application of this powerful technology in studies of abdominal organs has long been impeded by organ motion caused by breathing and heartbeat. Here we describe for the first time a simple device designated 'microstage' that effectively reduces organ motions without causing tissue lesions. Combining this microstage device with an upright intravital laser scanning microscope equipped with a unique stick-type objective lens, the system enables subcellular-level imaging of abdominal organs in live mice. We demonstrate that this technique allows for the quantitative analysis of subcellular structures and gene expressions in cells, the tracking of intracellular processes in real-time as well as three-dimensional image construction in the pancreas and liver of the live mouse. As the aforementioned analyses based on subcellular imaging could be extended to other intraperitoneal organs, the technique should offer great potential for investigation of physiological and disease-specific events of abdominal organs. The microstage approach adds an exciting new technique to the in vivo imaging toolbox.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22479464
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 6
      15. Serial :
        10431
      1. Author :
        Cortez-Retamozo, V.; Etzrodt, M.; Newton, A.; Rauch, P. J.; Chudnovskiy, A.; Berger, C.; Ryan, R. J.; Iwamoto, Y.; Marinelli, B.; Gorbatov, R.; Forghani, R.; Novobrantseva, T. I.; Koteliansky, V.; Figueiredo, J. L.; Chen, J. W.; Anderson, D. G.; Nahrendorf, M.; Swirski, F. K.; Weissleder, R.; Pittet, M. J.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        109
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Humans; Macrophages/*immunology; Mice; Neoplasms/immunology/*pathology; Neutrophils/*immunology; Spleen/immunology/pathology
      12. Abstract :
        Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) can control cancer growth and exist in almost all solid neoplasms. The cells are known to descend from immature monocytic and granulocytic cells, respectively, which are produced in the bone marrow. However, the spleen is also a recently identified reservoir of monocytes, which can play a significant role in the inflammatory response that follows acute injury. Here, we evaluated the role of the splenic reservoir in a genetic mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma driven by activation of oncogenic Kras and inactivation of p53. We found that high numbers of TAM and TAN precursors physically relocated from the spleen to the tumor stroma, and that recruitment of tumor-promoting spleen-derived TAMs required signaling of the chemokine receptor CCR2. Also, removal of the spleen, either before or after tumor initiation, reduced TAM and TAN responses significantly and delayed tumor growth. The mechanism by which the spleen was able to maintain its reservoir capacity throughout tumor progression involved, in part, local accumulation in the splenic red pulp of typically rare extramedullary hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, notably granulocyte and macrophage progenitors, which produced CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytic and CD11b(+) Ly-6G(hi) granulocytic cells locally. Splenic granulocyte and macrophage progenitors and their descendants were likewise identified in clinical specimens. The present study sheds light on the origins of TAMs and TANs, and positions the spleen as an important extramedullary site, which can continuously supply growing tumors with these cells.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22308361
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 14
      15. Serial :
        10432
      1. Author :
        Fu, A.; Wilson, R. J.; Smith, B. R.; Mullenix, J.; Earhart, C.; Akin, D.; Guccione, S.; Wang, S. X.; Gambhir, S. S.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        ACS Nano
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        6
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Fluorescent Dyes/*chemistry/*diagnostic use; Glioblastoma/*pathology; Humans; Magnetic Fields; Magnetite Nanoparticles/*diagnostic use; Materials Testing; Mice; Mice, SCID; Microscopy, Fluorescence/*methods; Nanocapsules/*chemistry/ultrastructure; Particle Size
      12. Abstract :
        Early detection and targeted therapy are two major challenges in the battle against cancer. Novel imaging contrast agents and targeting approaches are greatly needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of cancer theranostic agents. Here, we implemented a novel approach using a magnetic micromesh and biocompatible fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles (FMN) to magnetically enhance cancer targeting in living subjects. This approach enables magnetic targeting of systemically administered individual FMN, containing a single 8 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide core. Using a human glioblastoma mouse model, we show that nanoparticles can be magnetically retained in both the tumor neovasculature and surrounding tumor tissues. Magnetic accumulation of nanoparticles within the neovasculature was observable by fluorescence intravital microscopy in real time. Finally, we demonstrate that such magnetically enhanced cancer targeting augments the biological functions of molecules linked to the nanoparticle surface.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22857784
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 5
      15. Serial :
        10434
      1. Author :
        Kozlowski, C.; Weimer, R. M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        PLoS One
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        7
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Antigens, CD/metabolism; Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism; Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism; Central Nervous System/metabolism; Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics/*metabolism; Immunohistochemistry/*methods; Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Transgenic; Microfilament Proteins/metabolism; Microglia/cytology/drug effects/*metabolism; Microscopy, Confocal/*methods; Receptors, Cytokine/genetics/metabolism; Receptors, HIV/genetics/metabolism; Reproducibility of Results
      12. Abstract :
        Microglia are specialized immune cells of the brain. Upon insult, microglia initiate a cascade of cellular responses including a characteristic change in cell morphology. To study the dynamics of microglia immune response in situ, we developed an automated image analysis method that enables the quantitative assessment of microglia activation state within tissue based solely on cell morphology. Per cell morphometric analysis of fluorescently labeled microglia is achieved through local iterative threshold segmentation, which reduces errors caused by signal-to-noise variation across large volumes. We demonstrate, utilizing systemic application of lipopolysaccharide as a model of immune challenge, that several morphological parameters, including cell perimeter length, cell roundness and soma size, quantitatively distinguish resting versus activated populations of microglia within tissue comparable to traditional immunohistochemistry methods. Furthermore, we provide proof-of-concept data that monitoring soma size enables the longitudinal assessment of microglia activation in the mouse neocortex imaged via 2-photon in vivo microscopy. The ability to quantify microglia activation automatically by shape alone allows unbiased and rapid analysis of both fixed and in vivo central nervous system tissue.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22457705
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 8
      15. Serial :
        10435
      1. Author :
        Lee, S.; Vinegoni, C.; Feruglio, P. F.; Fexon, L.; Gorbatov, R.; Pivoravov, M.; Sbarbati, A.; Nahrendorf, M.; Weissleder, R.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Nat Commun
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        3
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense
      12. Abstract :
        Real-time imaging of moving organs and tissues at microscopic resolutions represents a major challenge in studying the complex biology of live animals. Here we present a technique based on a novel stabilizer setup combined with a gating acquisition algorithm for the imaging of a beating murine heart at the single-cell level. The method allows serial in vivo fluorescence imaging of the beating heart in live mice in both confocal and nonlinear modes over the course of several hours. We demonstrate the utility of this technique for in vivo optical sectioning and dual-channel time-lapse fluorescence imaging of cardiac ischaemia. The generic method could be adapted to other moving organs and thus broadly facilitate in vivo microscopic investigations.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22968700
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 7
      15. Serial :
        10436
      1. Author :
        Matsumoto, K.; Azami, T.; Otsu, A.; Takase, H.; Ishitobi, H.; Tanaka, J.; Miwa, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Ema, M.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Genesis
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        50
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Blood Vessels/embryology/*physiology; Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial; Embryo, Mammalian; Endothelial Cells/cytology/metabolism; Endothelium, Vascular/cytology/embryology/metabolism; Female; Founder Effect; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Genes, Reporter; Mice; *Mice, Transgenic; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Morphogenesis/physiology; *Neovascularization, Pathologic; *Neovascularization, Physiologic; Retina/embryology/*physiology; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics/metabolism; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/genetics/*metabolism; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/genetics/metabolism
      12. Abstract :
        Blood vessel development and network patterning are controlled by several signaling molecules, including VEGF, FGF, TGF-ss, and Ang-1,2. Among these, the role of VEGF-A signaling in vessel morphogenesis is best understood. The biological activity of VEGF-A depends on its reaction with specific receptors Flt1 and Flk1. Roles of VEGF-A signaling in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, survival, vascular permeability, and induction of tip cell filopodia have been reported. In this study, we have generated Flt1-tdsRed BAC transgenic (Tg) mice to monitor Flt1 gene expression during vascular development. We show that tdsRed fluorescence is observed within blood vessels of adult mice and embryos, indicative of retinal angiogenesis and tumor angiogenesis. Flt1 expression recapitulated by Flt1-tdsRed BAC Tg mice overlapped well with Flk1, while Flt1 was expressed more abundantly in endothelial cells of large blood vessels such as dorsal aorta and presumptive stalk cells in retina, providing a unique model to study blood vessel development.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489010
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 10
      15. Serial :
        10437
      1. Author :
        Rao, S. M.; Auger, J. L.; Gaillard, P.; Weissleder, R.; Wada, E.; Torres, R.; Kojima, M.; Benoist, C.; Mathis, D.; Binstadt, B. A.
      2. Title :
      3. Type :
        Journal Article
      4. Year :
        2012
      5. Publication :
        Arthritis Res Ther
      6. Products :
      7. Volume :
        14
      8. Issue :
        N/A
      9. Page Numbers :
        N/A
      10. Research Area :
        N/A
      11. Keywords :
        AngioSense, Animals; Arthritis/genetics/*immunology/metabolism; Autoantibodies/*immunology; Bone Marrow Cells/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Calcium/immunology/metabolism; Female; Male; Mast Cells/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Inbred NOD; Mice, Knockout; Mice, Transgenic; Neuropeptides/deficiency/genetics/*immunology; Protein Isoforms/deficiency/genetics/immunology; Receptors, Neurotensin/deficiency/genetics/immunology; Receptors, Neurotransmitter/deficiency/genetics/*immunology; Spleen/immunology/metabolism/pathology
      12. Abstract :
        INTRODUCTION: Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide with pro-inflammatory activity. The primary goal of this study was to determine if NMU promotes autoantibody-induced arthritis. Additional studies addressed the cellular source of NMU and sought to define the NMU receptor responsible for its pro-inflammatory effects. METHODS: Serum containing arthritogenic autoantibodies from K/BxN mice was used to induce arthritis in mice genetically lacking NMU. Parallel experiments examined whether NMU deficiency impacted the early mast-cell-dependent vascular leak response induced by these autoantibodies. Bone-marrow chimeric mice were generated to determine whether pro-inflammatory NMU is derived from hematopoietic cells or stromal cells. Mice lacking the known NMU receptors singly and in combination were used to determine susceptibility to serum-transferred arthritis and in vitro cellular responses to NMU. RESULTS: NMU-deficient mice developed less severe arthritis than control mice. Vascular leak was not affected by NMU deficiency. NMU expression by bone-marrow-derived cells mediated the pro-arthritogenic effect. Deficiency of all of the known NMU receptors, however, had no impact on arthritis severity and did not affect the ability of NMU to stimulate intracellular calcium flux. CONCLUSIONS: NMU-deficient mice are protected from developing autoantibody-induced inflammatory arthritis. NMU derived from hematopoietic cells, not neurons, promotes the development of autoantibody-induced inflammatory arthritis. This effect is mediated by a receptor other than the currently known NMU receptors.
      13. URL :
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22314006
      14. Call Number :
        PKI @ kd.modi @ 13
      15. Serial :
        10438
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